Information technology by Hiresh Ahluwalia

1,437
-1

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,437
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
122
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Information technology by Hiresh Ahluwalia

  1. 1. Assignment on<br /> Information technology<br />Submitted to:Submitted by:<br />Professor jasdeep kaurHiresh ahluwalia <br />Lecturer MBA departmentRoll No- 2113<br />DAVIET, jalandhar<br />INDEX<br />ContentsPage numberssignatureQ: 1. what is IT and its application?3-6Q: 2. What is internet and what are its various applications?6Q: 3. What is voice over internet protocol?6-7Q: 4. What is Voice Conferencing7Q: 5. what is Video conferencing?8Q: 6. What is a network? what are its various types? 9-12Q: 7. what are various types of TRANSMISSION MEDIA?12-16Q. 8. Explain DBMS17Q: 9. Different DBMS software?18Q. 10. Define MS-Access?18Q: 11. How to create tables in MS ACCESS ?19Q: 12. How to create a query in Microsoft Access?21Q: 13. What are steps involved in creating a form in Access?22Q: 14. How to create a report in Microsoft Access? 24Q: 15. What is a macro? 27<br />Q: 1. what is IT and its application?<br />ANS: 1.<br />IT (definition):<br />The Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) defines Information Technology as: <br />"The study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware."<br />In simple words IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect process, transmit, and securely retrieve information. <br />Applications of Information Technology:<br /><ul><li>Application of IT in banking:</li></ul>1). Technology has opened up new markets, new products, new services and efficient delivery channels for the banking industry. Online electronics banking, mobile banking and internet banking are just a few examples.<br />2). Information Technology has also provided banking industry with the wherewithal to deal with the challenges the new economy poses. Information technology has been the cornerstone of recent financial sector reforms aimed at increasing the speed and reliability of financial operations and of initiatives to strengthen the banking sector.<br />3). The IT revolution has set the stage for unprecedented increase in financial activity across the globe. The progress of technology and the development of world wide networks have significantly reduced the cost of global funds transfer.<br />4). It is information technology which enables banks in meeting such high expectations of the customers who are more demanding and are also more techno-savvy compared to their counterparts of the yester years. They demand instant, anytime and anywhere banking facilities.<br />5). IT has been providing solutions to banks to take care of their accounting and back office requirements. This has, however, now given way to large scale usage in services aimed at the customer of the banks. IT also facilitates the introduction of new delivery channels--in the form of Automated Teller Machines, Net Banking, Mobile Banking and the like. Further, IT deployment has assumed such high levels that it is no longer possible for banks to manage their IT implementations on a stand alone basis with IT revolution, banks are increasingly interconnecting their computer systems not only across branches in a city but also to other geographic locations with high-speed network infrastructure, and setting up local area and wide area networks and connecting them to the Internet. As a result, information systems and networks are now exposed to a growing number.<br />Technology Products:<br /><ul><li>(1). Net Banking
  2. 2. (2). Credit Card Online
  3. 3. (3). One View
  4. 4. (5). Mobile Banking
  5. 5. (7). e-Monies Electronic Fund Transfer
  6. 6. (8). Online Payment of Excise & Service Tax
  7. 7. (9). Phone Banking
  8. 8. (10). Bill Payment</li></ul>Application of IT in Railways:<br />Computers and Information Technology are widely used in the railway system and railway industry. <br />e.g. <br />Tracking, scheduling, monitoring and reporting railway traffic. <br />Design of railway track systems and railway vehicles. <br />Managing Railway construction projects. <br />Pricing and ticketing. <br />Administration, such as <br />Accounting and financial controls <br />Statutory records and reports <br />Financial reports and taxation requirements <br />Letter writing, staff records, payroll. <br />Managing carriage of goods, such as <br />Recording and tracking movement of goods, pricing, invoicing. <br />Accident and incident records and statistical analysis. <br />Customer relations: Analysis of customer questionnaires etc <br />Daily operations: monitoring lines and enabling control of signals and track-switching.<br />Application of IT in Business:<br />Computers in Business   One of the first and largest applications of computers is keeping and managing business and financial records. Most large companies keep the employment records of all their workers in large databases that are managed by computer programs. Similar programs and databases are used in such business functions as billing customers, tracking payments received and payments to be made, and tracking supplies needed and items produced, stored, shipped, and sold. In fact, practically all the information companies need to do business involves the use of computers and information technology.<br />How Information Technology involved in Retailing  Operations* Forecasting: Forecasting is the process of estimation in unknown situations. It's an essential and very important process in any business organization. Business leaders and economists are continually involved in the process of trying to forecast, or predict, the future of business in the economy. Business leaders engage in this process because much of what happens in businesses today depends on what is going to happen in the future.   * Retail Demand Forecasting: Modern demand-forecasting systems provide new opportunities to improve retail performance. Although the art of the individual merchant may never be replaced, it can be augmented by an efficient, objective and scientific approach to forecasting demand.Large-scale systems are now capable of handling the mass of retail transaction data – organizing it, mining it and projecting it into future customer behavior. This new approach to demand forecasting in retail will contribute to the accuracy of future plans, the satisfaction of future customers and the overall efficiency and profitability of retail operations.* Inventory Management: Inventory can be either raw materials, finished items already available for sale, or goods in the process of being manufactured. Inventory is recorded as an asset on a company's balance sheet.To optimize the deployment of inventory, retailers need to manage the uncertainties, constraints, and complexities across their global supply chain on continuous basis. This allows them to improve their inventory forecasting ability and accurately set inventory targets. An IT solution is a proven and market leading solution for determining optimal time-varying inventory targets for every item, at every location throughout  supply chain. This allows retailers you to significantly reduce inventory without adversely affecting service levels.* Store Management: Another example where Information technology can be beneficial is a store management. That alerts out-of-place or stock-out items. A store, commonly a shop or stall for the retail sale of commodities, but also a place where wholesale supplies are kept, exhibited, or sold. A place where something is deposited for safekeeping is called store. <br />Application of IT in Marketing:<br />MARKETING Computer applications for marketing have surged in recent years. Whereas computer applications for other business needs have been a part of the picture for a decade or two now, the widespread use of computers to shape a company's marketing strategies and campaigns is a relatively new development. "Firms …are gathering tremendous amounts of information about customers, markets, and industries by using an array of relatively inexpensive software and computerized databases," wrote Tim Mc-Collum in Nation's Business. "These resources can help entrepreneurs increase their effectiveness in targeting markets, cultivating leads, and closing sales.…Whether it's called database marketing, smart marketing, or target selling, it boils down to using technology to delivery information that can boost sales." <br />Many consultants and business experts contend that it is particularly important for small business enterprises to make maximum use of this still-developing computer technology. Small business entities typically have fewer clients than do larger firms, which makes the search for new customers an essential component of future success. As analyst Martha Rogers noted in Nation's Business, information technologies like business and customer databases and sales force automation systems can be effective tools for small business owners looking to develop profitable and lasting relationships with customers. Indeed, smaller firms often need good customer information simply to keep pace with larger competitors. <br />Of course, reliable customer information is a major key to any effective marketing campaign. Consequently, database service providers such as Dun & Bradstreet Information Services (DBIS) and American Business Information Inc. (ABI) have become enormously popular with businesses of varying shapes and sizes. "These businesses," wrote McCollum, "have accumulated vast amounts of data on companies throughout the United States and Canada. Customers can buy the records on firms in specific locations or industries or of certain sizes or sales volumes. The databases make it easy to generate lists of potential customers for direct mail or telemarketing campaigns." In addition, DBIS, ABI, and other companies that provide similar services have made their information available via CD-ROMs (with regular updates). Another favorite site for finding business leads is the expanding group of CD-ROM products that provide business and residential telephone listings for various geographic regions of the United States. <br />Ultimately, however, Nation's Business magazine noted that although computers can be a valuable marketing resource for small firms, "technology itself won't boost sales…. For sales to climb, information must be carefully integrated into a total marketing strategy." The magazine thus made the following recommendations to companies looking to apply computer resources to marketing efforts: <br />Build a database of customers and prospective customers, and update it regularly. <br />Decide what marketing information is needed, and establish a plan to obtain it. <br />Use demographic and geographic data to put together a profile of current customer base, which can then be used to identify potential new markets. <br />Use data to identify long-term interests and buying habits of clients. <br />Involve sales force (if any) in introduction of new technologies; "If salespeople don't think the automated system will benefit them, they won't use it." <br />Share information throughout the company. <br />Use computer resources to personalize and coordinate direct mailings and other campaigns. <br />Arrange so that pertinent customer information is available to those who need it. <br />Q: 2. What is internet and what are its various applications?<br />ANS: 2.<br />Internet is interconnection of large number of heterogeneous computer networks all over the world that can share information back and forth. These interconnected network exchange information by using same standards and protocols<br />Applications of internet<br />The internet is treated as one of the biggest invention. It has a large number of uses.<br /><ul><li>Communication: it is used for sending and receiving message from one and other through internet by using electronic mail. Some of the web sites providing this service are yahoomail.com Hotmail.com rediffmail.com etc
  9. 9. Job searches: getting information regarding availability of job in different sectors and areas. You can publish your resume in online for prospective job. Some of the web sites providing this service are naukri.com, monster.com, summerjob.com, recuritmentindia.com etc.
