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Total place   a practitioner's guide to doing things differently

Total place a practitioner's guide to doing things differently






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    Total place   a practitioner's guide to doing things differently Total place a practitioner's guide to doing things differently Document Transcript

    • Leadership Centre for local government Total Place: a practitioner’s guide to doing things differently
    • Contents Introduction The Total Place journey – or there and back again (with apologies to JRR Tolkien) Introduction The Total Place journey – David Bolger or there and back again .............................................3 Guide to the guide ......................................................5 Section 1.0 Understanding systemic change................................6 The Hobbit may not be an obvious starting Starting out ............................................................... 24 Section 2.0 point for a compendium of ideas about Total Section 3.0 Connecting the system to itself ............................... 44 Place. But the quest as a storytelling model Section 4.0 Being human ............................................................. 62 retains extraordinary power even here in the Section 5.0 Using power differently ............................................ 78 sceptical world of the 21st century. Section 6.0 Counting and story-telling........................................ 92 Section 7.0 Thinking differently................................................. 110 In this document, we have gathered the The thirteen Total Place pilots have each wisdom of a number of people who have undertaken a unique journey over the been involved in the Total Place adventure. past nine months or so. It is abundantly Their wisdom ranges widely across clear that there is no single set of rules to theories and models of change, embracing follow and that there is more work to be practical ideas on processes and things undertaken – the story is far from over. to do, and also touching on the inevitable Nevertheless, at this point, it seems right human dimensions of change. to try to gather the experience of the Total In some cases these experiences of the Place pioneers to date; to understand Total Place quest are recounted by the what they have found useful, inspiring and pilots’ programme managers and leads. rewarding in the journeys they have made; Others are insights from Leadership Centre and to offer to those who are embarking advisers who have worked closely on their own quest some modest thoughts with places. on ways of thinking and behaving which may be of help. 2 3
    • The compendium is divided into three main areas: Guide to the guide THEORIES AND MODELS here we We have broken down our contributors’ pieces into seven briefly summarise, and reference, some of sections, to help you find the most relevant pieces 1 THEORIES AND the models of change etc which Total Place for you at any given time. Those sections are: 1 MODELS practitioners have drawn on; the models are generally well known, researched and documented Understanding systemic change Getting your mind around the ‘founding’ theories of the initial Total Place approach – the ideas that started things out and shaped the first phase. 2 PRACTICE here we capture some very practical ideas which have been used in 2 PRACTICE the various Total Place quests. As with the theories and models, no prescriptions Starting out Getting set up, recognising the need for ‘learning are on offer. Simply a description of cycles’ as a scaffolding for Total Place work, and using those cycles approaches which have been used to to maximise the impact of a piece of Total Place work. 3 move the Total Place idea forward HUMAN IMPLICATIONS here we Connecting the system to itself Linking up people across capture ideas about social interactions your system to generate new ideas and agreements – the power of 3 HUMAN which have proved insightful for Total multi-party conversations. 4 IMPLICATIONS Place practitioners. Being human Recognising the emotional impacts of change on people and the effects of social dynamics on groups and organisations. 5 The compendium is exactly that: It goes without saying, almost, that the a collection of ideas and approaches various authors of this document offer which may be of value to those setting no warranties about the efficacy of their ideas. They offer them humbly, in a spirit Using power differently Neither ignoring nor being out on a Total Place journey. There is of co-operation and shared learning, to overwhelmed by the power hierarchies we work in. 6 no guiding narrative to the pieces here, although there are evident overlaps those who may follow them on the Total and echoes between the ‘chunks’ and Place quest. You must make of them what between individual pieces. The separate you will-and we hope that in time you will Counting and story-telling Using data, stories and pieces are designed to stand alone and be moved to share your own experiences deep dives to find the information that begins to change minds: can be dipped into according to taste. with the growing Total Place community. professional minds, leadership minds and political minds. 7 Each piece has an identified author, with The views expressed in this publication are contact details; and where appropriate, those of the author and do not necessarily references are provided for theories and reflect the views or opinions of the Thinking differently Taking your new information and models quoted. Leadership Centre for Local Government working with it in innovative ways – using new ideas and theories or its staff. and playing with your creativity. 4 5
    • 1 Getting your mind around the ‘founding’ theories of the initial Total Place approach – the ideas that started things out and shaped the first phase. Section 1 Understanding systemic change Getting past the polarities – an introduction to Total Place . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Total Place – the founding ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Living systems, adaptive change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Information, identity, relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Wicked problems, wicked work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Diverse cultures, diverse solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Leadership that changes thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Public value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6 7
    • Getting past the polarities – Culture Counting an introduction to Total Place Forming cross-agency leadership boards, design Task Conducting high level and detailed ‘Deep Dives’ groups, professional assessing cost against benefit collectives – diverse across the whole public realm groupings of people who and for specific citizens, John Atkinson, Managing director, Leadership Centre do the work together families and target groups for Local Government Participating in customer Customer involvement and insight work Total Place is a ‘both/and’ exercise: places and Citizen – interviews, group sessions, innovation workshops, Whitehall were asked to work together to find ways co-design exercises, ward level conversations of creating better outcomes for citizens at lower cost to the taxpayer. Agencies Whitehall Getting together across Players Joining in counting and This was the first difficult thing for people to So, why do we think Total Place is different sectors to define themes, share design work, facilitating new get their heads around – Total Place is not a from all of these myriad initiatives that have information, create new ideas, policy conversations, acting service improvement initiative nor is it a cost- washed over our bows over the last twenty negotiate implementation as Champions in Whitehall cutting exercise. It is an approach to ‘public years or so? It’s because we think that value’ (more on this later) that includes Total Place is the first time that two crucial both improvement and innovation and a triads have been brought together in a close eye on the value to the citizen being single piece of work. • How do the organisational cultures of leaders meet together with Whitehall generated (or failing to be generated) by agencies in places and departments colleagues as part of theme groups each public service pound that we spend. The task triad: Customers, in Whitehall hamper our ability to and at senior leaders events; agency counting, culture Total Place is also an attempt to bring all of deliver value to the public? Are our professionals and managers have worked The ‘task’ of Total Place has been to attempts to maintain organisational with customers at large system events and the contributors to public value together in consider all three of the key aspects in the sovereignty getting in the way of working via smaller design groups. one place. A lofty ambition! creation of public value: collaboratively to shift society’s most We have a long history of partnership And the choices that working this way • What does the citizen really want from us intransigent problems? initiatives in the public sector, each of create are fundamental and deeply when they are in the role of customer? which has made an impact in shifting us The player triad: Agencies, political. This needs to be recognised Do they really want all the things we towards a more collaborative approach citizens, Whitehall from the outset and welcomed as part of provide or would they rather do much of between agencies. Many individual a reinvigoration of healthy public debate it for themselves? Where they do need And the design of Total Place has been councils, primary car trusts, police forces about what is best for our places and how the support of the public service, are we to create as much connection between and other agencies have also done good best this can be achieved. doing a decent job or driving them half the different players in public value as work with local citizens, involving them in mad with our internal fragmentation and possible. No one agency in a place or So, if you think the leaders of your place community development, service design arcane language? department in Whitehall has dictated the are ready for a ‘both/and’ approach to and outcome setting. Some Whitehall • What really counts in the huge expenditure work. Perhaps more importantly, a great generating public value, Total Place may departments have got closer to their managed by the public sector? How deal of attention has been paid to creating be the approach for you. It’s not about agencies, connecting leaders in places to much bang are we really getting for our cross system forums where very significant everyone getting involved in everything but policy makers around specific initiatives. buck? Is the actual investment in services conversations take place. Whitehall it is about always keeping the whole task to the customer undermined by the cost champions have got involved in places; and all the actors in mind – a complex but of ‘being in business’? place agency leaders and local political rewarding way of working. 8 9
    • 1 5 Total Place - the founding ideas Myron’s maxims: working with adaptive change Elegant solutions don’t solve wicked problems High • Real change happens in real work Fatalism Hierarchy John Atkinson, Managing director, Leadership Centre • Those who do the work do the change • People own what they create GRID: Rules for Local Government • Start anywhere, go everywhere and Roles Individualism Egalitarianism • Connect the system to more of itself Low High Total Place is a bit different from the usual initiative Source: Myron Rogers Group orientation 2 or centrally orchestrated programme – sometimes Myron Rogers Diverse solutions to unmanageable youths High Fatalists Hierarchists frustratingly so. Structure Identity Meaning There’s nothing we can do. There have been feral young men in every society and on-one knows what to do Stronger discipline is needed: Sanction parents Give police more powers GRID: about them Rules It didn’t come with a programme plan, can only be addressed with messy Individualists Egalitarians and Kids need better life chances: Kids need more support: Roles Offer incentives to stay Provide mentors toolkit or defined outcomes – no set of (not elegantly simple) solutions in school Give rewards for good Create opportunities for community contribution instructions to follow. But it did come with (Wicked problems, wicked solutions) behaviour Low High a, largely unspoken, body of theory behind 4. If we want to address those wicked Systems Policy Information Relationships Action Trust Group orientation: Belonging and meaning it, theory that informed the design and that problems we must be willing to adapt has informed the day to day decisions of our thinking, and it is a key role of Source: Myron Rogers Adapted from the work of Mary Douglas the Leadership Centre for Local leadership to help ourselves and others 3 6 Government and the High Level Officials’ to think new thoughts (Leadership that The strategic triangle Group responsible for steering the work What kind of problem is it? changes thinking) through Whitehall. We thought it would be 5. Different individuals have different Do you know how to solve this problem? The Authorising Enviroment helpful for places who are wanting to overarching cultural theories about embark on Total Place work to have some Yes No Public Value Outcomes how human systems work – all of Strategic Goals understanding of those theories, whether those theories have value in building Is it a crisis? Does anyone know to solve this? they want to use them in their work or not! messy solutions (Diverse viewpoints, Each of the founding ideas outlined below diverse solutions) Yes No Yes No is dealt with in more depth in one of the 6. If we focus only on ‘service Critical problem Wicked problem Tame problem following pieces in this section. improvement’ or on ‘cost cutting’, Act as a commander Be decisive Act as a manager Use S.O.Ps Act as a leader Ask questions and use Operational Capacity Provide answers clumsy solutions 1. Human communities and organisations we get further and further away from are not machines, they are living, understanding the true value of public Sourced from Professor Keith Grint, Warwick Business School Source: Mark Moore adapting systems so we need work for the public we are trying to 4 approaches to change that recognise serve (Public value) Changing our thinking Please see the following pages for this fact (Living systems, adaptive full details: As you read through this guide to Total Unproductive fantasy change) Denial Place, you will spot each of these founding 1 Living systems, adaptive 2. Our leadership attention is best spent Unrealistic ideas popping up over and over again, Not enough change ........................................ page 12 Sense of by considering the information that Existing Map sometimes overtly, sometimes in disguise. Experimentation Realistic Sense of Tension Just right 2 Information, identity, shapes the system, the identity relationships ............................... page 14 the system is creating for itself and And, as you consider your own local Total New map Loosening Map 3 Wicked problems, wicked work.... page 16 the relationships that uphold the work. Place exercise, you may want to think 4 Leadership that changes which of these founding ideas you find Sufficient Sense of thinking ....................................... page 20 (Information, identity, relationships) Safety Thought Experiments 5 Diverse cultures, diverse 3. The long standing and remarkably useful and how you might incorporate None Sense of Positive Future Just right Not enough solutions ..................................... page 18 resilient problems now faced by our them in your own work. Despair Panic 6 Public value ................................ page 22 society are ‘wicked problems’ that Adapted from Kurt Lewin 10 11
    • Living systems, adaptive change Myron’s maxims: working with adaptive change John Atkinson, Managing director, Leadership Centre • Real change happens in real work for Local Government • Those who do the work do the change • People own what they create One of the central ideas of Total Place is that the • Start anywhere, go everywhere long-standing machine metaphor of organisation • Connect the system to more of itself and social systems is handicapping our ability to understand the environment we work in and how to change the behaviours of those systems. Source: Myron Rogers By the machine metaphor, we mean a In his work with the Leadership Centre on • Self organisation: social systems • As over-arching issues started to emerge view of the social and organisational world our Leeds Castle Leadership Programme, preserve their identity. Once a group or (especially on the relationship between that assumes that people are passive Myron describes his view of the five major organisation has formed a loyalty, people places and national Government), actors who take instructions and carry characteristics of living systems: will act to hold on to the identity they new spaces were made to have those them out, that there are ‘levers of power’ • Chaos and complexity: complex have created. discussions rather than them being that can be pulled somewhere that will systems are characterised by ambiguity, declared ‘out of scope’ change behaviour and that setting a target Myron’s five maxims for working with living • Many opportunities were created to uncertainty and unexpected connections. will completely drive an intended change. systems are shown in the box above. connect previously unconnected bits of Order arises from chaotic and unmanaged The last twenty years of attempted public Perhaps you can see how the initial design the system – e.g. professionals in places micro-interactions, rather than because of service reform shows us that, while small of Total Place reflected these ideas: with policy makers in Whitehall, leaders some design from on high. positive changes have been made, the • Emergence: living systems seem chaotic • Places were asked to do real work rather in one area to leaders from another, front outcomes for individual citizens have not and unpredictable but their patterns are than just ‘set up a partnership’ – to find line professionals with financial analysts, altered to the extent that the machine created by simple underlying rules which a theme, actively diagnose the issues middle managers with citizens metaphor would have had us hope. are not usually apparent to the actors. and create some innovative potential interventions As you begin, or continue, to work on So, during the design and initiation phase • Cognition: no one person can ever your Total Place exercises, you may want of Total Place, we turned to the work ‘see the system’. Each person will have • Senior leaders were asked to get actively involved in the work (politicians, agency to consider how you can use these ideas of those theorists and educators who a different perspective depending on in your work to experiment with their emphasise a completely different lens for their place in the system and what they leaders and colleagues in Whitehall) rather than delegating to others to do power – perhaps the machine metaphor looking at human activity – that of the living see determines what they do. will begin to have had its day! system (sometimes known as complex the change for them • Networks: people are strongly linked adaptive systems theory). There are now by their informal ties and by the stories • Places were encouraged to work closely many writers who work with these ideas they tell. If the ‘official line’ does not fit with front-line staff and citizens rather but the person who has most influenced with the lived reality of players, they will than just consulting them once the work our work is Myron Rogers. ignore or subvert it. was done – to move gently towards co-creation 12 13
    • Information, identity, relationships Looking at the work we do John Atkinson, Managing director, Leadership Centre Structure Identity Meaning for Local Government Much has been made of Total Place as a whole systems intervention. Working with whole systems is now increasingly listed in government literature as being a key requirement of effective leadership. Systems Policy Information Relationships Action Trust The term however, is exceptionally vague. beliefs and the emotional responses they Source: Myron Rogers Some people can list over forty different bring to each other and their work. philosophies that might constitute a whole Myron suggests we should spend our systems approach. Total Place has tried to leadership attention on identity, information betterment of Total Place. There has been remain pragmatic in the face of all of this and relationships. That this creates an At the same time, getting new information no substitute in Total Place for racking up and has plotted a course through the work environment of trust, which in turn ensures into our discussion has been critical. The the travel miles and the mobile bill. that is mindful of the theory, but rooted in we address the appropriate rather than most important source of this has been everyday experience. So one element of Total Place is the historical actions and that together this will the citizen. Raising the profile of people’s requirement to move away from the Myron Rogers has worked with whole make work in the public service altogether stories about engaging with the state comfort of policy, structures and systems systems for decades and has worked more meaningful for those involved. brings different perspectives. Put this and into a vaguer but more purposeful with repeated cohorts of the Leeds Castle alongside the wealth of data from the I have interpreted the issue of identity as world that asks more difficult questions. Leadership Programme. He suggests a deep dives about how we really provide determining who we mean when we say • Who are the people that we really need way of looking at the work we do along the services and the cost of this, then the ‘we’ and what it is that ‘we’ are trying to together to solve the problems we face? lines of the diagram opposite. conversations we have about what we do. In Total Place, we have made new • What do we collectively know that we could (and ought) to do become different. Our time is primarily spent in the first connections between Whitehall and can use to move us forward? three circles. We focus our activity on the places, across different areas of local Through Total Place, people have made • How can we forge new and stronger structures necessary to get our work done, geography and between the state and new relationships and strengthened old connections with the people we need the policies that we wish to pursue and the citizens. This focus on a different ‘we’ ones. The quality and quantity of these to in order to deliver altogether better systems or mechanisms by which we do creates a new identity and allows us relationships directly impacts on our ability services in a time of tough financial this. While these are useful pursuits, they new possibilities. The variety of different to get things done. One senior civil servant constraint? fail to significantly address the important meetings, workshops and forums and describes me as judiciously using the dynamic at play. Our work takes place the growth of the online communities of car-park, train station, late-night mobile You can read more about Myron’s with people, human beings, with all their practice and other ‘e’-processes have all phone call to cajole, dragoon, seduce ideas in the book: ‘A Simpler Way’, capacity for creativity, their prejudices and helped to build a sense of identity around or otherwise persuade an accountable Myron Rogers and Margaret Wheatley, the work. individual to do something useful for the Berrett-Koehler, 2002. 14 15
