SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT
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SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT

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SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT Document Transcript

  • SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT B.S III (HONS) LINGS 2K11/ENG/32 1
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES ABSTRACT The development of thinking is discussed from socio-cultural perspectives; features of social and cultural context that play important roles in organizing and directing cognitive development are presented. This assignment concludes with the discussion of utility of vygotsky’s approach for advancing understanding of intellectual growth. Socio-cultural approaches emphasized interdependence of social and individual process in the co-construction of knowledge. . 2
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES INTRODUCTION Socio-cultural approaches to learning and development was first systematized and applied by L.S.Vygotsky, and his collaborators in Russia in nineteenth-twenties and thirties. After fifties and early sixties, socio-cultural approaches have been further developed by scholars in over a dozen countries. THEORY PERSPECTIVES There are three major themes in Vygotsky writing. That are, individual developments including higher mental functions, has its origin in social context. Next is, Human action on both social and individual planes, is mediated by tools and signs. And third one is, first two themes are best examined through genetic or developmental analysis. Vygotsky’s research based on comparison with process through which human mediate their interaction with world of objects through use of tools. Symbolically mediated mental functions are appropriated by children as they carry out specific culturally defined task under the guidance of other individuals, who initially assume most of responsibility for carrying out the task. Children ultimately attain the ability to function independently of the other’s guidance. They appropriate for themselves the pattern of planning, attending, thinking etc. now socially mediated mental processing evolve into self mediated processing. Vygotsky’s research on mental development arises as consequence of interaction between two processes that are distinct, one with biological roots and other with socio-cultural origins. And these two lines of development merge during ontogenesis of children. Theory based on concept that human activities takes place on cultural context, are mediated by language and other symbol system. Vygotsky developed multifaceted theory through which he examined range of subject including psychology of art, language and thoughts, 3
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES learning and development, including focus on education of students with special needs. In linguistics means vygotsky argued that self controlled cognitive functioning would also be linguistically mediated and would carry traces of its social beginnings, this self controlled linguistic mediation is referred to as inner or private speech. SOCIO-CULTURAL INFLUENCE In all societies through out the world, human ability to develop intellectual and social skills adapted to the circumstances in which growth occurs, it also rely on social and cultural practices that support desired pattern of development. Human development starts with dependence on social context. Developing individual rely on experience of others. Any function in cultural development of child comes on stage twice, in two respects, first on social later in psychological. (Valsiner;1987, p. 67). Rogoff (1990) found that even when children were not conversational partners with adults, they were involved in adult world as participants in adult agricultural and household work. Further describes supportive engagement of mother with their children as an example of non verbal guidance adult give children. The routine arrangement and interactions between children and their caregiver provide children with thousands of opportunities to observe and participate in skilled of their culture. (Rogoff, 1991, p.351) The acquisition of language provides another example of social source of development. MEDIATION Mediation is the key in this approach to understanding how human mental functioning tied to cultural, institutional and historical settings. Since these settings shape and provide the cultural tools that are mastered by individual to form this functioning. 4
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES Semiotic mediations is key to all aspects of knowledge co-construction. For vygotsky semiotic mediation including psychological tools mediate social and individual functioning and connect external and internal, the social and individual. Effect of mediation TOOLS AND SIGNS Tools allowed individual in collaboration with other individuals. They are externally oriented to shape their own motives to their motives and goals. Vygotsky (1978) explain that tools function is to serve as conductor of human influence on object of activity, it must lead to changes in objects, tools are created by people under specific cultural and historical conditions, unlike technical tools, signs are internally oriented at subject of activity, that is, directed at causing changes in the behavior of other people or oneself. Socially provided tools means and practices, which become internalize and available for independent activity, are critically supporting and transforming mental function. Psychological tools are directed internally and appropriated during activity. Knowledge is not internalized directly, but through the use of psychological tools. Vygotsky’s colleague leontiev (1981) used appropriation to describe adoption of these socially available psychological tools, the child has only come to understanding that is adequate for using the culturally elaborated object in life circumstances. Thus psychological tools are not invented by individual; they are products of socio cultural evolution to which individual have access by being actively engaged in practices of their communities. ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD) Learning awakens a variety internal developmental processes that are able to operate only when the child is interacting with people in his environment, to help in explaining the way that 5