  10. 10. Finding books and study material : books and other study material stored around the world can be easily located through internet. Latest encyclopaedias are available online.
  11. 11. Health and medicine: internet provide information and knowledge about field of health medicine people can have information about various disease and can receive help .patient can be taken to virtual check room where they can meet doctors. Some of the web sites providing this service are
  12. 12. Travel: one can use internet to gather information about various tourist place . it can be used for booking Holiday tours , hotels, train and flights. Some of the web sites providing this service areindiatravelog.com, rajtravel.com, makemytrip.com.
  13. 13. Entertainment one can doun lode jokes, songs muvis, latest sports updates through internet Some of the web sites providing this service arecricinfo.com, movies.com espn.com
  14. 14. Shopping : internet is also used for online shopping. By just giving accounts details you can perform the transaction. You can even pay your bills and perform bank related transaction.
  15. 15. Stock market updates : you can sell or buy shares while sitting on computer through internet. Several websites like ndtvprofit.com, moneypore.com, provide information regarding investment
  16. 16. Research : a large number of people are using internet for research purposes you can download any kind information by using internet
  17. 17. Business use of internet: different ways by which intenet can be used for business are:
  18. 18. Information about the product can be provided can be provided online to the the customer .
  19. 19. Provide market information to the business
  20. 20. It help business to recruit talented people
  21. 21. Help in locating suppliers of the product .
  22. 22. Fast information regarding customers view about companies product
  23. 23. Eliminate middle men and have a direct contact with contact with customer .
  24. 24. Providing information to the investor by providing companies back ground and financial information on web site</li></ul>Q: 3. What is voice over internet protocol?<br />ANS: 3.<br /> Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a technology that allows you to make voice calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line. Some VoIP services may only allow you to call other people using the same service, but others may allow you to call anyone who has a telephone number - including local, long distance, mobile, and international numbers. Also, while some VoIP services only work over your computer or a special VoIP phone, other services allow you to use a traditional phone connected to a VoIP adapter. <br />How VoIP / Internet Voice WorksVoIP services convert your voice into a digital signal that travels over the Internet. If you are calling a regular phone number, the signal is converted to a regular telephone signal before it reaches the destination. VoIP can allow you to make a call directly from a computer, a special VoIP phone, or a traditional phone connected to a special adapter. In addition, wireless "hot spots" in locations such as airports, parks, and cafes allow you to connect to the Internet and may enable you to use VoIP service wirelessly.<br />right000<br />Q: 4. What is Voice Conferencing<br />ANS: 4. Voice Conferencing?<br />Thus Voice Conferencing is a cost-effective way to conduct business at user’s convenience, from any location, without a reservation and by simply dialing one number. The service is a great way to improve productivity by reducing the amount of time spent traveling to meetings, and it can also enhance teamwork by making it easier to keep in touch with colleagues who work remotely.<br />Benefits<br />1. Available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.2. The service is totally automated, allowing the user to create conference rooms instantly.3. User only pays for what they use. If conference calls are cancelled at the last minute, they don’t pay anything.4. Flexibility to set up calls at a moment’s notice, and there is no need to pre-book calls.5. Personalized room greetings – users can personalize their conference room, which can be changed at any time.<br />Set-up<br />Users are provided with a conference account, which includes:1. A dial-in number.2. A link to a personalized web page, which allows the user to create new rooms or modify existing rooms3. A personalized welcome announcement.4. Access to up to one million virtual conference rooms, which are identified by a six-digit room number and a four-digit PIN.5. The ability to hold conference calls with up to 30 participants.<br />Features <br />1. Instant roll call – user can hear a list of callers connected to the conference call.2. Personal invite – user can temporarily disconnect from a call in progress to invite another person to join the conference call. This can be a call to a UK landline, or if a mobile number is called, a text message is automatically generated and sent to the invitee.3. Call recording – users can record a conference call for future reference. The recording is sent via email as an attached Wav file.4. Secrecy – a participant can mute or un-mute his/her voice.5. Call volume – users can individually increase or decrease the volume of the conference call.6. Caller announcements – participant’s names are announced as they join or leave a conference call; user can switch these announcements on or off.