    • Wicked problems, wicked work What kind of problem is it? David Bolger, Leadership Centre adviser Do you know how to solve this problem? Yes No Situational Leadership is a term, and model, devised by Hersey and Blanchard, and identified four main Is it a crisis? Does anyone know to solve this? styles for leaders which they could adopt according to the capacity of their teams. These modes are: Yes No Yes No directing; coaching; supporting and delegating. Details can be found in Blanchard’s • Wicked, where the challenge is either Critical problem Tame problem Wicked problem ‘Leadership and the One Minute Manager’. wholly novel or perhaps is long-standing, Act as a commander Act as a manager Act as a leader In recent years, Professor Keith Grint, now proving impervious to previous efforts to Be decisive Use standard Ask questions and use of Warwick Business School, has linked the resolve it - teenage pregnancies might Provide answers operationg procedures clumsy solutions idea of adaptive leadership approaches to be an example, or long term addictions the work of Rittell and Webber on so-called to alcohol or drugs ‘wicked problems’. Sourced from Professor Keith Grint, Warwick Business School Proponents of a contextual leadership There are two dimensions to consider: the approach might argue that the role of leadership challenge which is presenting; a leader is, first, to identify the nature • For wicked problems, leadership But beware of two things. First, problems and the leadership approach which is of the challenge, and then to adopt the is required - if we’ve never seen this will not necessarily present simply. They adopted to deal with the challenge. On appropriate leadership response. The problem before, and command and may combine facets of critical, tame and the leadership challenge, the Rittell and corresponding leadership styles can be control or management don’t seem to wicked. Second, there is also evidence Webber work suggests that challenges, or described as follows: work, then we need to look for new to show that leaders have preferred problems, fall into three broad categories solutions; this also holds true if it’s an leadership approaches. For example, some • For critical problems, command and • Critical, where the challenge is evident old, intractable problem. We need to find leaders relish crises and the chance to control is the necessary response- and immediate- a fire might be an new ways of thinking and talking about give some command and control orders; you don’t expect your leader to form a example the issue; and we may have to accept some leaders prefer to manage, to defuse committee if there’s a fire; you expect to • Tame, where the challenge is well that it is not actually soluble, only that we the drama of crises but also to avoid be told what to do, quickly and clearly understood, and where procedures can make slow, experimental progress genuinely complex and intractable wicked • For tame problems, management is or limit the damage. issues; and there are yet others for whom have been developed and proven in called for - what do we already know practice, even if the challenge is pretty everything is a wicked problem, requiring about how to deal with this issue? What extensive and never-ending analysis and complicated-brain surgery might be an are the procedures? Let’s do that: we example consultation. know it’s going to work You can read more about Keith’s work in the book: ‘Leadership: Limits and Possibilities’, Palgrave MacMillan (2005) 16 17
    • Elegant solutions don’t solve wicked problems Diverse cultures, diverse solutions High Fatalism Hierarchy Karen Ellis, Leadership Centre adviser GRID: Rules and One of the things that quickly becomes apparent to Roles any observer of a Total Place conversation is that Individualism Egalitarianism different individuals are operating from very different core assumptions when it comes to their view of Low High Group orientation social change. Diverse solutions to unmanageable youths This is not new news! During the 1950s, • From the individualist: “I’ll send the High a superb social scientist named Mary experts off to design some solutions, try Fatalists Hierarchists Douglas began to notice the same thing. them all out on a small scale and I’ll do a There’s nothing we can do. Stronger discipline is needed: Fundamentally, she noticed that when ‘Dragon’s Den’ to choose between them” There have been feral young Sanction parents men in every society and Give police more powers people are in groups, their behaviour seems • From the hierarchist: “we, the leaders, on-one knows what to do to be driven by where they sit (usually will set the criteria and you, the workers, GRID: about them unconsciously) on each of two spectra : will work together and come back to us Rules Individualists and Egalitarians • Do they enjoy and support formal rules with your proposals” Kids need better life chances: Kids need more support: Roles and roles or do they prefer to make up • From the egalitarian: “we will call Offer incentives to stay Provide mentors in school Create opportunities for their own rules? together all the people who have a stake Give rewards for good community contribution • Do they like to feel part of a group or in the issue and run a collaborative event behaviour do they prefer to stay independent and to design the solution together” Low High work alone? • From the fatalist: “whatever I do, it Group orientation: will be subsumed by business-as-usual, Belonging and meaning She called these two dimensions ‘Grid’ and so I will put the minimum effort in to tick ‘Group’ and created the two-by-two matrix your box”. Adapted from the work of Mary Douglas of ‘Cultural Types’ shown opposite. Of course, none of us is a pure type but most You may see some of your own behaviour than the single viewpoint elegant solutions [Keith doesn’t say this but I feel bound to of us would admit that there is at least one in the descriptions above! that each type would instinctively prefer. defend fatalists as I think they have a lot box that we prefer on most occasions and So why does this social science theory of realism to offer!] certainly one that we don’t like at all! matter in Total Place? Professor Keith In the process of building messy solutions: Grint has applied Mary’s ideas to the • Individualists are good at innovation and In your Total Place process, you will get So when we get together in working issue of wicked problems. He proposes protecting independence much further if you ensure that all of the groups to discuss social or organisational that the best solutions to long-standing • Hierarchists are good at decision making types have a voice in your work – after all, change, these cultural differences start social issues recognise all four of these and setting up structures they will all have to be part of the solution… to show up. Unless, of course, our group is subject to group-think. The differences cultural types. He says that each type • Egalitarians are good at consensual You can read more about Mary’s appear not just in thinking about what has something to offer to the process of process and recognising everyone’s needs work in the book: ‘Risk and Culture’, change we’d like to see (as in my ‘hoody’ identifying and thinking about what he • Fatalists are good at reminding people Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky, example opposite) but also in the process calls messy solutions – solutions that we’ve been here before and that this University of California Press, 1983 we’d like to use to find a solution: are much more sustainable in the long run may be as good as it gets. 18 19
    • Leadership that changes thinking Changing our thinking Unproductive fantasy Denial Karen Ellis, Leadership Centre adviser Unrealistic Not enough Sense of Existing map experimentation Realistic Sense of During the middle part of the 20th Century, Kurt Lewin tension Just right attempted to look at the actual phenomena of personal or social change without adding in ideas of what was New map Loosening map good or bad, useful or non-useful. Lewin made the distinction between 1. There is a growing sense of discomfort Sufficient Sense of safety learning as a change in knowledge and with existing knowledge, mindset learning as a change in motivations or or espoused values – data is coming Thought experiments Sense of Just right values – the one does not assume the in that suggest that the ‘mental map’ None positive future Not enough other. So, it’s important that we note that is no longer a good fit with reality. knowledge on its own does not create 2. If this tension is sufficient, people Despair Panic change nor is ‘wanting to be different’ start to question the existing mental sufficient to actually be different if people map and, instead of looking for data don’t have the relevant knowledge or skills to support it, they actively seek out Adapted from Kurt Lewin to make the shift. new information. How might this process of change work – 3. Then, if they feel safe enough to let go either at the cognitive or motivational level? of their map, they start to run some The diagram maps some of Lewin’s ideas ‘thought experiments’ about other Someone who wants to lead in Total • Sponsor the search for new models and into a set of feedback processes that can ways of looking at the issue and they Place, at whatever level, has to be ideas, even when they are contrary to be applied at the level of the individual, talk to others about their maps on the prepared to offer themselves and others perceived wisdom group or social system. The steps to subject and find a whole new set of the opportunity to make changes to their • Begin to paint in a positive vision for the changing thinking run something like this: options for thinking about the issue. thinking or their values. What can a leader future – even when it feels far away and 4. If they have a sense that there is a usefully do? They can: the path isn’t obvious positive potential future if they change • Create opportunities to closely examine • Allow time for hypothesising, “There are many leaders whose to a new way of doing things, they will disconfirming data and controversial experimentation and validation rather personal style runs directly counter to find creative ways to implement the viewpoints and point out those points than rushing prematurely for results. these strategies, and many pressures in the political and public service new map, developing the skills they where individuals or groups start to drift systems that push for the opposite need as they go. You can learn more about Kurt’s work in off towards denial behaviour. But, to paraphrase the old the book ‘Field Theory in Social Science • Create a sense of safety – “we are all in – Selected Theoretical Papers’, Harper adage ‘If you keep leading the way that you’ve always done, you’ll keep this together, you are OK to raise difficult and Row 1964 getting what you always get’!” conversations, you won’t be punished Karen Ellis for not getting it right first time” 20 21
    • Public value The strategic triangle The Authorising Enviroment David Bolger, Leadership Centre adviser Public Value Outcomes Strategic Goals Public value is a concept developed by Professor Mark Moore of the JFK School of Government at Harvard in the 1990s. The key reference work is ‘Creating Public Value-Strategic Management in Government’ Harvard University Press, 1995. Moore has since developed a working and • The definition of public value – publishing relationship with Professor John this is not simply the description Operational Capacity Benington of Warwick University Business of the outputs of a public policy School, so there is opportunity for direct intervention, but also of the value contact with the theorists on this model. perceived both by direct recipients of those outputs but also critically of Source: Mark Moore Moore developed the model as a way of other, non-recipient stakeholders. So dealing with the absence of a ‘bottom line’ for example, libraries provide a direct for public organisations. He wanted to public value to borrowers of books etc; be authorised to pursue it. Hence The public value model is typically illustrated help public service policy makers and but they also satisfy a value perception politicians form part of this authorising by the 3 circles above. These are said practitioners to demonstrate the value they among non-borrowers (but funders, environment, as well as being decision- to form the strategic triangle (apologies to were striving to create using the as taxpayers) that their community makers on which definition of public geometric purists). Moore postulates that investment of public monies. He also provides opportunities for disadvantaged value is being pursued there will always be tension between the wanted to move away from the traditional members of society to learn • The operational capacity – these are elements of the model-the definition of sterile model of ‘public administration’ • The authorising environment – this the resources of money and people, public value must constantly be checked in which public servants are passive includes all those who have an interest typically, which may be deployed in out with the authorising environment, and recipients of politically driven goals; and in, and the ability to influence, a public pursuit of a public policy goal. This is operational capacity aligned accordingly- to show that public servants are not mere policy issue. The idea of the authorising normally the resources of the public and that it is the role of public policy deliverers of ‘public value’, but also key environment is that those involved body or bodies engaged in delivering practitioners to maintain the strategic co-creators with citizens and with their provide legitimacy and support for the the relevant public policy ambitions, but alignment of the model elements through political representatives. definition of public value which is being may also include a wider resource pool ever-vigilant attention to each of the circles. In essence, the public value model sought and for the resources approved including the capacity of society and proposes that there are three core to deliver it: while the environment its individual members. Here, Moore dimensions to the creation and delivery supports the definition, resources will develops ideas on co-design and of public policy: co-production 22 23
    • 2 Getting set up, recognising the need for ‘learning cycles’ as a scaffolding for Total Place work, and using those cycles to maximise the impact of a piece of Total Place work. Section 2 Starting out Cautionary note: one size does not fit all . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Planning the first cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Messy learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Gathering everyone in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Managing the dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Designing the process – getting the rhythm right!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Paying attention to emergence – the power of simple rules . . . . . . . . 38 Roles and responsibilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Overcoming the power of the day job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 24 25
    • Different starting points Cautionary note: one size does not fit all Unitary Fraught County Multi-area Karen Ellis, Leadership Centre adviser None Positive History of working together Geographic reach Total Place sponsors, programme managers and advisers have been asked many questions. The most Broad Public facing Specific groups popular (and difficult) being, “What is this Total Place General Back office thing anyway?” There is already something political Tight Multi-theme access Theme focus (1) Theme focus (2) (small ‘p’) in the way each person answers. We tend to focus on those aspects of start points inevitably lead to differences in Total Place that suit our perspectives or how the work shows up in that place and the Different initial approaches passions and ‘forget’ the other aspects. pre-judgements that players and the public Central If you’re outside the existing Total Place have about work of this sort. Some places individual community, this diversity of view can have an excellent history of working together seem bewildering. across agencies; others have had bad Small Radical Pragmatic relationships in the past or are just starting Diffused But there has (deliberately) never been a group out as a new geographic mix. They all have well defined party line on what Total Place Leadership sponsorship ‘Feel’ different demographics, social strengths, actually is. The whole idea was to set up problem areas and economic situations. Service an environment for innovation, where Front-liners change Innovation each place had the chance to define its Some of the differences that have shown own thematic thrust and specific approach up between the places are around: Public ‘Pre-thought’ within a set of broad parameters. • Type and level of sponsorship Power players Efficiences and users improvement A one-size-fits-all methodology would have • Approach to involvement Focus of initial involvement Starting emphasis been inappropriate, due to the significant • Level of innovation and radicalism differences in starting point and approach across the 13 pilots. Probably the most heated discussions arising from the question, “what is Total Place • Are we willing to start tackling contentious We’re not advocating where places should This diversity has given us a unique anyway?” centre around the degree of issues like state-sponsored (mandated?) stand on these questions. More radical opportunity to look at what works radicalism and innovation that each place behaviour change among citizens when options, by definition, contain more risk (and what doesn’t) in terms of innovation wants to pursue. Are they content to do what we know that any such approach will get and the leaders in each place will have to and change in the civic arena. It also they’ve done before, with some nice new labelled intrusion of the nanny state? decide what they can handle locally. helps us to look at which type of approach language? Or are they looking to truly change Acknowledging the diversity of approach • Are we willing to shift the funding works best, in which settings, and for what how they do things and what they do? and building it into the work on Total Place focus from managing symptoms to sort of problems. has helped some to find radical new • Are the power players willing to work prevention of the causes of problems Across the 13 places there’s been a very with the public and service users in a when the media will jump on us from solutions to local services, more tailored heterogeneous mix of geographical areas, new way when those conversations are a great height whenever our symptom to local needs. histories and chosen themes. These unique usually messy and often embarrassing? management fails? 26 27
    • Planning the first cycle Total Place – The learning cycle 1 Collecting together: Karen Ellis, Leadership Centre adviser Theme and players Even though there was no prescribed methodology or 7 Reviewing 2 Gathering disconfirming formal project process for Total Place, discussions with outcomes data: counting and stories places throughout the course of the pilots made it clear that everyone was following some form of learning cycle in their work. 4 Designing 3 Imagining 6 Running possible alternative experiments experiments futures Their learning cycles seem to broadly fit all of the places ran citizen ‘story-hearing’ and propositions with Kurt Lewin’s approach to changing work – interviews, large events, videoing thinking outlined in Section 1 and can be and many more creative activities (also shown visually (opposite). described in Section 6). From a Total Place perspective though, the most important Step 1: The first port of call is to ask a 5 Noticing and aspect of these exercises is that they leadership group in your chosen place negotiating attempt to find disconfirming information (whether that is a single area or a multi- constraints – that is, information that surprises, even area) to choose a theme that has meaning shocks, us and allows the possibility and depth for all the players. You could of insight or loosening of previous ask your Local Strategic Partnership, your assumptions about how well the system Public Service Board or any other cross currently works. agency grouping. But it does have to be a constraint to the change you would like Steps 6 and 7: At the moment we senior group and one which has political Step 3: Then comes the chance to get to make. During the pilots, it was during can’t tell you much about these! Most backing. A Total Place exercise requires creative, to imagine possible futures and this stage that the new conversations with pilot places are just moving into their significant investment in time from a range new ways of doing things. This is the fun Whitehall colleagues started to come to ‘experimenting’ phase and it would be of players and this time needs to be part for most places – it builds energy, the fore. People got together in ‘theme foolhardy to predict what they will learn committed from the start. Also, if it works, helps relationships form in the process of groups’, across the pilots and with relevant from these later elements of the work. it will show up uncomfortable data and can doing real work and can, if done well, let policy makers, to thrash out the potential come to difficult conclusions about how the citizens and professionals form a new Whether you follow this process or not, the impacts of current policy and legislation things need to change – all of which will alliance in solving local social problems. most important thing to realise is that your on their proposals. However, this is not take leadership to work through. (More of this is Section 7) Total Place work has to have some definable the time to introduce your Whitehall shape and identity, otherwise it will get Step 2: The first major process in all Total Steps 4 and 5: Sometimes it is possible colleagues to your work – it will be too late! subsumed into business-as-usual and lose Place work is the high level count, swiftly to go straight ahead from imagining to You need to involve them, however lightly, its impact and focus. And it will need senior followed by one or more deep dives (there designing – the work that starts to make in steps 2 and 3 too, otherwise your ideas steering all the way through if it is to become is more about both these processes in your new ideas a reality. In other cases, will appear to come out of the blue and be more than just another flash in the pan. Section 6). In parallel, during the pilots, you notice that there is a real (or imagined) met with scepticism at best. 28 29