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES this social and participatory learning took place, vygotsky developed concept of zone of proximal development (ZPD). Which he defines as, The distance between actual development has determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.(Vygotsky, 1978, p.86). Socio cultural theorists, expanding the concept of zone of proximal development, increasingly conceptualize learning as distributed (Cole and Engestrom, 1993), interactive (Changwell and Wells, 1993), contextual (John Steiner, Panofsky, and Smith, 1994) and the result of learner’s participation in a community of practice (Rogoff, 1994). Effect of mediation in L2 learning is jointly constructed in ZPD. Which brings into contact the individual’s past learning and future development. For corrective feedback to be effective it must be sensitive to the individual to the learner’s ZPD. Further more, L2 development is not manifested solely in learner’s ability to produce correct L2 pattern, but also in the frequency and quality of help co-constructed by expert. (Al Jaafreh and Lantolf). ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN DEVELOPMENT Language developed from social interaction, for communication purposes. Two critical roles of language by vygotsky are, language is a main mean by which adult transmit information to children and second one is language it self becomes a very powerful tool of intellectual adaptation. Vygotsky viewed that self guiding speech can make it easier for children to direct their actions, make it easier to focus their attention on the task in hand. Vygotsky argued that private speech diminishes and become more internal as children’s level of performance improves, it become internalize. 6
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES Private speech more often when working alone on challenging task and also when their teacher was not immediately available to help them. (Berk). Vygotsky believed children engaged in large amount of private speech are more socially competent then children do not use it extensively. CRITICISM Vygotsky was seen early on as a scientific researcher of learning and development. Vygotsky research was based on relationships with children, which included much of child’s mind as part of his theory. Dr. Casement has provide studies for students in higher education, but an important construct of vygotsky’s socio cultural learning theory that relates to any learner is that zone of proximal development. STRENGTHS Vygotsky main developmental theorist, to emphasize broader socio historical context of development. Vygotsky focused on fluid boundary between others and self, according to vygotsky, society shares its cognitive goals with child and child shapes environment. Concepts such as ZPD and internalization refer to cognitive exchanges that occur at this border. WEAKNESS • Vygotsky work has not received same level of success that Piaget’s has, partially due to the time covering process of translating his work from Russian. • There is no mention of stages that children function and think in similar ways throughout their life. • No mention of brain maturation, as we shall see with education that there are some qualitative differences between young and older children to grass abstract or hypothetical ideas. 7
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES • No concept of motivation or importance of child’s desire to learn, did not talk about emotional factor caused by failure and joy of success experienced by child. • Vygotsky did not say what type of social interaction is best for encouraging learning. • Individual differences also means a lot for development that also did not mentioned. CONCLUSION The child’s cultural setting and development greatly affects their learning. that teacher and students should work collaboratively to learn from each other. That are social interactions with peers is extremely important to our learning process. Social interaction really does play a essential role in process of cognitive development. We all are learning from each other and our surroundings and that is what we take into our lives. Vygotsky in his theory placed more emphasis on social contributions to the process of development. That focused on connections between people and socio cultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences. 8
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES REFERENCES • James P. Lantolf and Aneta Pavlenko (1995). Socio cultural Theory and Second Language Acquisition. • Kozulin, Alex (1990) Vygotsky's psychology: A biography of ideas. • Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Socio cultural theory and the genesis of second Language development (Vol. 398). Oxford: Oxford University Press. • McLeod, S. A. (2007). Vygotsky - Simply Psychology. • Rogoff, B (1990). Apprenticeships in Thinking. New York: Oxford University Press. • Valsiner, J. (1987). Culture and the development of children's action: A cultural- historical theory of development. • Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. • Wertsch, J. V. (1985). Vygotsky and the social formation of mind. . . 9
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES REFERENCES • James P. Lantolf and Aneta Pavlenko (1995). Socio cultural Theory and Second Language Acquisition. • Kozulin, Alex (1990) Vygotsky's psychology: A biography of ideas. • Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Socio cultural theory and the genesis of second Language development (Vol. 398). Oxford: Oxford University Press. • McLeod, S. A. (2007). Vygotsky - Simply Psychology. • Rogoff, B (1990). Apprenticeships in Thinking. New York: Oxford University Press. • Valsiner, J. (1987). Culture and the development of children's action: A cultural- historical theory of development. • Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. • Wertsch, J. V. (1985). Vygotsky and the social formation of mind. . . 9