<br />Q: 5. what is Video conferencing?<br />ANS: 5.<br />Video conferencing In videoconferencing technology, two or more people at different locations can see and hear each other at the same time, sometimes even sharing computer applications for collaboration. Videoconferencing offers possibilities for schools, colleges, and libraries to use these systems for a variety of purposes, including formal instruction (courses, lessons, and tutoring), connection with guest speakers and experts, multi-school project collaboration, professional activities, and community events.Placing a video call is a lot like placing a telephone call. After the connection establishment one can see the other person in color video on a TV screen and may be able to transfer files or collaborate via options such as document sharing or white boarding. <br />Basic Videoconferencing Technology<br />A videoconferencing system requires the audiovisual equipment, which includes a monitor, camera, microphone, and speaker, and a means of transmission.Rather than an Internet-based connection, such as that used by web cams, which have to share bandwidth with other Internet data, a compressed video system on a dedicated bandwidth provides smooth audio and video.The compressed videoconferencing may be transmitted via an ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) line or over IP (Internet Protocol) lines. It is an economical solution for high-quality videoconferencingConnectingThe most significant distinction among videoconferencing systems is the method of transmission. Transmission is important because two systems cannot connect if they are using different transmission methods. Videoconferences can be transmitted over two protocols, H.320 - ISDN (phone) or H.323 - IP (Internet) lines. In the past, most videoconferences used ISDN lines; however, many people are now using IP connections due to cost savings. In order to connect two units using different transmission methods, a bridge must be used that will handle these mixed protocols. In an ISDN call, bandwidth is dedicated to only one videoconference, while in an IP call; bandwidth may be used to transmit for multiple uses. However, ISDN calls can be very costly since user may be making the call over a distance, in which case, long distance phone line charges apply, and ISDN lines take up to 6 phone lines. BenefitsEducators and librarians from around the country report that videoconferencing technology impacts student learning in a number of ways. Teaching professionals have observed that two-way videoconferences heighten student’s motivation, and improve communication and presentation skills. Additionally, a virtual field trip increases the depth of learning and provides a forum for a greater connection with the outside world.A videoconference can improve student’s memory retention by appealing to a variety of different learning styles by including diverse media such as video and audio clips, graphics, animation, and computer applications. Videoconferencing connects previously contained institutions in a way not possible using e-mail, the telephone, or online chat systems. The visual connection and interaction among participants enhance understanding and allow both the content providers and the students to feel connected to one another. That connection leaves a distinct impression on the students who have the opportunity to go on a virtual field trip. <br />Q: 6. What is a network? what are its various types? <br />ANS: 6. <br />A computer network is any arrangement of computers where a sender transmit a message to receiver over a channel consisting of some type of medium <br />Various kinds of computer network are-<br /><ul><li>On the basis of function performed:
  25. 25. (LAN) local area network- A local area network (LAN) supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an office building, a school, or a home. A LAN is useful for sharing resources like files, printers, games or other applications. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs, and to the Internet or other WAN.
  26. 26. (WAN) wide area network-A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. The term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local area network (LAN). A wide area network may be privately owned or rented, but the term usually connotes the inclusion of public (shared user) networks.
  27. 27. On the basis of topology-
  28. 28. Topology can be considered as a virtual shape or structure of a network. This shape actually does not correspond to the actual physical design of the devices on the computer network. The computers on the home network can be arranged in a circle shape but it does not necessarily mean that it presents a ring topology.
  29. 29. Computer network topologies can be categorized in the following categories.
  30. 30. • bus
  31. 31. • star
  32. 32. • ring
  33. 33. • mesh
  34. 34. • Tree.
  35. 35. Hybrid networks are the complex networks, which can be built of two or more above mentioned topologies.