    • Messy learning Mike Attwood, Coventry, Warwickshire and Solihull programme manager, Coventry City Council We wondered whether ‘messy learning’ had been used before. If you Google™ it, you hit an exciting American website, www.learningismessy.com Have a look because, apart from great Honey and Mumford use similar concepts work on bullying, it shows how learning – activists, theorists, reflectors and is about blending activities that excite pragmatists – see ‘The Manual of Learning people’s imagination by pursuing Styles’ (1982) and ‘Using your Learning spontaneous lines of enquiry, but also Styles’ (1983). being disciplined, using evidence and They describe the journey as: working in a stepwise methodical way. • Having an experience © John Jarvis, Leadership Centre for Local Government It’s worth knowing how you – and those • Reviewing the experience working with you – prefer to learn. David A • Concluding from the experience Kolb’s book – ‘Experiential Learning’ (1984) It can be very important to hold multiple common assessment/case management describes four learning styles: • Planning the next steps perspectives – a senior manager focused solution. Non-negotiables would be • Convergers – like abstract concepts With Total Place much of the learning on productivity, financial balance and the what (but not the how) of financial with practical experiments. They can seems to be about: implementing a single team and single savings and statutory child safeguarding practically apply abstract ideas and use • Getting service users, front-line staff and assessment model; a front-line worker requirements. deductive reasoning to tackle problems. senior leaders together in whole system who fears loss of professional identity, Finally, it’s very useful to reflect both on • Divergers – like concrete experience events where both theoretical and ‘lived feeling overwhelmed by paperwork; a the content and the process. This is with reflective observation. They are experience’ versions of problems can mother feeling that like has to be her ‘Double Loop Learning’. Could service ideas generators and can see problems either collide or shape new solutions by child’s case co-ordinator and is worried users contribute fully? Did the Public from many perspectives. working through the creative tension. that if she says she is only just coping, Service Board enable real dialogue • Assimilators – also like abstract • Public Service Boards – Leaders across the family may be split up. between officers and elected members? concepts but with reflective observation. the system building common strategy Try to find both common ground and Was the blend of engagement, energy They create theoretical models using and trust through mutual support non-negotiable differences in these and action about right? Have I got enough inductive reasoning. and challenge. stories. You can connect productivity, headroom to reflect on my contribution • Accomodators – like concrete • Simulation events, which can take the too much paperwork and the mother’s and what I’d do differently next time? experience with practical experiments. sting out of knotty problems by playing out burden of coordination with a co-designed They hate theorising, engage with the the future in a challenging but safe way. real world and get on with it. • Individual or smaller group learning ‘off-patch’ using mentors, coaches and learning sets. 30 31
    • Gathering everyone in Nuala O’Rourke, Manchester City Region including Warrington programme manager, Wigan Council Here are four ‘Top Tips’ from the Manchester City Region and Warrington pilot on how you might think about the processes for involving people in your Total Place work. Our work on Total Place led us to Projects with obvious and visible understand that a cross-organisation enthusiasm surrounding them have a approach – one that touched everyone real sense of joined up leadership from from political leaders and senior managers multiple chief executive officers across Source: Nuala O’Rourke to front-line staff – was needed for real the different sectors. In many cases this engagement with our colleagues in our joined up leadership has been delivered own Authorities and our Public Sector through bringing leaders together in partners. Two way communication was training and development and thereby In many cases through the Place work The other area for consideration is key – people clearly need to understand creating a network of colleagues who – these leaders are going out into the engagement from other parts of the public what was happening but also feel that their can find different ways to work together, community and listening to people’s sector and indeed the third sector. We voice was heard. break down barriers and work across stories themselves so that they have a learned that to run successful pilots, the boundaries. This type of arrangement – genuine understanding of the changes Total Place message needs be owned Tip 1 is giving people the space to try new things that need to be made. This type of by all partners, across the region. When – and creating a supportive environment listening (not questioning, just hearing) projects are perceived as local authority Create and action a plan to that is accepting that sometimes things is creating the environment for change led, there is often the implication that other communicate clearly with all stake will go wrong. driven by an understanding that people, public sector bodies are ‘helping’ the holders at all levels. not services, should come first and be at authority with their problem. Tip 2 the centre of our thinking. This type of first person understanding is key to focusing Tip 4 Bring senior leaders from all sectors stakeholders and evidencing the need together in a way that will help Seek joint leadership across the most for change. them develop closer relationships – relevant public sector bodies wherever ‘professional friendships’ – through possible and ensure that all agencies Tip 3 experiencing such things as training, are fully represented at the correct workshops or community visits as Find a way to tell the ‘human’ stories, level on the project board. a team. either through community visits or through videos of customer journeys. This type of powerful first person evidence energises all stakeholders and drives forward the need for change. 32 33
    • illusion that any of the reports were Psycho-dynamic thinkers such as D.W. Managing the dynamics final in the true sense of the word. Writing a passable report was the easy bit. Winnicott have explored the concept of an organisational equivalent, including ideas The real challenge is to ensure that the such as potential or transitional space. recommendations get traction locally and Phil Swann, Dorset, Poole and Bournemouth programme have a lasting influence on the way we At its best Total Place can provide that lead, Shared Intelligence do things round here. transitional space. Sitting outside routine planning and budgetary processes, it can That said, the tight timetable undoubtedly provide an opportunity for people to think generated and helped to maintain the unthinkable and to have conversations As you start to design your Total Place cycle, there are momentum. that they wouldn’t otherwise have. some aspects to the ‘human dynamics’ of the work The Total Place approach inevitably raises But there is always a danger of the ambition that are worth considering up front so that they don’t sensitive and challenging issues. There are ebbing and confusion emerging about how trip you up. a myriad of reasons for slowing down. The government deadline meant that could not Total Place relates to other national and local programmes. One way of thinking These aspects are : committed project team getting stuck happen. The hard deadline also provided about Total Place is as an advance party, into the work. But what about the heads an opportunity for key issues to be raised breaking new ground, creating the space • The need for senior and professional of service or directors who may be at the last minute, through substantive in which mainline programmes and buy-in for the process and its outcomes ultimately responsible for implanting the amendments to a final draft of the report processes can be more ambitious than • The need to maintain momentum recommendations? Have they bought rather than in face to face discussion. would otherwise be the case. throughout the work, especially when times get tough into the process and do they have an The national deadlines were not arbitrary, Maintaining levels of ambition will always • The need to unleash people’s creativity opportunity to influence it? they were linked to important events: the be a challenge. Here are three things to by allowing for serious play as part of History, both long and short-term can publication of the Government’s Pre-Budget remember which may help to create the the work cast an unhelpful shadow over initiatives Report and the Budget Statement. conditions in which ambition can flourish. such as this. Perceptions matter; so do Maybe this tactic of linking deadlines to First, remember the user or citizen Buy-in is everything prejudices. Important matters of detail key events provides a way forward for perspective. Ask the question: “How far The answer to the Total Place question – such as the composition of the project councils and partners seeking to build and will what we are proposing go achieving ‘How can we secure improved outcomes team and the location of its office can maintain momentum without government the outcomes that users and citizens tell at less cost?’ – will invariably generate reinforce perceptions to the detriment deadlines. A local timetable could be built us they want?” potentially controversial propositions. If of work and the likelihood of the around local processes and deadlines these propositions are to be taken recommendations being implemented. Second, remember the money. Ask the – such as the budget or corporate plan. seriously it is essential that there is genuine question: “To what extent will our current buy-in to the process from the start. Maintaining momentum Events designed as part of a Total Place proposals enable us to cope with the One distinctive feature of the 13 Total Place methodology also have a part to play in tightest public expenditure settlement The importance of shared ownership of the maintaining the momentum. A local Total since 1976?” pilots was the government imposed process cannot be over-stated. Joining Place Assembly or Summit can help secure timetable: the September deadline for Third, remember to get out more. There because ‘we can’t afford to be seen not to wider engagement in and ownership of the interim reports and the February deadline are always lessons to be learned from join’ really isn’t good enough and can lead to process. An external challenge event can for the so-called final reports. elsewhere. External challenge can be an unsatisfactory outcome for all concerned. bring invaluable external perspectives to This is more important than ever where a The interim report deadline provided a invaluable in testing the level of ambition. bear. These and other events can also be Total Place project straddles geographical as useful marker to shift from defining And so can taking advantage of either a used as deadlines for the completion of well as organisational boundaries. propositions to testing them. new colleague joining a working group or a various stages of work. longstanding member returning after Securing ownership at all levels is also And the final report galvanised decision Stimulating ambition and creativity missing a phase of work. important. There may be an enthusiastic making and the collation of serious Play is as important to a child’s project board comprising the strategic propositions for the public domain. development as conventional learning. leadership of a place. There may also be a However, it is important to be under no In particular it can nurture creativity. 34 35
    • Designing the process – getting the Design council double diamond approach to design rhythm right! 1. Discover 2. Define 3. Develop 4. Deliver Sue Goss, South Tyneside, Sunderland and Gateshead Problem framing Solution creation programme lead, Office for Public Management Creation of new information and insights to identify Testing development, prototyping and refinement of The Total Place pilots faced a dilemma which is potential propositions for change e.g. through: • listening to families propositions by embedded teams, through: • cross-organised workshops e.g. on Radical Efficency common in pilot situations: how do we balance the • mapping • counting • engagement with service users families • engagement with frontline practitioners need to be creative and experimental with the • workshops involving people throughout the system • engagement with frontline practitioners • alignment of Total Place with existing policies, strategies and directions of travel need to be evidence-based, analytical and ‘get • secondary research Adapted from work by the Design Council things done’? Partnerships are even more Rather than the usual machine metaphors complicated for organisations – we might think about There often seems to be a tussle between Divergent and convergent thinking In partnerships this is seldom achieved music. With a strong enough base line, those managers and leaders (and Design experts talk about the need to through a single iteration – since there are a melody can be complex and creative advisers!) who suggest ‘open system combine ‘divergent’ and ‘convergent’ many layers of people learning to work without the music collapsing into chaos. events,’ appreciative enquiry, world café thinking: together in new ways. So for example An emergent process? – colliding different voices, experiences in South of Tyne, where three unitary In some situations, however, the problem • Divergent thinking – generates wacky and outlooks – and those who are keen to authorities, police, fire and health were we are grappling with is so difficult, and and new ideas – finds new ways of develop project inititation documents and learning to work together for the first time the failure of established approaches seeing, enables different perspectives to plans and make sure that small groups of – we developed a series of alternating so serious, that the ‘divergent stage’ collide, encourages invention. reliable people do the practical work. It’s divergent and convergent stages. Each needs to be long enough to generate • Convergent thinking – builds these ideas a struggle between ‘right brain’ and ‘left divergent stage brought in new ideas and entirely new thinking about who should into possible solutions, matches ideas brain’ approaches – and – of course – we experiences and added the understanding take action: challenging assumptions against criteria, abandons false starts, need both. of more people. But between each not simply about the problems but about focuses attention, tests and develops. divergent stage, a ‘backbone’ steering the organisations and systems that are If we dive into analysis and close down Several of the pilots have explored ways group and a strong governance board capable of responding. Where this is new thinking too fast – we tend to stick to of combining these two – so that as the were able to critically examine the ideas, the case, the role of leadership will be ‘quick wins’ which usually means working project moves forward over time space is focus attention and decide what to do in to win support for a prolonged period with the ideas we already had. We move first opened up for new ideas, and then practical terms. After some more analytical of uncertainty and exploration – and to quickly to implementation, but nothing narrowed down again to focus on an work – we needed to widen out again – create situations in which that deeper and much changes. agreed way forward. bring in people who might feel excluded by harder re-examination can take place. If on the other hand, we simply create small group work – politicians, community It would require the political leadership conditions for creative thinking, we Croydon, for example used the diagram leaders, trades unionists, professionals – needed to take these sort of risks – and generate lots of energy and excitement opposite to describe their process. to test out thinking, build consent, listen to the skills to bring people together in very that fizzles out fast – since there is no fears, change proposals in response. Then different ways. For some in Total Place process to convert these ideas into action. it was time for more focussed work again. pilots, and predecessors such as Cumbria, Norfolk and Suffolk, the most fascinating discussion has been about ‘how far to go’! 36 37
    • Paying attention to emergence – Spotting your system’s current ‘simple rules’ the power of simple rules • How do things actually get done, not what the manual says? • Who makes decisions? • What are the patterns of how we behave? • What seem to be the unspoken assumptions? Holly Wheeler, Leadership Centre for Local Government • What is the ideas/facts currently denied and what is the underlying cause for this denial? • If there is learning/innovation going on, how is it taking place? One of the core skills of long term creativity in Setting new rules for your Total Place exercise complex systems is the ability to allow new ideas and • What ‘rules’ are we challenging and encouraging in using this process? ways of doing things to emerge – rather than trying to • What behaviours will we need the leadership to exhibit? predict in advance what those ideas and behaviours • What new information can we bring in to test our current assumptions: what are others are doing that we can connect to and learn from? will need to be. • Where is the definition of the issue coming from? • What do we want to focus on; what’s really important? In the systems jargon, the word ‘emergence’ is taken to mean: • Where is reward given and received? ‘the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity • How does this process/intervention mirror the changes we want to see? of relatively simple interactions... in ways that are surprising and • How can the process support/hold people’s discomfort, tension and uncertainty? counter-intuitive’ www.viswiki.com/en/Emergence a person’s thinking, an organisation’s usual’ – although asking them may not A simpler definition is that simple rules Of course, people do this too – you only culture or the whole of public service, always make you popular with colleagues! give rise to global behaviour. So if you can have to look at the elegant dance that underneath are simple, usually unspoken Remember, changing the rules is hard identify and change those rules you can goes on at a busy station in rush hour to rules. One common rule is ‘the most work and small shifts are a massive change the whole – although not always see that. senior person in the meeting gets the most success. Noticing them is the first step. exactly how you intended! So what does this have to do with public airtime’ – a ‘rule’ that can make many The rules are often not conscious and The example often used is how birds form service reform? Well, organisations and meetings counterproductive as people with processes call into question people’s a flock – the front bird is not ‘leading’ the communities show emergence too. relevant expertise or viewpoints exclude assumptions about how things work and flock, nor has it set a vision or process themselves from the conversation by sometimes deep beliefs. We can get When people describe what happens in framework(!), yet the birds still seem feeling they are talking too much. upset or resistant when a ‘rule’ is noticed their organisations, they tend to point to to move as one. This is because each but, equally, it can be a huge relief to all artefacts like structure charts, process Above is a list of questions that may individual bird is following a simple set concerned when a disabling pattern is maps and vision statements but we all help you uncover the simple rules that of instinctive rules. We’re not birds, so brought out into the daylight. know that what actually happens can be drive your system and some that may we don’t know the exact ‘rules’ they’re very different. Single actions may seem help you set new rules for your change following, but simulations suggest: fly no irrelevant or minor but the repetition of effort. They are useful prompts for times more than six inches away from the next the underlying principle has impact and when you notice that things are getting bird; don’t bump into each other; if in reflects across a system. Whether that’s stuck or going back into ‘business as doubt head for the middle of the flock. 38 39