  36. 36. Bus Topology
  37. 37. Bus topology uses a common backbone to connect all the network devices in a network in a linear shape. A single cable functions as the shared communication medium for all the devices attached with this cable with an interface connector. The device, which wants to communicate send the broadcast message to all the devices attached with the shared cable but only the intended recipient actually accepts and process that message. Ethernet bus topologies are easy to install and don’t require much cabling and only a main shared cable is used for network communication. 10Base-2 and 10BaseT are two popular types of the Ethernet cables used in the Bus topology. Also, Bus network works with very limited devices. Performance issues are likely to occur in the Bus topology if more than 12-15 computers are added in a Bus Network. Additionally, if the Backbone cable fails then all network becomes useless and no communication fails among all the computers. Unlike in the Star topology in which if one computer is detached from a network then there is not effect on the other computers in a network.</li></ul>Star Topology<br /> In this type of network topology, each node of the network is connected to a central node, which is known as a hub. The data that is transmitted between the network nodes passes across the central hub. A distributed star is formed by the interconnection of two or more individual star networks. The centralized nature of a star network provides a certain amount of simplicity while also achieving isolation of each device in the network. However, the disadvantage of a star topology is that the network transmission is largely dependent on the central hub. The failure of the central hub results in total network inoperability.<br />Ring Topology: <br />In a ring topology, every node in the network is connected to two other nodes and the first and the last nodes are connected to each other. The data that are transmitted over the network pass through each of the nodes in the ring until they reach the destination node. In a ring network, the data and the signals that pass over the network travel in a single direction. The dual ring topology varies in having two connections between each of the network nodes. The data flow along two directions in the two rings formed thereby. The ring topology does not require a central server to manage connectivity between the nodes and facilitates an orderly network operation. But, the failure of a single station in the network can render the entire network inoperable. Changes and moves in the stations forming the network affect the network operation.<br />Mesh Topology<br /><ul><li>Mesh topology work on the concept of routes. In Mesh topology, message sent to the destination can take any possible shortest, easiest route to reach its destination. In the previous topologies star and bus, messages are usually broadcasted to every computer, especially in bus topology. Similarly in the Ring topology message can travel in only one direction i.e clockwise or anticlockwise. Internet employs the Mesh topology and the message finds its route for its destination. Router works in find the routes for the messages and in reaching them to their destinations. The topology in which every devices connects to every other device is called a full Mesh topology unlike in the partial mesh in which every device is indirectly connected to the other devices.
  38. 38. Tree Topology
  39. 39. Tree topologies are comprised of the multiple star topologies on a bus. Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. Only the hub devices can connect directly with the tree bus and each Hub functions as a root of a tree of the network devices. This bus/star/hybrid combination supports future expandability of the computer networks, much better than a bus or star.</li></ul>Q: 7. what are various types of TRANSMISSION MEDIA?<br />ANS: 7.<br />TRANSMISSION MEDIA<br />The means through which data is transformed from one place to another is called transmission or communication media. There are two categories of transmission media used in computer communications.<br /><ul><li>BOUNDED/GUIDED MEDIA
  40. 40. UNBOUNDED/UNGUIDED MEDIA
  41. 41. BOUNDED MEDIA:</li></ul>Bounded media are the physical links through which signals are confined to narrow path. These are also called guide media. Bounded media are made up o a external conductor (Usually Copper) bounded by jacket material. Bounded media are great for LABS because they offer high speed, good security and low cast. However, some time they cannot be used due distance communication. Three common types of bounded media are used of the data transmission. These are <br />Coaxial Cable<br />Twisted Pairs Cable<br />Fiber Optics Cable<br /><ul><li>COAXIAL CABLE:</li></ul>Coaxial cable is very common & widely used commutation media. For example TV wire is usually coaxial.<br />Coaxial cable gets its name because it contains two conductors that are parallel to each other. The center conductor in the cable is usually copper. The copper can be either a solid wire or stranded martial.<br />Outside this central Conductor is a non-conductive material. It is usually white, plastic material used to separate the inner Conductor form the outer Conductor. The other Conductor is a fine mesh made from Copper. It is used to help shield the cable form EMI.<br />Outside the copper mesh is the final protective cover. (as shown in Fig)<br />The actual data travels through the center conductor in the cable. EMI interference is caught by outer copper mesh. There are different types of coaxial cable vary by gauge & impedance.<br />Gauge is the measure of the cable thickness. It is measured by the Radio grade measurement, or RG number. The high the RG number, the thinner the central conductor core, the lower the number the thicker the core.<br />Here the most common coaxial standards.<br />50-Ohm RG-7 or RG-11 : used with thick Ethernet.<br />50-Ohm RG-58 : used with thin Ethernet <br />75-Ohm RG-59 : used with cable television<br />93-Ohm RG-62 : used with ARCNET.<br />CHARACTERISTICS OF COAXIAL CABLE<br />Low cost<br />Easy to install<br />Up to 10Mbps capacity <br />Medium immunity form EMI<br />Medium of attenuation <br />ADVANTAGES COAXIAL CABLE<br />Inexpensive <br />Easy to wire<br />Easy to expand<br />Moderate level of EMI immunity<br />DISADVANTAGE COAXIAL CABLE<br />Single cable failure can take down an entire network<br /><ul><li>Twisted Pair Cable
  42. 42. The most popular network cabling is Twisted pair. It is light weight, easy to install, inexpensive and support many different types of network. It also supports the speed of 100 mps. Twisted pair cabling is made of pairs of solid or stranded copper twisted along each other. The twists are done to reduce vulnerably to EMI and cross talk. The number of pairs in the cable depends on the type. The copper core is usually 22-AWG or 24-AWG, as measured on the American wire gauge standard. There are two types of twisted pairs cabling
  43. 43. 1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)
  44. 44. 2. Shielded twisted pair (STP)</li></ul>STP <br />UTP<br /><ul><li>Fiber Optics</li></ul>Fiber optic cable uses electrical signals to transmit data. It uses light. In fiber optic cable light only moves in one direction for two way communication to take place a second connection must be made between the two devices. It is actually two stands of cable. Each stand is responsible for one direction of communication. A laser at one device sends pulse of light through this cable to other device. These pulses translated into “1’s”and “0’s” at the other end.<br />In the center of fiber cable is a glass stand or core. The light from the laser moves through this glass to the other device around the internal core is a reflective material known as CLADDING. No light escapes the glass core because of this reflective cladding.<br />Fiber optic cable has bandwidth more than 2 gbps (Gigabytes per Second)<br />Characteristics Of Fiber Optic Cable:<br />Expensive<br />Very hard to install<br />Capable of extremely high speed <br />Extremely low attenuation<br />No EMI interference<br />Advantages Of Fiber Optic Cable:<br />Fast <br />Low attenuation<br />No EMI interference<br />Disadvantages Fiber Optics:<br />Very costly<br />Hard to install <br /><ul><li>UNBOUNDED / UN GUIDED MEDIA</li></ul>Unbounded / Unguided media or wireless media doesn't use any physical connectors between the two devices communicating. Usually the transmission is send through the atmosphere but sometime it can be just across the rule. Wireless media is used when a physical obstruction or distance blocks are used with normal cable media. The three types of wireless media are:<br />RADIO WAVES<br />MICRO WAVES<br />INFRARED WAVES<br /><ul><li>RADIO WAVES:-</li></ul>It has frequency between 10 K Hz to 1 G Hz. Radio waves has the following types.<br />Short waves<br />VHF (Very High Frequency)<br />UHF (Ultra High Frequency)<br />SHORT WAVES:-<br />There are different types of antennas used for radio waves. Radio waves transmission can be divided into following categories.<br />LOW POWER, SINGLE FREQUENCY.<br />HIGH POWER, SINGLE FREQUENCY<br />LOW POWER , SINGLE FREQUENCY:- <br />As the name shows this system transmits from one frequency and has low power out. The normal operating ranges on these devices are 20 to 25 meter.<br />CHARACTERISTICS LOW POWER , SINGLE FREQUENCY:-<br />Low cost<br />Simple installation with pre-configured<br />1 M bps to 10 M bps capacity<br />High attenuation<br />Low immunity to EMI<br /><ul><li>HIGH POWER, SINGLE FREQUENCY:-</li></ul>This is similar to low power single frequency. These devices can communicate over greater distances.<br />CHARACTERISTICS HIGH POWER, SINGLE FREQUENCY:-<br />Moderate cost<br />Easier to install than low power single frequency<br />1 Mbps to 10 Mbps of capacity<br /><ul><li>Satellite Micro waves</li></ul>The main problem with aero wave communication is the curvature of the earth, mountains & other structure often block the line of side. Due to this reason, many repeats are required for long distance which increases the cost of data transmission between the two points. This problem is recommended by using satellites.<br />Satellite micro wave transmission is used to transmit signals through out the world. These system use satellites in orbit about 50,000 Km above the earth. Satellite dishes are used to send the signals to the satellite where it is again send back down to the receiver satellite. These transmissions also use directional parabolic antenna’ with in line of side. <br />In satellite communication micro wave signals at 6 GHz is transmitted from a transmitter on the earth through the satellite position in space. By the time signal reaches the satellites becomes weaker due to 50,000 Km distance. The satellite amplifies week signals and transmits it back to the earth at the frequency less than 6 GHz. <br />Characteristics Satellite Micro waves:<br />High cost <br />Extremely difficult and hare installation. <br />Variable attenuation.<br />Low immunity to EMI<br />High security needed because a signal send to satellite is broadcasts through all receivers with in satellite. <br /><ul><li>Infrared</li></ul>Infrared frequencies are just below visible light. These high frequencies allow high sped data transmission. This technology is similar to the use of a remote control for a TV. Infrared transmission can be affected by objects obstructing sender or receiver. These transmissions fall into two categories.