    • Roles and responsibilities Project management Anne Pordes Bowers, Croydon programme manager, Leadership External challenge Pordes Associates Total place team Total Place approaches require a mix of skills, roles and responsibilities to maximise the potential for deep Subject expertise Technical expertise cultural and service change. Below we detail these – what we have Project/Programme management: not done is prescribe where or who must Clear processes must be deployed to play these roles (with the exception of channel energy and drive into new models leadership). of delivery; this means making use of Subject expertise: The complexity of External resources can add real value to traditional project management tools to challenges addressed through a Total a Total Place project, introducing new Our experience suggests that every skill maintain and harness momentum. This Place approach requires input and insight approaches, thinking and perspectives to and role below is vital to success; they project management should be light touch in from individuals and teams who are expert the situation. They can fill specific technical should all be equally respected and terms of paper work but highly accountable in the area. These should include staff gaps unique to Total Place such as adequately resourced. The ability to think in terms of action. This should include a at all levels from within the locally based sophisticated financial mapping and analytic and act in real time is an important feature • programme director who is able to organisations, particularly those who have skills or innovative approaches to listening of Total Place, energy is best sustained work with partners to turn vision into direct experience of service delivery and to citizens. They may also fill generic by action, which may necessitate a strategy by creating the programme interaction with relevant users. capacity gaps, often providing programme rebalancing of priorities and workloads. as a shared journey with a route map. management or leadership support. External challenge: External perspectives Leadership: Strong impassioned leaders They interpret the changing environment, act as powerful stimulation for new The biggest risk of external input need to create the permission and space ensuring benefits are delivered and that approaches and opportunities. External is outsourcing ownership and the for new thinking, and new ideas; they need the projects add up to a coherent whole. does not need to be outside of the accompanying legacy, learning and to model new conversations, building the • programme manager ensuring sensible organisations but outside of the delivery sustainability. Putting in place specific trust and relationships needed for the deep governance and that projects are properly chain being explored; however many Total activities, including sessions with staff, key changes that Total Place can catalyse. managed with clear milestones. Place pilots found that having input from points of decision taken by local leaders Leaders need to make their commitment outside of the locality was a powerful etc can go some way to mitigating this risk. visible, regularly showing their collaborative Technical expertise: Specific skills introduction to new methods for problem External resource also need internal partners commitment. They must be sufficiently in finance, research and analysis, and framing and problem solving. to support smooth (as possible) movement senior to act as unblockers in their own powerful abilities to engage in deep through the local context and politics. organisation, advocating for change at the listening with customers, front-line What about external support? highest level, especially with partners. staff and others provide the rigour and Whatever the model that you choose for The range of skills and expertise above is analytic frameworks needed to drive out your Total Place, remember to be flexible, complex and multi-faceted; there is ample insights from the full range of inputs and to take time to reflect and learn and adapt opportunity – and understandable drive data ‘sources’ that can help shape new as needed. – to bring in external support. There are solutions for the specific area as well as both very good reasons for doing this, and more systemic changes in the way that some pitfalls that need to be managed. localities address challenges. 40 41
    • Common pitfalls are: Keeping too close an anxious eye Overcoming the power of the day job Failing to realise how different/ on ‘here and now’ performance. challenging Total Place can be The pull of on-going performance is easy The Total Place approach can be very to underestimate. Ensure that performance Anne Pordes Bowers, Croydon programme manager, culturally challenging; colleagues are using functions are well led and well resourced. Support easy management of on-going Pordes Associates new approaches, different timescales (e.g. day to day work, e.g. using a Balanced deliberately protecting time for problem Mike Attwood, Coventry, Warwickshire and Solihull framing) and working in new partnerships. Scorecard or Dashboard. Explore how programme manager, Coventry City Council Unlike many other projects or programmes some of the day-to-day activities (e.g. focused on a specific change or service budget exercises, regular performance (often prescribed centrally), Total Place is management) might be amended to reflect about problem definition and solution; it’s what is happening in Total Place (e.g. can not always clear what colour the light at budget planning sit alongside the mapping Transformation programmes falter because they the end of the tunnel will be – or indeed work you might be undertaking – how can don’t mainstream within the organisations they seek to the road to get there. one support and feed the other?). Again the mantra is about making the day job affect – they are not strong enough to pull against the Failing to spend time developing and Total Place one and the same thing day job. Personal and organisational success of the buy-in and enthusiasm beyond senior leadership level Finally, how do you keep the culture programme depends first on delivering your Total Place can be seized on by energised and alive, and how do people understand that their day job has shifted organisation’s targets! enthusiastic innovative senior leaders who as they have developed? You are probably then handover to colleagues with less asking professionals in your organisation exposure, clarity, energy and excitement. to undertake reflective supervision. Do you It is futile to fight the power of the day job Getting a committed energised team is Those who first embrace Total Place do this? Programmes like Total Place offer – instead Total Place needs to become central – a team that will see Total Place as approaches should spend time – patiently opportunities to co-consult with colleagues the day job – creating sustainable new the day job. This requires: – developing the same excitement for elsewhere, find a mentor or learning set, or ways of working. Leaders need to be a • Time to build passion, commitment potential within those who will have to hold ‘reflection sessions’ with each other. visible, engaged change sponsor without and energy for Total Place redefine their day-job to deliver and sustain becoming bogged down in detailed the new way of working. Using story-telling to reflect on the journey • Permission to reprioritise their activities can help people reconnect with why they ‘doing’. Those who are ‘doing’ (including so that Total Place receives due attention content experts, finance, customer insight Over-delegating to external came into public service. Simple acts • Protection from requests that come as consultants like complementing complaints reports and the frontline) need the support and part of their old ‘day job’ with stories of inspirational service or permission to make Total Place a part of There is a very powerful temptation to bring their everyday priorities – and to see how • Commitment from those ‘above’ in external consultants to lead and deliver visiting front-line teams to hear how the their everyday priorities deliver Total Place. (at all levels) that the work is moving a Total Place project; however there is a organisation can help them with ideas for towards change and improvement very real risk that capacity and legacy change helps you keep yourself and the Leaders already have experience of organisation fresh. are lost. This is in part about the capacity balancing the future with delivering the and learning that happens with new Finally, take time – personally and here and now, and will need to draw on all approaches, new learning. Perhaps more professionally – to recognise the significant of those skills as this balancing act moves dangerously, the passion, relationships effort and challenge that goes into driving into the world of partnerships. and powerful stories of the Total Place and sustaining a Total Place programme Total Place also takes this tightrope into all journey reside with – and leave with – these is vital. Remember – at the end there is a levels of the organisation, where the need consultants rather than with the people new day job! to maintain this balance may be new. who have to sustain the change. 42 43
    • 3 Linking up people across your system to generate new ideas and agreements – the power of multi-party conversations. Section 3 Connecting the system to itself Building the common narrative and language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Triangulating your place – new conversations for Total Place . . . . . . 48 Building a partnership protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Reaching the hearts of Herefordshire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Finding novel ways of working with Whitehall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Holding the line – managing communications in Total Place . . . . . . . 56 Communities of practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Virtual spaces for Total Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 44 45
    • Building the common narrative and language Ruth Kennedy, Manchester City Region including Warrington and Croydon programme lead One of the most common mistakes that we make in our enthusiasm to work collaboratively with colleagues from other organisations or sectors, is that we assume that we all start from the same place and from the same understanding. Listening together to the voice “I thought ThePublicOffice workshop of service users was brilliant – very very powerful... But the reality is that even when people Systems thinking We held six workshops in the innovative For many people it was the first time space of ThePublicOffice – a leadership that they had had a conversation all have the same word in their job titles – We used systems thinking techniques experience which uses video-ethnography like this with others from different ‘children’ or ‘families’, for example – they – such as the drawing of rich pictures organisations. It was genuinely will think differently, prioritise differently, to help participants see the world through and the development of ideal systems inspiring and will precipitate change and bring different perspectives to bear the eyes of service users. These stories of diagrams – to understand better the in both thinking and doing.” on analysis, depending on what their families’ interactions with public services PCT representative perspectives we brought to the problems originating organisation, culture and showed us very powerfully how ‘the system’ we were aiming to fix (in Croydon’s case training requires of them. creates all sorts of problems and unintended the achievement of better outcomes for consequences. And they made us realise adolescent mental health services. the It is enormously beneficial to design children, focused on the early years). that we – collectively – are the system. hospital, the voluntary and community carefully some shared experiences We explored our own mental traps, and We found our organisational differences sector. The events were deliberately which build a common starting point and realised that each of us only sees a small fell away as we were energised by shared held in neutral venues, in physical spaces language, before launching into saving part of the totality of the system which empathy to roll our sleeves up and which assumed no hierarchy and were the world together. This can enable – needs redesigning. We began to see that collaborate together on system redesign. specifically designed and facilitated to assuming you are brave enough to allow fixing the early years system was going to Exemplars of brilliantly customer-focused generate energy, ideas and fun. Small sufficient time – shared problem-framing need all of us: no one part of the system service design from all over the world and details – such as only having people’s of real depth and value, building common was to blame when things didn’t work, from all three sectors gave us inspiration to first names and not their job titles on purpose and intent which will stand the and no-one could solve the totality of the think differently and better. We took our their name badges; making people work project in very good stead. challenge on their own. emotion into our work, and created a wealth in diverse groups from all levels and Some techniques which we used in of ideas and incredible shared commitment backgrounds; encouraging kinaesthetic “I can really see how this way of to make change happen. techniques such as drawing – all signal to Croydon’s Total Place programme which thinking and working can change proved very effective in the early weeks participants that the rules of the game are the world.” In Croydon all these activities involved included: Police representative different, no-one organisation or individual participants from across the Local Strategic is in the ascendency, and that everyone’s Partnership, including the Council, the contributions will be important and valued. primary care trust, the Police, child and 46 47
    • Triangulating your place – new Total Place: Changing the way we think together conversations for Total Place Decommissioning of Co-production of solutions redundant services Citizens Karen Ellis, Leadership Centre adviser Innovations in provision One of the key initiating ideas for Total Place was the National to local Politicians Public servants National to local intention to create a process with a combined focus on customers, costs and culture – no easy task! Shifting Simplifying perf mgmt relative Reducing inspection accountability Freeing funding streams One way in which pilots are doing this So how does this fit with the idea of is to convene and facilitate new kinds of changing conversations, within pilots and conversations in their places: between pilots and national colleagues Rediction of Shifting funding ‘from transaction costs intervention to prevention’ in Whitehall and Parliament? In the figure • Between professionals and the public opposite, I demonstrate a link between • Between managers and leaders from conversations and changes in social different organisations and sectors provision – each potential change requires • Between politicians and communities a different sort of ‘new conversation’ or at least a new style of conversation. The conversations range from small scale This new style can be simply described The question for Total Place has been One way might be to recognise that some negotiations to the development of new using one of the familiar mottos of Total how we push ourselves to be radical ideas coming out of the pilots have been governance groups and large, creative Place from ‘parent-child’ to ‘adult-adult’. in these new conversations, rather fairly black-and-white, quantifiable and events. It is a style that maximises direct and than just resorting to the conventional based on evidence. Others have been in These conversations have been about open requests, sharing of positions and answers? How do we balance the ‘quick the more challenging, more radical grey building trust, creating new relationships minimises spin, ‘managerial’ speak and wins’ of the solutions at the left end of areas. Where we can’t predict the results and generating new ideas. And one of hiding behind non-functional professional my arrow with the potential for massive but we can make some guesses using the key learnings for many participants in jargon. And, for those of us steeped in (albeit longer term) gains on the right. our qualitative reasoning and professional Total Place is that conversations really can the ‘language games’ of our professions, Especially when we can’t ‘prove’ that judgement. In these days of hard targets change things – unexpected agreements political ideologies and organisations, it’s ideas like co-production and publicly and evidence-based everything, it can be and unpredictable new moves have shown pretty hard to maintain! Even more so, agreed decommissioning actually lead hard to hold our anxiety for long enough up in a wide range of stories to come out while the pressure for concrete answers, to expenditure savings rather than just to let the ‘grey data’ through – but if we of the pilot areas. evidence and ‘good ideas’ grows... identifying yet more un-met needs. don’t, we run the risk of losing much of the thinking that has been at the centre of Total Place. 48 49
    • Building a partnership protocol Monica Fogarty, Assistant Chief Executive, Warwickshire County Council When Warwickshire County Council first considered becoming a Total Place pilot, I thought – this has to be good news – a great opportunity. We were more than willing to look at anything that that would yield both tangible benefits and efficiencies…especially in this economic climate. With a little unpicking it soon became clear and we don’t stand on ceremony. that the Total Place programme presented We just get together around the table Source: Wayne matthews - Warwickshire County council From left to right: Jim Graham, Chief Executive, Warwickshire County Council; Martin Reeves, Chief Executive, Coventry City Council; the ideal opportunity for us to join up with and talk about what’s on our minds, what’s Mark Rogers, Chief Executive, Solihull Council; Monica Fogarty, Assistant Chief Executive, Warwickshire County Council; Mike Attwood, Coventry, Warwickshire and Solihull programme manager, Coventry City Council our sub-regional partners in Solihull and working, what’s not and what we’re going Coventry...an opportunity to escalate the to do about it. We let off steam, have a sub-regional working we’d been talking moan and do some fantastic visioning In Coventry, Solihull and Warwickshire we able to deal with each other sensitively, about for some time. about the things that we can make happen are taking seriously the need to protect but progressively. So investing in a if we can get our organisations lined up and sustain this relationship. So much so Partnership Protocol is paramount and Our Total Place pilot has been a success and sharing our passion. And then we go that we are developing a protocol for the will hopefully sustain what we’ve built so on so many levels. It will deliver real away and make it happen! way we work in partnership. We are far. But we need to give it life and roll out improvements to the way we support defining the things that we find acceptable our new way of working across our many schools and therefore improve the The relationships between the three and unacceptable, things such as partnerships. We’re all committed to doing experience of those touched by services councils are now better than ever. Our behaviours, language, communications, just that and rest assured, if there is any for children, plus also throw in a few discussions are open, honest and often conflict resolution and many other things. sign of the Protocol becoming only fine efficiency savings and there is no question challenging. We have achieved an air of We want to work together, and not fall out words, we’ll be having a dust-up! that it’s the best way to work. That’s the mutual support and camaraderie that you doing it. When it gets tough and we need official stuff. Personally, I think the real would want to bottle. To my mind this has to sort out the sharing of efficiency success has been with our enhanced had a significant and direct influence on the savings, or decide which council takes the partnership working – the people and the success of the pilot itself. But there is still lead on a shared service we need to be organisations. some way to go if we want to sustain this positive way of working, particularly given People from the ‘top of the shop’ from that the financial, economic and political the three councils meet every fortnight. We pressures upon each of our organisations clear our diaries, look at our non-existent will grow and demand much more return papers and follow a loose agenda. from far less investment. We don’t have papers for these meetings 50 51
    • Reaching the hearts of Herefordshire The approach to the programme was quite simple and consistent in each place. The process need take no longer than 10 weeks from beginning to end. Mari Davis, Leadership Centre adviser First planning Identify meeting with Initial councillor, First theme with conversations community event councillor(s) leaders and senior officers ‘Reaching the hearts of Herefordshire’ is a politically Variable Week 1 Week 2 Week 6 led approach to Total Place that connects local councillors with their communities, supported by public service managers. Quick win Actions Second issues sorted Second moving planning Conversations event With the reputation of national politics and The themes varied locally and included: forward meeting in the wider confidence in public services at an all time • What can the community do to be even community low and the need to cut spending at the more self sufficient in health and fore, the Conservative Leader of the council wellbeing in Mortimer? Ongoing Week 10 Week 8 Week 6 to 9 views the connection with communities to • What can the community do to sustain create shared solutions as vital. rural enterprise in Golden Valley? Many of the Total Place pilots have • How can we work together to achieve focussed on thematic areas and involved shared solutions in Kingston? political leaders and portfolio holders. • How can we create a thriving community There is the potential for this approach for young people in Bromyard? Many solutions to the challenges faced by If you are interested in using this approach to leave other councillors feeling rural communities have been generated your purpose needs to be clear and expect disconnected. If Total Place is firmly rooted The greatest learning is that it is possible to and are being taken forward. These initial resistance from all sides – trust is in the councilors place - their ward - it restore confidence in rural democracy include: hard earned in communities for good becomes every bit relevant. through Total Place. Politicians are of their reason. Planning and celebration of what • investing in the broadband infrastructure place, recognise the resourcefulness of rural is already working paid off. Communities The purpose to our work in Herefordshire communities and know their electorate well. • celebrating volunteering was clear and repeated often: are fed up with over consultation and If given support they can work with local • combining community and public service expectations around more funding need community leaders to save money in the assets in places to be managed. Public services and place, to influence and listen rather than to • changes to housing Place councillors community and at the heart of voluntary sector control, and to convene public services • planning and transport approaches their community work together around what matters most in their • young people influencing services – differently locally communities. all involving closer working between Further details being published shortly politicians and communities to generate by the Leadership Centre. shared solutions Empower and encourage Do something communities to practical – do even more for take action! themselves 52 53
    • Finding novel ways of working with Whitehall Steve Nicklen, Leicester and Leicestershire programme lead, managing partner, DNA LLP Top tips: • Learn together with relevant Whitehall officials and co-create solutions with them, rather than sending fully worked-up proposals for change • Find a suitable, senior Whitehall ‘Champion’ who sympathises with your broad objectives and who will be willing to support you in your dealings with the centre • When you are given opportunities to make proposals, make them specific and evidence-based © John Jarvis, Leadership Centre for Local Government Those pilots which have taken the they are handed onto those officials who relevant Whitehall departments, including, and effective way of facilitating progress. opportunity of the high profile of the Total ‘own’ the policy/practice in question – but not exclusively, the Department Finally, it has been helpful when pilots Place pilots in Whitehall to find new and they may well have personally developed of Health, Home Office, Treasury and have recognised where Whitehall can help more constructive ways of working have them and certainly feel some intellectual Department of Communities and Local on specific issues, and how they can be greatly benefitted from this. Specifically, and emotional attachment to them – who Government, as well as across the three helped to help. For example the Leicester/ they have made good use of the High experience this, because they are human, pilots. The external advisors designed Leicestershire pilot responded to an Level Officials Group of senior officials who as some kind of attack. From this frame and facilitated workshops to this end. invitation by suggesting to the Treasury have been coordinating the relationship of reference, they then see their role as Where necessary they also liaised with and CLG a number of specific changes between the pilots and Ministers, they to kick the tyres of the proposal. Their the relevant officials on behalf of their to the national indicator set, which will have forged good relationships with their resources are such that they are usually pilots, helped in this by the fact that they have the joint effect, if accepted, of Place Champions and they have taken able to kick them to destruction fairly soon. had considerable personal experience both improving the coverage of national up the chance to participate in joint End of story, until the next round. of working in, or consulting to, Whitehall indicator set and also eliminating the workshops with civil service colleagues to departments. But some Total Place pilots have need for other, parallel performance progress their specific themes. approached the matter differently. Second, where obstacles to progress have indicators, significantly reducing the net The traditional way of working between been experienced in some pilots, and this burden of inspection, as a result. Specific First, the three pilots that shared the local and national government is for has been a rare event in the work to date, suggestions for change were welcomed, theme of drugs and alcohol misuse. the former, individually or via the Local the presence of Whitehall Champions, at DG where a vaguer, generalised request for Birmingham, Leicester/Leicestershire Government Association, to formulate or Permanent Secretary level, on the High improvement and simplification would have and Gateshead, South Tyneside and proposals for change in policy and Level Officials Group, has provided a swift been less so. Sunderland, wanted from the start to practice. These are refined and polished learn together and to co-create solutions locally and then sent to Ministers. Then together. ‘Together’ means with the 54 55
    • Holding the line – managing Holding the line – managing communications in Total Place communications in Total Place Local political Local agency leaders executives Rebecca Cox, Leadership Centre for Local Government National and Regional Programme leads and influencers advisers If there’s one thing that we discovered in being part of Total Place, it’s that you get asked questions. A lot of questions. Questions that we didn’t always Ministers Civil servants have the answer to. So in all of this how did we keep everyone happy? Total Place has a huge number of people, looser project management style can be partnerships and organisations involved. a source of frustration. You’ll probably The Leadership Centre sits somewhere in end up with a plan that sits somewhere The online Community of Practice (CoP) This article does read somewhat like a the middle of a web of place leaders, civil between the two. The plan will change is another platform that allows people to guide to avoiding actually speaking to servants, pilots, programme managers, over time as the project grows, but having connect and share resources. It has a people, but I hope that’s not the message press, ‘parallel places’ and the interested the key responsibilities mutually agreed useful document library that means we can you’ll take away. A project like Total Place public. That’s a lot of ‘P’s to talk to! We is crucial to the smooth running of the direct people to it rather than sending out inevitably generates a lot of interest, and found that managing expectations was key programme. information multiple times. It also provides it’s easy to get swept away in the tide of to keeping the task at a manageable size. a space for people working on Total Place queries that arrive. We found there were Externally, we kept a lot of the requests in It’s very easy to fall into the trap of trying to to share their own resources and stories a few simple things that we could do to check by the relatively simple expedient of please everyone, with the result that you with a wider audience. make the process easier for everyone sending out a weekly update that covers could with very little effort fill your waking involved and make the best use of our key events, publications and news items Our online resources have been discussed hours with preparing reports for all people and resources. and directs subscribers to resources in more detail elsewhere, but it’s worth and sundry. that will give them more information. The noting that having a website is now a must We are, of course, happy to answer Within the project teams, it’s important newsletter is also a great forum for alerting for any project that has a public-facing any questions – just leave a message to negotiate responsibilities at the very the Total Place community to questions from element. Having a readymade answer to and we’ll get back to you. beginning of the work. This can be a interested organisations – a much simpler the most frequently asked questions saves challenging time, as differences between, way of connecting people than trying to find a lot of time and energy that can be better for example, more traditional, gantt-chart- the answer to every query ourselves. applied elsewhere. driven organisations and those with a 56 57
    • Communities of practice Components of a social theory of learning: An initial inventory Learning as Learning as belonging becoming Ben Alcraft, Leadership Centre for Local Government Community Identity Communities of practice have been an integral part of organisational thinking since the term was coined by cognitive anthropologists Jean Lave and Etienne Learning Wenger in their publication ‘Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation’. Practice Meaning The phenomenon is as old as the most as Wenger argues; we are ‘doing’ “in a ancient of mariners, “formed by people historical and social context that gives who engage in a process of collective structure and meaning to what we do”. Learning Learning as learning in a shared domain” (Wenger), as doing experience That structure and meaning emerges from whether it’s a book club, an artists communities’ discussions and can take collective or a revolutionary clique. many forms. These are just a few of the Source: Etienne Wenger We’re all (invariably) involved in a number activities/goals we might convene for: of pre-existing communities of practice: • Problem solving at the core, or on the margins of a club, network or group. They rely on a • Requests for information development of shared practice and • Coordination and synergy transcend a simple common interest or • Discussing developments Of the plethora of organisations using the Belonging to a community of practice purpose. A chance encounter with a like- • Mapping knowledge and identifying ‘communities of practice’ technique, the is not a linear learning process. There’s minded peer does not, in itself, constitute gaps institution of government is no exception. no clear beginning, no clear end and a community of practice; but if that The increasing complexity and scale, communities come together, develop, encounter leads to a second meeting and The explicit knowledge that emerges especially in times of austerity, suggests evolve and disperse as they reach their a practical discussion, then a community within a community of practice is easy that capturing ‘knowledge’ is an ever- natural conclusions. For the many players of practice is formed. to share and involves the articulation of escalating challenge; and because of the involved in Total Place; off-line and on-line one’s own experiences, not co-dependent number of players involved, there’s no communities of practice have helped to As simple as this very human concept on human contact. But there is also the substitute for getting them in the same forge connections across organisational, appears, its recent coinage should not be tacit knowledge to consider, which is place, at the same time. departmental and hierarchical boundaries. under-estimated. And its contemporary, unconscious and harder to define, “the And as we’ve discovered, the richer the theoretical incarnation lends itself to a subtle cues, the untold rules of thumb”, membership, the more experiences, much needed and well-defined ‘space’ (Wenger). It’s this duality of knowledge; the stories, tools and techniques we share. for practitioners to share experiences, human contact and the articulated wisdom stories, tools and techniques. The word that makes the community of practice an ‘practice’ suggests that a community is invaluable tool for learning and developing ‘doing’ something when it meets. But a common practice. community is not ‘doing’ in and of itself, 58 59
    • 1 2 Virtual spaces for Total Places Rebecca Cox, Leadership Centre for Local Government Like much of Total Place, the development of the 3 4 online resources is still a work in progress. We’ve been learning by doing in a very real way. What follows are some of the ways we’ve found that the online world can support the offline one. Firstly, online spaces can serve as embodies this best, as it provides a safe repositories of information. This can space for members to ask questions, be user-created, as in the Improvement share stories and give advice. It can take 5 and Development Agency’s (IDeA) time and effort from CoP facilitators to help 1 Total Place website Community of Practice (CoP) document members do this without support from the library, or more centrally controlled, as facilitation team, but the investment is more 2 Communities of practice in the content shared on the Total Place than worth it. Creating a self-supporting for local government website. Different kinds of information can community around Total Place will greatly 3 Twitter also be published differently. For example, aid the work’s long-term sustainability. 4 YouTube details of the governance arrangements of The egalitarian nature of online working, 5 Facebook Total Place are static and don’t need any combined with the tendency for input from users to be relevant and useful. participants online to be at the middle In contrast, keeping information about and lower levels of an organisation gives what’s happening in the 80-odd ‘parallel a wider range of people the opportunity places’ across the country up to date is to develop and collaborate on new ideas of practice platform to allow a more around a large piece of work. Anyone too big a task for any one person to do without needing endorsement from senior interactive debate than is possible on the interested in exploring further might enjoy alone. Instead, we made it available as a leaders. This helps to empower leadership website. In addition to these two main Clay Shirky’s ‘Here Comes Everybody’ and wiki on the CoP so that anyone who’s a at all levels and increase the capacity for channels, we shared content and contacts Charles Leadbeater’s ‘We-Think’. Don’t be registered member can go in and edit the innovation and creativity – all helping to through Twitter, YouTube, SlideShare and afraid just to start experimenting, though; text to reflect what’s been happening in develop better outcomes for local people. Facebook, but there are lots of other there’s lots to discover and you can try as their place. (often free) services out there that you much or as little as you like. See you online! The tools for doing all of this are readily Online fora are also places for people to can make use of – just remember to make available. We used WordPress and our share ideas. This can be as simple as content accessible to as many users Find us at: combined in-house talents to build a enabling comments on web pages, or as possible. www.localleadership.gov.uk/totalplace website in a couple of weeks – it might not taking advantage of tools like Twitter to www.communities.idea.gov.uk win design prizes, but it’s flexible, easy This piece touches on just a few of the start conversations with individuals and to use and free! We also set up an online many ways that online resources can www.twitter.com/totalplace groups from a wider audience. The CoP CoP on the IDeA’s great communities support the creation of communities 60 61
    • 4 Recognising the emotional impacts of change on people and the effects of social dynamics on groups and organisations. Section 4 Being human Unlocking organisations and enabling participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Why do people think the way they think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Understanding the emotional response to change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Managing conversations that matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Working in groups – understanding our social needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Why don’t we do what we know how to do? And why do we do things we know don’t work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Making the most of your ‘critical friends’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 62 63
    • Unlocking organisations and enabling The BQC Alignment Model participation Vision Strategy Outcome Vision Culture Structure Resources Results Geoff Norris, Bradford and Kent programme lead, director of Team Consultants Ltd and BQC Ltd ? Culture Structure Resources Confusion Involvement in Total Place related activities Vision ? Structure Resources Resistance means different things for different organisations. Understanding these differences is important if the project is to succeed. Vision Culture ? Resources Anxiety The obvious differences between central To ensure the overall success of the government departments and local project we applied the BQC Alignment Vision Culture Structure ? Frustration government is that they think differently, Model. By doing so we were able to have different structures and very different maintain a sense of purpose and a focus cultures. Some have patients; some have on challenging the way we all worked Please note that this model is protected by copyright and cannot be used or reproduced in any format without the written permission of Team Consultants Ltd & the BQC Network clients; some have cases and some even against the vision-culture-structure- have customers! resources that were required in order to deliver a Total Place approach in The basic premise of Total Place has Bradford and District. The following four grey boxes illustrate • Structure; developing and securing to be the focus on securing long-term what will happen if you fail to work equally the appropriate organisational structure. sustainable efficiency gains; it is The above model illustrates that unless on each faction and fail to understand and Failure to achieve this results in high not about cuts or savings. It’s about organisational alignment is fully understood secure the interdependencies. levels of anxiety. identifying different ways of thinking and and appreciated, then the chances of doing things and challenging existing an organisation achieving the desired • Vision; owning the vision and aspiring • Resources; the utilisation of resources systems, methodologies and approaches outcomes is significantly limited. High- to take the organisation into the future to deliver the required outcomes is a key in order to deliver sustainable efficiencies. performing organisations are very effective is a key leadership responsibility. If this aspect of effective leadership that secures in their approach to alignment. This is is not achieved then organisational wide sound organisational performance. If this Underpinning all of this has to be the key area is ignored, then frustration will achieved through top level leadership confusion is the likely result. focus on understanding the individual inhibit organisational progress. that understands the interdependencies • Culture; understanding the importance organisation’s culture. In the Bradford and between the factions as outlined in the of constantly seeking to develop the District Total Place pilot we quickly identified alignment model. future culture (the what and the how). If the varying cultural aspects of the key the importance of developing the culture In summary, a frustrated, partners and players. We found it necessary To interpret the model read across from to define culture as the attitudes, beliefs left to right, the top line illustrates how is not fully understood, then the outcome anxious, resistant and and behaviours that we experienced on a you need to align vision-culture-structure- is organisation wide resistance. confused organisation is not daily basis and how these directly affected resources in order to deliver the results. what you want; it will not their involvement in the project. deliver the required results! 64 65
    • Why do people think the way they think? GUT HEAD David Bolger, Leadership Centre adviser Feeling Reason Conscious Conscious The following analysis is based on the work of Dan Gardner, particularly his 2008 book ‘Risk: The Science Lightning Slow and Politics of Fear’ (2008). In that work, Gardner develops a thesis about increasing global societal fear Intuitive Calculating and risk aversion. Emotional Explaining Other writers in this furrow include This has important implications for the Christopher Booker, who has written way people decide things. In essence, extensively on how ‘public scares’ their intuitive mind will jump to conclusions develop, such as global warming. For the some time before their rational mind Primitive man purposes of this guide, Gardner starts catches up. Plainly, this is ideal if you’re fight/flight c 150-200k years ago his book with a helpful summary of how about to be eaten by a lion but may be c 2.5m years ago the human brain works, and some of the of less value when faced with knottier implications for the way people make up problems. Gardner takes the argument their minds and take decisions. further by reference to the work of two psychologists, Kahneman and Tversky. Gardner draws on research into the human Writing in 1974, their article on Heuristics brain to suggest that there are two key and Biases tended to confirm that the idea ingredients to human decision-making: the And the typical things heuristic is just as This is the argument that Gardner, of human beings as rational, calculating ‘head’ and the ‘gut’. The head is described interesting. In research, people were asked Booker and others use to illustrate why beings was at best a limited picture. They as reasonable, conscious, calculating about the probability of 1000 people being major ‘scare’ stories can develop, despite identified, among other things, a number and explaining. The gut is about feelings, killed by floods in the USA next year. their inherent improbability, and is a useful of prevalent heuristics (rules of thumb) in intuition, emotion, and speed. These two The average probability was around 0.5. indicator of the limits of human rationality. human decision-making. components of the brain have evolved over But those asked about the probability of different timeframes: the head is a relatively For example, there is the anchoring heuristic: an earthquake in California, leading to 1,000 recent phenomenon, evolving in the past this encourages people to take decisions or more deaths was much higher. This is 200,000 years or so. The gut has been unconsciously guided by some anchoring even though we know that the probability a key element in the brain’s working for fact. So, for example, if a supermarket of two events is lower than the probability of something like 2.5 million years. So it seems advertises a special offer on wine, but one. So it seems that people can convince that the human brain is essentially a very limits people to a maximum of 10 bottles, themselves of relatively improbable primitive instrument in a sophisticated shell. the evidence suggests that people will buy outcomes if they are given one or more on average seven/eight bottles. Without plausible, if still improbable, hints or guides. the ‘guide limit’, they buy four/five bottles. 66 67
    • Understanding the emotional response The Change Curve to change Roger Britton, Worcestershire programme manager, Worcestershire County Council Satisfaction Commitment Once the momentum of change has begun those Denial Hope involved will have a reaction to it. The theory here suggests that such reaction is inevitable and unless we deal with that reaction, and perhaps more important, the different reactions of different people, Resistance Exploration it may get in the way. Total Place is an essentially practical The most useful way of thinking about the Reaction to and pragmatic exercise so what, you may way individuals respond to change is by the change “I’m happy “I’m not “Could this “This works for wonder, is the point of a look at models of using the Kubler-Ross approach. This was process as I am” having this” work for me?” me and my change which we all did in management originally devised as a way of looking at colleagues” training anyway? grief but has emerged as a valuable way of plotting human reaction to all significant “This isn’t “I can see how The answer is simple. Of course Total relevant to I make this work change. Unlike the force field approach my work” for me” Place is about results on the ground and there is little value in attempting to plot in the current financial position we don’t where individuals sit on this curve, have the luxury of contemplating our navel Source: Elizabeth Kubler Ross although it can be a useful tool for an and engaging in woolly theorising. But individual to follow their own reactions over people in organisations don’t behave like a period of change. The real value in In dealing with all this the essential tool is boxes on a structure chart and if we sharing this model is to keep reminding all communication. Obviously communication pretend that they do then even the best those involved that people will be at must be clear, accurate and timely but as solutions will fail. different points along the curve and that well as the what of communication we What is needed is a simple and robust those doing the detailed work are more must turn our attention to the how. understanding of how people and likely to be ahead of others, so when they This does not refer to using newsletters organisations change. This may not stand are positive and enthusiastic others simply or briefings but to the way we manage the finer tests of academic scrutiny but will will not be and have to be helped along the interactions which make up that provide a practical framework upon which their journey. communication. the delivery of transformational Total Place can be delivered. It will, if shared, facilitate discussion by providing a lingua franca for the process. 68 69