<br />Point to point<br />Broadcast<br /><ul><li>Point to Point: -Point to point infrared transmission signal directly between two systems. Many lap top system use point to pint transmission. These systems require direct alignment between many devices. </li></ul>Characteristics of Point to point:-<br />Wide range of cost <br />Moderately easy installation.<br />100 k bps to 16 Mb of capacity.<br />Variable attenuation.<br />High immunity to EMI<br /><ul><li>Broad Cast: -These infrared transmission use sprayed signal, one broad cast in all directions instead of direct beam. This help to reduce the problems of proper alignment and abstraction. It also allows multiple receiver of signal</li></ul>Characteristics of Broad Cast:- <br />In expensive.<br />Single installation.<br />1M bps capacity.<br />Variable attenuation.<br />Q. 8. Explain DBMS.<br />ANS: 8.<br />A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of a database. It allows organizations to place control of database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. A DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of integrated collection of data records and files known as databases. It allows different user application programs to easily access the same database. DBMSs may use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way. Instead of having to write computer programs to extract information, user can ask simple questions in a query language. Thus, many DBMS packages provide Fourth-generation programming language (4GLs) and other application development features. It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the information within a database. It provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency, and restoring the database from backups. A DBMS also provides the ability to logically present database information to users.<br />Components<br />DBMS Engine accepts logical requests from various other DBMS subsystems, converts them into physical equivalents, and actually accesses the database and data dictionary as they exist on a storage device.<br />Data Definition Subsystem helps the user create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of the files in a database.<br />Data Manipulation Subsystem helps the user to add, change, and delete information in a database and query it for valuable information. Software tools within the data manipulation subsystem are most often the primary interface between user and the information contained in a database. It allows the user to specify its logical information requirements.<br />Application Generation Subsystem contains facilities to help users develop transaction-intensive applications. It usually requires that the user perform a detailed series of tasks to process a transaction. It facilitates easy-to-use data entry screens, programming languages, and interfaces.<br />Data Administration Subsystem helps users manage the overall database environment by providing facilities for backup and recovery, security management, query optimization, concurrency control, and change management.<br />Q: 9. Different DBMS software?<br />ANS: 9.<br /><ul><li>Quick Base Used by over 50 of the Fortune 100, Intuit Quick Base is the fastest, easiest and most flexible way to help teams work together, regardless of size, location or industry. Intuit Quick Base is a web-based platform from which workgroups can easily create unlimited applications to automate business processes and improve collaboration. Quick Base applications solve critical business problems because they can be customized to fit the exact workflow you need.
  45. 45. Zoho Creator </li></ul>Zoho Creator is a web-based platform that lets users to build custom business applications on their own, online. Zoho Creator delivers a complete platform with Drag-and-drop interface, Business Rules and Workflow, Reporting and Collaboration so just about anyone can use it to build apps for their custom business need.<br /><ul><li>cP-DocRev </li></ul>Offers an easy-to-use interface, outputs to most standard 3rd party production tools with the necessary business features. Offers industry standard applications. Built on a .net framework and SQL backend, offers an easy-to-use interface, outputs to most standard 3rd party production tools with the necessary business features. <br /><ul><li>CONNX CONNX is a data access, metadata management, and integration tool that increases operational efficiencies and reduces costs through a single platform. From a single point of connection you get to your data regardless of where it physically resides by using market standard protocols . . . ODBC, OLEDB, .NET and/or JDBC. CONNX provides enterprise grade scalability, availability and security. The product has full ETL capabilities. CONNX is 'Best of Breed' for Business Intelligence and Analytics. </li></ul>Q. 10. Define MS-Access?<br />ANS: 10.<br />Microsoft Access is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), designed primarily for home or small business usage. Access is known as a desktop database system because it's functions are intended to be run from a single computer. This is in contrast to a server database application (such as SQL Server), where it is intended to be installed on a server, then accessed remotely from multiple client machines. Microsoft (or MS) Access is a software package that you install just like any other software package, and is bundled as part of the Microsoft Office suite.