    • Managing conversations that matter Objective (What has been happening?) Interpretive (So what? What does this mean?) • What happened: facts, issues? • What were the people saying? Ruth Kennedy, Manchester City Region including Warrington • What words or phrases do you • What does this mean for me/us? and Croydon programme lead remember/stand out? • What are we learning? • What are some of the key phrases • What are some of the deeper or images? questions you hold now as a result? Leading place requires a great team. But great teams Reflective Decisional rarely start off as great teams: they usually start as a (Your personal reaction – emotions, (What now?) group of individuals, who need to learn how to work associations with the facts) • What is your/our response? together as a whole. • What surprised you? • What can you do here about these • What was the highpoint for you? issues? Peter Senge argues that great teams are facilitated, so the group quickly senses • Where did you struggle? • What actions can you take? actually learning organisations – groups that the sessions will be personally and • How did you feel as a result? • What are the next steps? of people who over time enhance their collectively valuable. capacity to create what they truly desire to Having a framework in place can help the create. This involves development of new What will we achieve? what is happening and the learning which conversation feel ‘safe’ for participants capacities and fundamental shifts of mind is being experienced through the work, and ensure the time is focused and The framework gives individuals space – individually and collectively. and allows insight into how things can be fruitful. A very simple tool for managing to consider what has been happening in One way to encourage team development such ‘conversations that matter’ is the the project for them, and to share those experienced differently by different people. over the course of a programme is to set ORID framework which gives the group a reflections in a structured way. You will find It builds common purpose and secures aside regular time for intentional shared structure to think within. that this both builds a common sense of shared decision-making. reflection. Asking good questions and Participants consider their personal listening well to the answers is a very responses to a set of questions, and powerful skill that can help us understand then share their thinking with each other. “Once you begin to master team learning or systems thinking, more about others and ourselves. If Opposite you will see the ORID framework we get this right, information will flow, it is very difficult to play the old office game of optimizing your for a focused conversation. The questions learning will emerge, cultures will shift under the headings are illustrative of the position at the expense of the whole.” and connections will be made that help Peter Senge: The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook (1994) kinds of question that can be used. transform experience into insight which informs different thinking and doing. How might a conversation work? “The reflective process has been excellent. When I first saw that How do we do this? Move through each heading (O,R,I,D) in turn, asking the group to write down we were going to do this I said ‘Oh no!’ but in fact I have really It can be a challenge to get senior found it has enriched the whole process. It has been good for their personal response to the questions, people to set aside time in busy diaries us as individuals and as a team. It has made us come together working on their own. This may take 10- for ‘reflection’, and you will need to 15 minutes for participants to complete. and really share. When you come together and reflect together it persuade them of its importance! Once participants have agreed in principle, Then invite each member of the group to really helps us to understand not only our own positions but that share their reflections under Objective. of others too. I think that it has been very important and quite get the time secured in their diaries for a Once they have listened to each other and profound in terms of the work we have done and the leadership regular slot – perhaps every 4-6 weeks. discussed what they have heard, follow by A good session will need at least 90 we are developing.” sharing their thinking under the ‘Reflective’ minutes. It is particularly important that Croydon Director, Total Place (2010) category, and so on. the conversations are well managed and 70 71
    • Working in groups – understanding Personal needs within the group Human social needs our social needs Affection Karen Ellis, Leadership Centre adviser Sense of place in the group Power Meaning Once you get going on your Total Place work, you will notice that you are spending a lot of time in groups – formal meetings, large system events, design groups – Feeling of Adapted from the work of David Kantor belonging and that sometimes either your or others are definitely Acknowledge- Recognition uncomfortable in those groups. Total Place creates ment of previous of fair loyalties exchange a strong emphasis on collaborative working and on getting together to uncover, create and negotiate. Adapted from the work of Bert Hellinger There is always as risk that we then assume psychologists and therapists who began (often against previous experience) that their work in family groups but who have working in groups is always ‘a good thing’ later extended their work to social and and is relatively trouble free. Not so. organisational settings. • Place needs – do people know why If the answer to any of the questions above they are in the group and what level is a resounding ‘No!’, you and the group You will also have noticed that some My own summaries of Hellinger’s and of importance they have in it – leader, leader or facilitator may want to have a groups, events and meetings work better Kantor’s views of people’s social needs are contributor, decision maker, interested look at that question. It may also be an than others – often because there is an outlined in the figures opposite. There is onlooker etc? interesting area of conversation for the effective leader or facilitator present. But a huge amount to be read about both of • Fair exchange needs – are all players group as a whole as well (although groups what is it that these people are doing that their work – I thoroughly recommend both bringing something of value and is tend to avoid these sorts of discussions makes the difference ? to anyone who wants to work with groups that value respected by everyone until things actually do start to go wrong). more effectively. However, to get you on One thing to consider is that an effective in the group – resources, expertise, your way, you might want to think about At the very least, try to introduce some group leader or facilitator has, consciously or perspective etc? whether the groups in which you work are of these ideas into your own thinking unconsciously, taken account not only of the • Affect needs – is there an atmosphere of currently addressing the social needs of all and start to notice how you could make task to be carried out but also the human warmth and collective endeavour, even of their members – and the impacts on the a difference to the group by your own social needs of the people in the room. when there is conflict in the air? task if they are not. For example : actions, even if no one else knows what Many social and psychological theorists • Belonging needs – are people properly • Power needs – do people balance you are doing! have had a look at groups and how they welcomed and introduced to each other? air time and allow themselves to be influenced as well as expecting to You can learn more about Bert’s and work (often those who have come from • Loyalty needs – are people’s professions influence others? David’s work at www.hellinger.com and a family systems background) but two of and organisations respected or are they www.davidkantortheory.com the simplest and most comprehensive ‘bad-mouthed’ or described in generic • Meaning needs – is there a sense of sets of ideas come from Bert Hellinger terms – “the NHS always does x”? common purpose, of what this group is and David Kantor. Bert and David are both here to do at this time? 72 73
    • Why don’t we do what we know how to do? And why do we do things we know don’t work? David Bolger, Leadership Centre adviser Opportunity and risk for Total Place Why is there so much knowledge in the world that, collectively, we choose to ignore? Why is it that we so frequently work long and hard, against astounding odds, merely to ‘discover’ insights which are already well known? And it also seems pretty clear that, not © John Jarvis, Leadership Centre for Local Government only are we reluctant to ‘learn’ some well-worn lessons but we are also stubbornly resistant to unlearning some lessons which are plainly wrong. What might the reasons be? Timidity or fear Failure to follow through What are the lessons from the Here are some suggestions: Sometimes even if people know in their These are the cases where well-intentioned Total Place initiatives? ‘Ignorance’ hearts what should be done, or indeed people have worked hard to see how • We should respect the past: much has what should be avoided, for some reason things could be better, how more could be been learned by our predecessors which Just because something is ‘known’, they don’t speak up or act accordingly. delivered for less, how prevention should we would be unwise to ignore. doesn’t mean everybody knows it. We It may be that they don’t actually wish to be valued as much as cure; and so the list • We should be open to lessons learned need to check that known ideas, like the see the desired change implemented, goes on. But for some reason, they don’t by other people in other places. value and challenges of partnership work, perhaps because the change may mean carry on with the job. • Ask yourself why you or others are really really are well known and understood; some difficulties for them personally. resistant to a new idea/proposal/way of maybe we’ve just forgotten, and need Or perhaps because it offends some working; are you quite sure the reasons reminding. deep-seated belief, which they are loath are real? NIH, Not Invented Here to unlearn. Whatever the motives, it seems • And perhaps most importantly; let’s Sadly, there are people who will ignore a there are cases where key figures are persevere with new ways of thinking good idea just because it wasn’t dreamt knowledgeable, but don’t act. and working, at least for a while. If we’re up by them or their people. convinced that they offer a better future, let’s give them a chance. 74 75
    • Making the most of your ‘critical friends’ Roger Britton, Worcestershire programme manager, Worcestershire County Council Getting at the answers to ‘wicked issues’, those multi-faceted, messy and complex challenges which face society, demands high levels of expertise. Therefore to stand any chance of success Inserting ‘stupid questioners’ into the an expert and experienced team has to be group or providing expert facilitation for established, drawn from all the partners, each session does not work because it who will explore the issues and come up changes the dynamic of the group and, with valid and deliverable solutions. at least in our case, there are not the resources to deliver this. Our experience of such teams is that they work best when liberated to get on with Exploring solutions to this we alighted on the job. Within the team status has to the television programme Dragons’ Den count less than contribution and different and saw the benefit of robust challenge perspectives have to get an appropriate and exploration of the ideas. The © John Jarvis, Leadership Centre for Local Government hearing. Where the members of the teams deliberate tension or confrontation of this have genuine operational experience and approach may provide theatricality to the intelligence then we found that they were encounter but may actually get in the way • The session would last no more than So does it work? willing to address all angles on the issue when the pitch is ideas and not a simple one hour to force the pace From our experience the answer is a for instinctively they placed the client or and tangible product. But we felt that the • It would happen as part of a planned resounding yes. The visits, particularly as customer as the focus of all discussion. idea was on the right lines. meeting so the critical friends came to they were by the most senior people in the group rather than the group being the partnership, were appreciated by the This is clearly good news. But there is The solution was Critical Friend Sessions. summoned groups and highly motivational. The critical a caveat; the tendency to operate from The expert groups, which by then had gone • The critical friends had a briefing on the friends were enthused by their ability to within the confines of an, albeit extended, through their own formation process, were approach and a short (one side of A4) get deep into the issue and came away professional framework based on accepted visited by a group of senior people at Chief account of the group’s work with a sense of personal ownership of the norms and parameters. At best this is a Executive, Leader or Managing Director level • The discussion began with a short emerging solutions. The stupid questions constraint to creativity and at worst it results who were able to ask the stupid questions. introduction from one of the group emerged and in some cases stunned the in groupthink. To be crude – nobody asks We approached this on the basis that: members experts with their simplicity and fundamental the stupid questions! • There was no agenda or script – the focus; but more than that took explorations • There would be more than two but fewer conversation would go wherever it went to places which the expert groups have than six critical friends at any session • It was for the session to conclude if since freely acknowledged that they would • Critical friends with expertise in the area not have gone. there would be any follow-on concerned were discouraged 76 77
    • 5 Neither ignoring nor being overwhelmed by the power hierarchies we work in – using power to everyone’s advantage. Section 5 Using power differently Orchestrating the leadership system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Practising adaptive leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Using rank differently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Making use of the power you’ve got . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Shifting senior leadership alignment and style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Reviewing governance and accountability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 78 79
    • Orchestrating the leadership system Sue Goss, South Tyneside, Sunderland and Gateshead programme lead, Office for Public Management Switching on leadership Partnerships offer the potential to break out of the assumptions and constraints that ‘lock’ member agencies into traditional solutions – they offer the ‘unoccupied’ space where organisational obstacles and ‘group think’ are less strong. © John Jarvis, Leadership Centre for Local Government But partnerships have weaker power So what do good leaders do in of agency than single agencies, so partnerships? an important leadership role is to • Help to negotiate the rules of constructing the authority and power engagement for all the partners – Orchestrating the leadership system • Keeping in touch with leaders between to act – connecting decisions to the agreeing purpose, goals, values, ways of meetings, understanding their concerns In a partnership there is never a single delivery capability of partner agencies. working etc – so that others feel able to and ensuring they are surfaced and leader – leadership comes from several A partnership remains ‘inert’ – unable to invest their own leadership in success addressed different places. It makes sense therefore command or deploy resources – unless • Create an environment where • Paying attention to the different to see a partnership as a leadership those linkages are made. relationships can succeed legitimacies and accountabilities of system. Often, when things are going Leaders have two crucial roles – creating • Encourage learning, developing space to right, someone is ‘orchestrating the different partners – making sure they the experimental space in which new experiment, room for creativity. leadership system’- connecting all the don’t feel bounced solutions can be found, and helping to • Broker relationships between different leaders together and ensuring that the • Observing the process of working ‘switch on’ the partnership so that current belief systems whole is greater than the sum of the parts. together – making sure everyone feels runs through it and it gains the power to • Use creative tension – drawing strength This might be done by one of the leaders listened to and engaged act. In a partnership each player faces a from difference – exploring ways to see themselves – the local authority chief • Connecting up the political process – choice about whether or not to ‘invest’ ‘many truths’ executive or a skilled partner – or it might one multi-authority pilot, for example, their leadership in bringing the partnership • Create trust and a sense of mutual be the role of a partnership co-ordinator had a meeting of the relevant politicians alive. It is hard to make anyone do this accountability – enough to risk or project manager. In some of the total before each executive board to ensure – since partners are usually volunteers – committing resources place pilots, it was a role carried out by support and a ‘steer’ when needed with heavy pressures to default back to the programme lead – and will need now • Keeping open links to Whitehall and the organisational priorities. So the values, to be transferred inside the partnership to Government Office beliefs, rules of engagement and shared continue. So what might ‘orchestrating the • Encouraging the conversations that lead goals that will lead people to help the leadership system require?’ to trust – and action partnership succeed all have to be created – none can be taken for granted. 80 81
    • Practising adaptive leadership The seven principles for leading adaptive work Emeritus Professor John Benington, 1 Get on the balcony • A place from which to observe the patterns in the wider environment as well as what is over the horizon (prerequisite for the following five principles) Institute of Governance and Public Management (IGPM) Warwick Business School, University of Warwick 2 Identify the adaptive challenge • A challenge for which there is no ready made technical answer • A challenge which requires the gap between values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviours to be addressed Airport bookstall publications tend to define leadership in terms of charismatic individuals making heroic speeches to mass audiences, or miraculously rescuing 3 Create the holding environment • May be a physical space in which adaptive work can be done • The relationship or wider social space in which adaptive work can be accomplished failing organisations from complete collapse. However there is little evidence that leadership of this kind is effective in helping issues and taking shared responsibility for tackling them. Heifetz highlights seven 4 Cook the conflict • Create the heat 5 Maintain disciplined attention • Work avoidance 6 Give back the work • Resume organisations and individuals to grapple dimensions of ‘adaptive leadership’, which • Sequence & pace • Use conflict positively responsibility with the kind of complex and often painful can be summarised briefly as follows: the work • Keep people focussed • Use their knowledge choices which are facing citizens and • Regulate the distress • Support their efforts • Identify the adaptive challenge – be clear communities (e.g. in relation to ageing about which are the crunch issues to be and social care; alcohol and drug misuse; tackled 7 crime and the fear of crime). Protect the voices of leadership from below • Give the work back to the people with An alternative approach to public • Ensuring everyone’s voice is heard is essential for willingness to experiment the problem – challenge those who need and learn leadership is being tested by some to make the adaptive change to work • Leaders have to provide cover to staff who point to the internal contradictions of teams in Total Place which draws on on the problem along with the leader. the organisation ideas developed by Ron Heifetz at the • Recognise that some of the most Kennedy School of Government at Harvard important insights about the adaptive University (Heifetz R, Leadership Without challenge, and some of the most powerful Adapted from Ron Heifetz by Irwin Turbitt, Warwick University Easy Answers, Harvard University Press leadership momentum for change, may 1997), and tested in a number of real life come from people at the bottom rather through at a manageable pace and at the front-line of the immediate decision-making situations in the UK. than the top of the organisation. where truth can be spoken to power; struggle on the ground mistakes can be discussed in terms Heifetz challenges the myth of leaders as • Regulate the distress – know when to I and other colleagues at Warwick University of what can be learned specially gifted individuals at the top of increase the heat to get the change have been testing out and developing process cooking, and when to lower • Pay disciplined attention to the issues organisations, who solve other people’s this model of ‘adaptive leadership’ across the temperature to avoid the change and confront work avoidance problems, in favour of an alternative the public sector. What would it mean model of leadership as an activity which process boiling over or burning. • Move between the balcony and the for Ministers, Government officials, NHS can be (and is) carried out by people at • Create a ‘holding environment’, physical battlefield. Leaders need to be able to managers, and the police to develop an many different levels of the organisation, or organisational, within which painful get up on the balcony to take a strategic adaptive leadership approach to change and consists in jointly confronting difficult issues and changes can be worked (helicopter) overview of the whole and improvement and innovation in battlefield combined with an equally Total Place? strong perception of what is happening 82 83