<br />Excel may be fine if you've only got a small amount of data, and if you don't have many attributes against each piece of data. It may be fine if you don't have much in the way of relational data across multiple worksheets. Once you start storing many attributes against each piece of data, and perhaps you find yourself repeating information across multiple worksheets, then it's time to start using Access (or another database system if you prefer). Another important reason for using Access over Excel is, if you need to generate a lot of queries and reports. Access is much better suited for doing this compared to Excel.<br />When you create (and save) a database in Microsoft Access, the database is saved with a .mdb extension. This is the file extension you will use the most, when developing Access databases. Once you've established your database, you also have the option of saving it as an MDE file, which gives you some benefits over the MDB file. An MDE file uses a .mde extension.<br />Q: 11. How to create tables in MS ACCESS ?<br />ANS: 11<br />Creating Table<br />Design View" enables you to create your database tables and specify the columns and their data types etc. The following steps demonstrate how to switch to Design View and create a table.<br />Ensuring you have your blank database open and you're on the following screen (with the "Tables" tab selected), click "New":<br />2. Select "Design View" and click "OK":<br />3. Fill out the details in the "Field Name" column and the "Data Type" column. Here, we are creating the column names and specifying the type of data that can be entered into them. Restricting the data type for each column is very important and helps maintain data integrity. For example, it can prevent us from . accidentally entering an email address into a field for storing the current date. Other options for each column include restricting the length of data (under "Field Size"), setting a default value (this is used if someone leaves the field blank), specifying whether the data is required, and more. Leave these options with their default value for now.<br />4. Click the "Save" icon, enter the table name ("Individual"), and click "OK":<br />5. When prompted to set a primary key, click "Yes". (A primary key ensures that the data in this column is unique - no two values can be the same. This is important for when you need to select or reference data from this column):<br /> Q: 12. How to create a query in Microsoft Access? <br />ANS: 12.<br />Create a query in Microsoft Access:<br />A "query" refers to the action of instructing the database to return some (or all) of the data in your database. In other words, you are "querying" the database for some data that matches a given criteria. For example, you might like to see a list of all individuals whose first name is "Homer". Or you might like to see a list of all users who have registered with your database over a given time period. To do this, you need to do a query.<br />Here's how to create a query in Microsoft Access:<br />Ensuring you have the "Query" tab open, click "New" <br />Select "Simple Query Wizard" and click "OK":<br />Choose the fields you'd like to be presented in the results of your query. To choose 1 field at a time, select it and click the ">" arrow. To choose all fields click the ">>" arrows. For now, just select the "First Name" and "Last Name" fields, then click "Next":<br />Choose a name for your query and click "Finish":<br />left63500<br />Q: 13. What are steps involved in creating a form in Access?<br />ANS: 13. <br />Here are the steps involved in creating a form in Access.<br />Ensuring the "Forms" tab is selected, click "New".<br />Select "Form Wizard" and click "OK". (For now, we'll use the "Form Wizard" to create a form. Once you become comfortable with creating forms, you can choose another option if you prefer).<br />Select the fields that you need on your form and click "Next". In this case, we only need the user to enter first name and last name, so we choose those two fields:<br />Choose which layout you'd like your form to use. Leave this at the default ("Columnar") and click "Next":<br />Choose which style you'd like your form to use. Leave this at the default ("Clouds") and click "Next":<br />Choose a name for your form and click "Finish":<br />Q: 14. How to create a report in Microsoft Access? <br />ANS:14.<br /> Create a report<br />Reports allow you to show data in a printable format. You can base a report on a table or a<br />query. So let’s go ahead and create a very quick basic report in MS Access 2007. Click on a table in the navigation pane<br />Here I click on the ‘students’ table and it becomes highlighted<br />At the Ribbon make sure the ‘Create’ tab is selected<br />At the reports section click on the item called ’Report Wizard’<br />Select the table or query to base the report on.<br />In the left box double click the field you wish to show on the report. The item will move to the box on the right. You can also use the arrow keys to move fields between the two boxes.<br />Then click next for grouping options<br />Then click next to select the criteria acc to which the records should display<br />Then click finish button<br />The report will show in print preview mode. As<br />To print the report, click the ‘Print’ button<br />Q: 15. What is a macro? <br />ANS: 15.<br />A macro is a series of commands that you can use to automate a repeated task, and can be run when you have to perform the task. Macros automate frequently used tasks to save time on keystrokes and mouse actions. Many were created by using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and are written by software developers. However, some macros can pose a potential security risk. A person with malicious intent, also known as a hacker, can introduce a destructive macro in a file that can spread a virus on your computer or into your organization's network.<br />

×