    • Using rank differently Identifying innovative ways of working is not new to the staff. Inter-agency working is not new to our organisations and working across the sub-region is at the heart of some of Mike Attwood, Coventry, Warwickshire and Solihull our most important strategies. So why has the our Total Place programme manager, Coventry City Council pilot generated a new way of working for public agencies in Coventry, Solihull & Warwickshire. What has it given us that we didn’t already have and why do things feel different around here...? Total Place asks organisations to work more holistically Within the current context, the importance of strong and than ever before. Often organisations in the public committed leadership, willing to drive innovation, generate a sector expanded services in years of plenty, only to collective vision and take risks where appropriate is crucial. Our steering group has provided and generated the momentum retract rapidly when the money disappeared. necessary to engage in dialogue across the sub region and crucially between ourselves and colleagues in Whitehall. Of course it has not always been so stark, For example, the Design Council’s ‘Public Flowing from this leadership, we have the mandate to think but it has proved difficult to hold quality Services by Design’ programme has helped differently and a growing confidence in being innovative. of service and value for money in one local leaders form alliances to reshape approach. This sometimes results in a Gateshead’s sexual health services and Pilot status has further strengthened our confidence in thinking distancing of relationships between front- start unblocking challenges with Children’s creatively by creating a ‘safe space’ in which to test and try out line practitioners, service users and senior Centres in Coventry. things. The innovation which flows from such freedoms cannot leaders, where the top of the organisation There seem to be some factors that help: be underestimated and has taken both leaders and frontline seems to be holding the financial and target performance bottom line, whilst frontline • Authentic leadership matters. People practitioners to think creatively and tackle those ‘elephants’ which staff can see caring and counting the cost must see that you believe that working have been in the rooms of all strata of public services for years. as competitive jobs. systematically with users and practitioners Gereint Stoneman, corporate planning manager, Warwickshire County Council enriches problem solving and unleashes How can senior leaders use their rank new solutions. Occasional engagement differently? Strong leaders have always special events bolted onto the existing engaged within their organisation, with ways of working will be spotted! People partners and service users. Total Place look for consistent behaviour messages. and boundaries. There will still need to the commissioning cycle, from needs underlines the importance of whole systems Are you expecting learning disability be tactical meetings between CEOs assessment to contract compliance. thinking. Our experience is that bringing teams from health and social care to work and Finance Directors to bottom out This approach helps the whole together service users, front-line staff and together in one team and building, but not risk-sharing deals, but people need to organisation work in a more engaging senior teams to work together on common so willing to consider a common public know this and that their contribution to way whilst still being systematic. If you service challenges in a ‘diagonal slice’ is sector human resources team or shared service design will still have counted in have an engagement team, they almost very powerful. senior appointments? the run-up to budget and target sign off certainly need to shift from ‘doing’ the • Keep clarity about roles and on 31 March. engagement to skilling up the whole responsibilities. Using your power and • You’ll probably be more successful if you organisation. A clear business cycle position in a more engaging way doesn’t make ‘leadership through engagement’ with an enabling development plan for mean that you’re not still accountable core to your organisation’s business the workforce can break down barriers for the strategy, budget and quality model and work toolbox. For example, between what can be seen as separate standards. Whole system approaches the NHS ‘e-cycle’ sets out how public transformational and transactional must be properly shaped with clear rules engagement can enrich all stages of aspects of commissioning. 84 85
    • Making use of the power you’ve got Positional Power Knowledge power People with positional power can: People with knowledge power can: • Offer others recognition, • Provide information, ideas, advancement and visibility expertise into the thought process Karen Ellis, Leadership Centre adviser • Directly command resources • Show where thinking is misguided (money, staff time) or where pre-existing work can • Provide opportunities for linking be used with others – contacts and • Provide contacts or references to It is sometimes easy to forget that power is a neutral networks people who have linked expertise force – it is ‘the means to do work’ rather than an inherently coercive or authoritarian approach to others. Alliance power Personal Power People with alliance power can: People with personal power can: When we are working in any group of excluded by the group. The map of power • Include others into their networks • Draw people to them to generate greater than one, we all sometimes need types and currencies opposite outlines and contacts new groupings power to get work done – we need to some of the common and uncommon • Negotiate for resources from • Inspire others to learn, act and convince our colleagues that our ideas sources of authority in a human grouping. their allies take risks are valid, that they should put their weight • Use the power of their grouping • Provide effective personal support behind our arguments, that they should So, how could you use these ideas to to gain weight for their ideas and advice (at times) desist from their foolhardy aims! assist you in your Total Place work? Any healthy creative human system allows Gaining influence for your ideas: a good deal of creative conflict and so • Find ways of quickly demonstrating your needs the individuals within it to both knowledge power: rather than sending accept and give away power in the service long documents outlining your ideas Helping others gain influence • Make them feel at home so they can of the work. to the ‘power players’, create a visual, use their personal power. Welcome Often the people in groups who have Most of us are so used to working in develop a two minute ‘elevator pitch’, the most to offer get excluded from the them carefully, refer back to them organisations that are arranged as get hold of some relevant numbers conversation – this is particularly common in your conversations, make plenty authority hierarchies that we assume • Emphasise your personal power: when the ‘language game’ of the majority of eye contact, invite them into the that the only source of power in human make sure you find an opportunity to is not known by the minority conversation by asking direct questions. systems is positional power (ie the power demonstrate your style – volunteer to (e.g. when we include citizens in • Help them build their own alliances. conferred on people by the seniority of lead a session, facilitate a group, run a managerial conversations or professional Introduce them to others who have their role). This can lead us to dramatically guided tour around a place of interest staff in political conversations). If you notice interests in common, emphasise what distort our conversations in groups – giving - anything that allows people to get to someone is getting excluded, some of the they might gain from conversations with maximum air time to those in senior roles know you as a person rather than a role following moves can help: others, link them up with people with and excluding a range of people who have • Build your alliance power: seek out whom they can share information. • Help them demonstrate their knowledge expertise, direct personal experience or others who see things in a similar way – give them a formal slot at the start of Again: remember power is a neutral good ideas about the matter in hand. and who have influence in the system. the proceedings to demonstrate their force – your personal ethics dictate If we remember some of the other forms of Trade resources, assistance, personal perspective. This can be via informal story whether you use it for good or ill. power, we can use different interventions support, thinking time telling, role play or formal presentation. So, more power to your elbow! in a group to gain more power for our Advise them to keep their input short and own views or, indeed to offer power to rich – 15 minutes is plenty and with as others, especially those whose input gets much information as possible. 86 87
    • Shifting senior leadership alignment Total place: leadership in context and style Steve Nicklen, Leicester and Leicestershire programme lead, Political Emergent managing partner, DNA LLP L leadership leadership Concensus Top tips: • Balance leading from the front in Total Place with a recognition of the pace at which others can move • Place emphasis on the context of leadership, working primarily on developing Managerial Adaptive H relationships, on learning, or on driving towards specific goals, depending on leadership leadership that context • Take a whole systems approach to leadership development interventions • Challenge any mismatches between ‘espoused’ and ‘real’ engagement H L by partners Certainty Source: Steve Nicklen, DNA Associates All fundamental change needs sustained, • ‘Managerial leadership’ is appropriate for effective leadership to be successful. many issues, where there is consensus Total Place, in addition, calls for a wider about what is to be done and we know Some places have invested in whole But sometimes steps need to be taken range of leadership roles and styles than how to do it systems-based leadership development to confront misalignment between more narrowly focused traditional change • But many issues lack the necessary to support their leadership. ‘espoused’ and ‘real commitment’, when management. consensus, and ‘Political leadership’ key organisations fail to enable key players, It is not enough for the relevant recognises this through placing the with the right knowledge, skills and clout, There is a paradox. Total Place has been organisations’ chief executives to say that development of trusting relationships to involve themselves in the real work. most effective where there has been clear they support Total Place. They also have to and dialogue in the foreground It’s a judgement call what then to do. political and chief executive leadership ensure that it is given sufficiently high • Many Total Place themes are ‘wicked Should the programme advisor talk with from one or two individuals within a place. priority within their organisations. One issues’, where we don’t know how to these players about what can be done to But leadership has also to be shared senior director said to me: “I support this, make progress towards our desired help them find the time? Should he/she across organisations. It has had to mirror in principle, but it’s not one of the three or objective. ‘Adaptive leadership’ talk directly with their chief executives? the changes in cross-organisational work four top priorities for my chief executive. recognises this and places the emphasis Should he/she advice those more actively it seeks to bring about. The prime movers These already take up all my time, so I on learning with others. For example, leading to intervene with the relevant chief need skilfully to strike the right balance don’t see how I can support it in practice.” the three pilots working on drugs and executives? What won’t do is to let the between leading forcefully and recognising alcohol misuse – Birmingham, Leicester/ Sometimes it’s OK in response just to problem drift, because this can lead to the the pace at which others can move. Leicestershire and Gateshead, South ‘push where it moves’ and for an progressive disengagement of others. The kinds of leadership needed in Total Tyneside and Sunderland – co-created organisation that is peripheral to the main Place must reflect the context. One model, solutions with each other and with the theme to decide that it will sit on the shown opposite, illustrates this: relevant Whitehall departments sidelines for the time being. 88 89
    • Reviewing governance and accountability Leicestershire drugs and alcohol governance LAA RIEP Drugs Pooled Mainstream Intervention Treatment Treatment Steve Nicklen, Leicester and Leicestershire programme lead, Programme managing partner, DNA LLP DCLG DCLG HO DoH DoH Top tips: • Use Total Place as an opportunity to re-examine the appropriateness of local NTA NTA governance structures National National • Building on this, open a dialogue, with local strategic partnerships, on public accountability, and with the centre, on new possibilities for financial accountability EM RIEP NTA NTA GOEM SHA Board Regional Regional Some pilots have used Total Place as The diagram opposite illustrates out an opportunity to rethink fundamentally the complexity of current governance the kinds of governance structures that structures, using the example of Leicester/ are appropriate in looking at outcomes Leicestershire in relation to one of the Sub-regional Leicestershire and expenditure across the place and in Total Place themes examined in the pilot Leader/Chief PCT Together Executive conjunction with the centre. The following there, drugs & alcohol misuse. considerations have informed their thinking: Leicester/Leicestershire has established • Existing governance structures can a new Public Sector Board, comprising present obstacles to allocating resources the Leaders and Chief Executives of the and coordinating activity county and city councils the Chairs and Drugs and Alcohol Action Team Hospital • They encourage the complex flows Chief Executives of the four NHS bodies Partnership Board1 Trusts of funds from the centre to the points (2 PCTs and 2 provide trusts) and the Chair of service delivery, with the significant of the Police Authority and Chief Constable. attendant administrative costs and These new governance structures increases in the burden of performance beg further questions about whether management and inspection they should be accompanied, by new County Leicestershire Probation NHS District • They can confuse the public, the media relationships with Ministers, on the one Council Constabulary Trust LCR Authorities and other partner organisations, as to CYP/ASC/CE hand, and new financial accountability where accountability should correctly lie. If arrangements to Parliament on the other. Ministers are being held de facto politically Novel answers to these questions will accountable for issues, it is harder for raise further fundamental political and Key: them to agree to local decision-taking constitutional questions, and clarity will SHA Strategic Health Authority NTA National Treatment Agency • Whatever their other virtues and need to be reached on the relationship DCLG Department Communities and GOEM Government Office East Midlands achievements have been, local strategic Local Government PCT Primary Care Trust between such bodies as the Public DoH Department of Health RIEP Regional Improvement and partnerships are not structures which can Services Board and LSPs. But they do HO Home Office Efficiency Partnership easily take the necessary, local, strategic highlight a possible route forward. decisions 1 This governance map relates to the Leicestershire and Rutland DAAT. 90 91
    • 6 Using data, stories and deep dives to find the information that begins to change minds: professional minds, leadership minds and political minds. Section 6 Counting and story-telling Calling Cumbria together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Using the power of stories to create movement for change . . . . . . . . 96 Customer journey mapping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 On the back of an envelope: doing a high-level count. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Using the high level count to best advantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Bringing data alive – one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Bringing data alive – two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Keeping it clear (if not simple) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 92 93
    • Calling Cumbria together Leadership Centre for Local Government In 2007 the partnership organisations in Cumbria declared a shared determination to improve more rapidly the lives of people living in the county. With the Leadership Centre for Local Government they created Calling Cumbria, which brought together hundreds of people from all walks of life in a new kind of conversation about what they could do better together. We designed a programme which invited To get maximum impact from their time people to take part in one of two themed together during the inquiries, participants ‘inquiries’ each running over three days, had to be open to the idea of doing things leading to a large scale event involving 150 differently and relating to one another in participants from across the public, private new ways. It meant reminding them what and voluntary sectors within and beyond they really cared about and legitimising the county. the fact that they did. This personal shift was encouraged by a presentation of still The inquiries were based on themes that photography near the beginning of the first emerged from the exploratory phase and © Andy Smith photography day, set to music and showing evocative captured the interest of those invited • Identified the communities or issues On day three participants mapped out their portraits of people of Cumbria. to attend. that participants wanted to understand new understanding of the interconnected • “How can we work together to build the The remainder of the first day, participants: more deeply needs of individuals and communities, chance of a better life in Cumbria?” • Looked at new ways to work based on the conversations they had the Day two of each inquiry took the • “How can we work together to surface together based on relationships and previous day and the new insights they participants out and about to engage the pride in Cumbria?” interconnected needs generated. They looked at the system of in different and often spontaneous • Heard personal stories from inspiring service delivery in which they operated and The inquiries were designed to: conversations with people who live and public service leaders identified ways to connect and support work in Cumbria. They visited a variety • Enable participants to know each • Learnt new techniques for deeper projects and initiatives more effectively. of places – anywhere people gathered – other better conversations including day centres, schools, colleges, For more information on the • Connect with the public they served in • Developed maps of individual and town centres and businesses. One Calling Cumbria inquiries, see the a fresh way community needs participant said “I had a different kind of ‘Calling Cumbria’ publication at • Build trust and common purpose • Created a picture of the web of projects, conversation with people so that’s got to www.localleadership.gov.uk/current/ through shared experience partnerships and collaborations serving be a start. I went back to the day job and publications. those needs injected a dose of reality into discussions”. 94 95
    • Using the power of stories to create How do I use service user stories with the maximum number movement for change of people, across a range of places? If the use of stories is not to feel exploitative, it is important to avoid the feel of a service user road show. It is simply not reasonable to ask the people who have Cat Parker, Coventry, Warwickshire and Solihull programme invested time to do so over and over again. We filmed the young people that we spoke to. This was done in an unstructured a way as we could manage, to preserve manager, Coventry City Council the voice of the story tellers. For an area as large as ours this meant we could replicate the DVD, and use it in a number of settings, and in a number of ways. What is the optimum mix of data and story telling, and can you When Coventry, Solihull and Warwickshire embarked combine the two? on Total Place we were clear that it meant we had an Whichever stories you use, they are at their most powerful when brief and recent. opportunity to think and act differently. Change was They can be coupled with city wide data which puts the individual story into context. a given in some ways, but large organisations can so We used our DVD, coupled with some data analysis to produce case studies of young people who were not in education, employment or training. This seemed to us often seem immovable. to be a good mix of story telling, and understanding the cost to public services – key to Total Place. Importantly we’ve used the language of the young people to do this. One of our non-negotiables as a project Some of questions we posed, and our team was that we took an opportunity to thoughts and actions in response to them Where do I find story tellers? spend lots more time than is usual listening might help you to consider how to use We found that our front line staff were the best source of people and stories, they to the voices of front line staff and service story telling to stimulate change in your own connected us with people who use the service and are a trusted point of contact users to understand how things are now place. We haven’t got everything right, but for individuals. Most public sector organisations have tried and tested methods and possible opportunities for change. in particular our work with young people and individuals responsible for the engagement with service users. It’s a good who are not in education, employment or idea to channel involvement this way because it can be much more about a Stories stimulate the emotions, they make training has been very powerful in creating dialogue than a one off story. things real, and at best can change the the impetus for change. way we act, think and feel. When a story To encourage employees to tell their stories you have to be creative. Graffiti walls is told well it creates an experience, how Of course to have any impact the stories and suggestion boxes (real and virtual) can be used to great effect, as can walking many of us have pondered about a book need to be authentic, and the story tellers the floor. However, there is no real substitute for spending dedicated time with or film long after it ended? Somehow they real. When you get it right, its about as groups or individuals, encouraging them to open up and share their perspective. stay with us. powerful a tool as you can have to make people say “we can’t carry on this way”. If the process is to become truly embedded you’ll have to be up front about what Time spent listening to people’s stories has you’ll do with the information and find a way of feeding back what has happened done two main things: as a result. • Helped us to understand the journeys of our customers in ways that we hadn’t How do I use a story to sell a vision? before, uncovering new perspectives Any possible vision of the future, if it is to appeal to all your listeners, must be and possible solutions described in different ways to appeal to all the senses. You can describe what • Validated some of the hunches we you see, feel, taste, smell and hear in your new world. This makes the story come had about our services, which are now alive, and feel much more a part of a reality, as the stories about how things are impossible to ignore now do. 96 97
    • Customer journey mapping Deborah Szebeko, Founder and director, thinkpublic What is customer journey mapping? Journey mapping is a way of using customer insights data to visually represent a user’s experience of a service. It helps you to better understand, analyse and identify with the real experience of a service user. It also helps you pinpoint and map any opportunities for intervention, innovation and service improvement. How does customer journey mapping When is customer journey Why is customer journey How can you use customer work? mapping useful? mapping important? journey mapping in Total Place? You can either work with the service user Journey mapping can be used to: • Customer journey mapping can help to Using customer journey mapping with directly or draw on previously captured • Identify where and how to re-design design and deliver services that meet Total Place’s ‘whole area’ approach to user insights and research to plot the services and interactions the needs of people and frontline staff public services can help to identify and customer journey map. The map’s • Identify unnecessary elements of a rather than just the needs of government avoid overlap and duplication between narrative can be drawn by identifying service and calculating the impact of • The insights that customer journey organisations. This can be achieved by touchpoints and interactions along the greater efficiency mapping generates can help shape understanding how users access and service journey. Touchpoints are a point on • Precede the co-design stage, which strategy and policy, leading to better experience access services. This will the journey where an interaction occurred involves service users and providers customer experiences and more result in identifying service inefficiencies with another person, with technology, in designing better services with their efficient services and where savings can be made by joined or with the environment. An emotional needs at the core • Customer journey mapping can confront up working, resulting in better services touchpoint is a point on the map where • Bring a user’s experience to life and preconceptions and help transform at less cost. heightened emotion was experienced by the service user. A map can also include get real stories and real insights into the perceptions, acting as a call to action personal insights, anecdotes and images. process of change and contributing to culture change www.thinkpublic.com • Reveal in detail the user’s perspective of a service and it’s touchpoints • Help service users clearly communicate their experiences in sufficient depth and feel meaningfully involved in service improvement 98 99
    • On the back of an envelope: doing a high-level count Leadership Centre for Local Government How much money in total is going into a place? How effective is this spending in achieving what we want on the ground? Could we get more from the public pound if its spending was differently organised and directed? These are questions which the taxpaying Local spending public and the recipients of services Figures were taken from councils (including rightly have a strong interest in, more so parish councils), the Regional Development in hard times. They are difficult to answer Agency, police authority, NHS Trusts and but they are central to the work of public, PCT and strategic partnerships. voluntary and private sector organisations collaborating to make their place better. The Government departments Leadership Centre for Local Government, The estimated flows of expenditure Local Government Association and from government departments into Improvement and Development Agency Cumbria were calculated from the Public © John Jarvis, Leadership Centre for Local Government set out to begin to answer these difficult Expenditure Statistical Analyses (PESA) questions in Cumbria in 2008. and supporting public information. Framework Non-departmental public bodies European Union The Sustainable Communities Act of 2007 The UN ‘COFOG’ (Classification of the Financial information was obtained for 104 No area in Cumbria was eligible for enshrines the principle that local people Functions of Government) structure, non-departmental public bodies (NDPBs) Objective 1 funding (which promotes the know best what will improve the wellbeing which is used by the UK government in its spending money in Cumbria. Information development and structural change of of their area. It requires the provision of breakdown of government spending, was for a further twelve was not available. regions whose development is slowed or local spending reports so that people can used to provide a common framework for NDPBs were excluded if they were lagging behind). However, much of the see where the money goes and propose the types of expenditure. Further information advisory, tribunal, Foreign Office or DfID county was covered by Objective 2 funding changes. Counting Cumbria was a step on the UN COFOG classifications is sponsored or do not have direct Cumbria which supports the economic and social towards such reports and towards doing available at (http://unstats.un.org/UNSD/ connections (e.g. British Museum, conversion of industrial, rural, urban and things better. While the methodology may cr/registry/regcst.asp?Cl=4). Regional Development Agencies other fisheries areas (usually smaller than a local be for experts the results are for all of us. than NWDA). NDBP data was treated as authority in size) facing structural difficulties. For more information, see the identifiable – and therefore included – ‘Counting Cumbria’ publication at in the PESA estimates of departmental www.localleadership.gov.uk/current/ expenditure as advised by HM Treasury. publications 100 101
    • Using the high-level count to best Economic development funding map advantage 2009/10 Funding £176m Steve Nicklen, Leicester and Leicestershire programme lead, managing partner, DNA LLP DBIS DCLG DEFRA DCMS DWP DFT £14.9m £33.9m £75.4m £3.3m £7.8m £34.7m Top tips: Environment NDPBs and Highways • Use the High Level Count (HLC) to try out some specific ideas you have EMDA HCA Agency Lottery Funding £17.7m £33.6m Agency and (e.g. the cost of inefficiencies in funding flows in relation to specific £64.7m £10.4m Network Rail services) and/or to support specific cases for change you want to make – no data available (e.g. to reduce the local burden of inspection) Sub Regional Sub Regional Joint HCA/ • See the analysis as a source of future additional Deep Dive themes Board Board EMDA £17.7m £32.8m £500k • Focus the internal or external technical resources carrying out the count with a clear brief • Don’t just let the count happen! Regional Capital ERDF Partner RDPE Future Funding Funding Funding Jobs £14.3m £0.6m £2.8m £7.7m A common initial reaction to the counting from Europe from Economic Development, strand of the Total Place was that it wouldn’t developed by Deloitte as part of it High Level Leicester and Leicestershire show anything of particular interest. British Count support to the Leicester/Leicestershire Local Authorities Private Sector Nuclear Fuel spend several billions in pilot. This complexity is expensive. Applying Contributions £43.3m Cumbria and nothing much anywhere the Audit Commission’s calculation, we else – so what? Department for Work and estimated that the administrative cost of Pensions spends a great deal everywhere, delivering £230m in supporting projects, and the Potato Marketing Board much less is some £180m! This has provided the everywhere – so what? evidence base for a call for a simplifying of indicators these would allow (e.g. NHS Vital generations of Deep Dive themes have been funding and for the radical stripping down of Signs Indicators and Analysis of Policing and identified, which are now waiting in the But those places that have used the High regional and other intermediary bodies. Community Safety Police Indicators) should wings. Level Count forensically and imaginatively enable this burden to have unearthed and highlighted among the Second, the High Level Count has also Finally, taking a purposeful and focussed be greatly reduced going forward, perhaps most intriguing opportunities that have yet provided evidence to support responses approach to the High Level Count in some by as much as £120m each year, across the emerged from the Total Place experiment. within Total Place to the Government’s localities has avoided the disappointment in country. Here are some illustrations: offer, in its ‘Strengthening Government’ some others, where consultants brought in White Paper, to reduce the local burden Third, High Level Counts have also been to provide the technical support needed to First, the Audit Commission have concluded of inspection. Leicester/Leicestershire used to identify areas for future Deep Dives support the count were not been that, for every hand-over of a funding stream calculated this cost as some £7m per in localities, as Total Place moves into given a clear enough steer for their work. from one organisation to another, some annum. On this foundation, we suggested its next phase of becoming the way of This has necessitated the reworking of data, 20% of the value of that stream is lost in improvements in the NIS, which, taken working in localities across the piece. and the inevitable increase in consultancy administration. Opposite is the complex with the dismantling of other performance In many places, second and third fees associated with it. funding flow diagram for financial support 102 103
    • Bringing data alive – one Anne Pordes Bowers, Croydon programme manager, Pordes Associates Very few Big gap between flows directly services and to citizens citizens Mapping the flow of resources and funding is the bedrock of any Total Place project. It is much more than just ‘counting’, often exposing significant anomalies in service design, seemingly ‘crazy’ approaches to resourcing and of course embedded inefficiencies. The ‘big spreadsheet’ is often the knee- This visual approach: jerk reaction to the need to map; identify • Exposes insights we may have the headings, put some numbers in boxes otherwise missed (see the example and do some calculations. There will need opposite) to be some form of a spreadsheet that • Acts as a focal point for discussion will be necessary, but in the course of the amongst senior leaders and others Total Place project displaying the information to discuss and reflect in an insight-prompting manner is much • Compels colleagues from across more powerful. organisations to share information as Two innovations are shown opposite and they can how it is informing the overleaf. These have both been tried and bigger picture tested and proved invaluable within Total Creating a mapping wall was relatively Place projects straightforward, requiring nothing more Top down: a mapping wall than a dedicated space, some post-it A mapping wall is a visual representation notes and a bit of artistic confidence. The of funding flows from source to citizen, more visually enticing the wall, the more with various ways of identifying services, powerful it becomes. institutions etc. Services Lots and lots Bringing together service and finance within of service colleagues from the range of partners “The first time I saw the mapping institutions flows the wall can develop over time as gaps wall I found it very arresting.” and questions are identified and filled. Caroline Taylor, CEO NHS Croydon 104 105
    • Bringing data alive – two Family Bresha £56,890 Jacqueline Bersha is single parent with moderate learning difficulties. She had her first child at 16 and now has a 2 sons aged 5 and 1 and a daughter of 3. Her mother and sister support her, although they both have moderate learning difficulties as well. All members of the family live on the New Addington estate and only Anne Pordes Bowers, Croydon programme manager, leave to attend Mayday A&E. Jacqueline has attended the same school and children’s centre and has been Pordes Associates able to access support for her eldest son with ASD on the same school site. in Year 2 (£2,890 + Eldest son attends specialist ASD unit Daughter attends Family Numeracy £10K + £12,890 reception class. supports other parents Mum attends at a parent led group Sept 09 (£2,890 per mainstream per annum) Mum helps out and Case Studies: (£886.67) annum) Using real life stories of families, anonymised Sept 09 mainstream nursery Time 2 Talk class (£1,935 per Daughter attends No follow-up when need doesn’t meet threshold (i.e. When son doesn’t meet social care thresholds) but accurate, provides a rich basis for another Noticeable lack of proactive intervention and support given that family had numerous risk factors Family Literacy form of analysis. Instead of originating at the flow annum) Jan 09 Mum attends Sept 08 (£886.67) of resources, the counting can start from the (i.e. teenage mother with multiple children and family history of learning difficulties) experiences of citizens or service users (e.g. a child). Sept 08 Eldest son starts mainstream school Eldest child starts in reception (£2,890 per annum). Nov 07 onwards child diagnosed with ASD. Year 1(£2,890 difficulties and school contacts Educational Psychologist Behaviour then seen to cause per annum) visits and undertakes Educational Psychologist. assessments. Eldest Costs (both actual and time) can be Expanding the scope Sept 07 ascribed to each of the ‘stops’ on the Both of these methods have been used journey – as well as the distance travelled to to look at public sector resources and use the Stay and get there (e.g. what is the cost of multiple Play sessions at Centre (£12 per (£15 a session) Jumping Beans interactions. As Robert Murray said in Family starts to the Children’s session) and repeat phone calls between citizens and On going his recent essay Danger and Opportunity: Third child born at professionals, professionals and each other Crisis and the new social economy, the Mayday (£2,600 June 08 around information, scheduling and the future of delivering social outcomes is a for delivery) myriad other ‘little things.’ constantly attend Mayday Accident and Emergency hybrid of The State, The Market, The Grant Daughter given a place at a private Day Nursery Economy and The Household. These Services Day Care Panel (£160 per week) due This approach: Mother and children (attached to Children’s Centre through Social visually captivating methods can of course Sept 06 • Exposes the full level of resource Eldest son starts to concerns re the ability of the family to nursery (£1.935 be powerfully expanded to encompass all Department. brought to bare on a particular situation Jan 07 per annum) of these areas, creating even more • Highlights where services are working opportunity to hone in on opportunities for particularly inefficiently, exposing manage their circumstances improvement. As with all activities of this July 06 unnecessary time lags, the impact of poor behaviour and inability to make ilk, capacity and availability of information Daughter born in Mayday (£2,600 Portage worker allocated to eldest failures to act on both citizen experience accident in his cot. There was no action as this did is the big challenge. son due to delays with speech, Social care involved as for delivery) and the public purse not meet thresholds eldest son had an • Focuses thinking on particularly relationships (£8k a year) June 04 March 05 inefficient or ineffective touchpoints and (£2,600 for delivery) Son born in Mayday stages on the journey July 03 106 107
    • Keeping it clear (if not simple) Phil Swann, Dorset, Poole and Bournemouth programme lead, Shared Intelligence The issues raised by Total Place are inevitably complex. The policy issues are often intractable. The financial and governance issues are challenging. And the approach demands a whole system analysis. If there was ever a danger of not seeing the wood for the trees this is it. It is essential to be as clear as possible about what is being explored and © John Jarvis, Leadership Centre for Local Government what the key elements of a way forward are. Here are four top tips for keeping it clear (if not simple) Third, use a crude formula to focus C The cost of sustained provision in attention on the ‘at less cost’ universal services and the development First, define the question. Second, specify the propositions element of the question. of social capital to help older people For example: which are to be tested. For example: maintain their independence; and For example: How can we secure improved outcomes A – (B+C) = Y Y is the contribution to responding for older people at less cost through That modest investment in state support – to a significant reduction in public Where: greater collaboration between agencies, to create the conditions in which family expenditure. a deeper engagement with citizens and community support is available to A is the saving secured by reducing the and communities and a genuine focus former drug addicts – will enable them to number of older people avoidably Fourth, a jigsaw puzzle analogy can on place? continue their recovery journey following admitted to secondary health care or provide a useful way of managing treatment and will reduce the overall cost unnecessarily receiving intensive social different strands of a complex issue. of treatment and the social and community care services; Distinct work streams can be thought of as cost of abuse. B is the increased investment necessary jigsaw pieces which are regularly put to develop enhanced community together to maintain the whole system big services in order to: picture. • Meet the requirements of those diverted from secondary care and intensive social care services; • Prevent unnecessary use of intensive social care and secondary health services in the future. 108 109
    • 7 Taking your new information and working with it in innovative ways – using new ideas and theories and playing with your creativity. Section 7 Thinking differently Thinking in loops – the power of the multiple cause diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Paddling up the public value stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Force Field Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Getting into service re-design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Finding sources of innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Using the Radical Efficiency model to help drive innovation thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Changing public attitudes and behaviour – nudging our way forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Creating the world café . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 110 111
    • Committee example Thinking in loops – the power of the multiple cause diagram Starting causes Senior people absent Send a deputy Feedback loop Pivotal issues Karen Ellis, Leadership Centre adviser Papers Come unread Attendance low priority Culture of Lack of silo working challenge Assuming that the Places we work in are complex living systems we need tools that allow us to think of Committee held in low Most agenda items irrelevant them in that way, rather than trying to use machine Lack of Lack of regard to individuals corporate like imagery. thinking understanding of programme Committee So, for much of our work in Total Place, you have a fever – the more the operating at too No shared detailed a level we need to shed our nice linear cause and chemistry changes, the worse the vision effect diagrams, our neat Gantt charts and problem gets). Lack of our assumption that we can always find corporate or And social systems also run via similar strategic debate incontrovertible quantitative evidence for our assumptions. feedback loops: • Group norms, repetitive language and Diagram shown above is courtesy of Professor Jake Chapman, Demos Associate. So, once we have dispensed with stuck conflict all act as ‘balancing loops’ those tools, what can we use to replace keeping a system oscillating around its and managers. One of his multiple cause perspectives to examine the issue and all them? Two of the most powerful tools for normal state diagrams can be seen opposite, together its complex cause-and-effect relationships systemic thinking are multiple cause diagrams and rich pictures. There are • Interruptions from outside agents, with instructions for creating your own can be an immensely powerful many examples of rich pictures throughout periods of anxiety and inflammatory diagrams. intervention. It’s a messy process, with lots this guide – this piece focuses on the use language will all cause situations to of discussion and argument but all of that So, how could you apply this technique of feedback diagrams to share knowledge escalate or change to a new state – discussion helps to build a strong shared to your Total Place work? Once you have and generate new ideas. sometimes for good, sometimes for ill. understanding of the current situation and identified your theme, you will start to set the likely results of any proposed All living systems are complexes of myriad One of the most powerful things we can up your Deep Dive process, bringing interventions. feedback loops : do when we are trying to understand a together professional experts, frontline complex system is to map out a multiple staff, resource managers and, sometimes, Articles elsewhere in this guide show • Balancing loops that maintain the cause diagram that helps us understand citizens to get a richer, multi-perspective examples of such diagrams, created system around an equilibrium point the feedback loops and unpredictable view of the issue at hand. Using multiple by pilot places in the course of their (e.g. how your body maintains its non-linear behaviour of a human system. cause diagrams to clarify your own Total Place work. temperature) Jake Chapman is a brilliant educator in the thinking in advance of the session can be • Intensifying loops that cause escalation systems thinking field who teaches the useful in itself. However, running a session (e.g. how an infection can cause your fundamental ideas to public sector leaders which allows people with multiple different temperature to spiral out of control until 112 113
    • Paddling up the public value stream The Public Value Stream Emeritus Professor John Benington, Institute of Governance and Public Management (IGPM) Warwick Business School, University of Warwick Activities There is a tension within the Total Place programme Inputs Outputs User satisfaction PV outcomes between two apparently contradictory pressures. The user can Several of the Total Place pilot projects which help to achieve (or hinder) those become a means of have identified the risk that their work on outcomes. As we trace that stream, we Partners and co-producing the Total Place could result in public authorities identify which activities create value, which co-producers outcomes suggesting cuts in their own budgets – like allow value to stagnate or actually result in turkeys voting for Christmas. An alternative destructive, unintended consequences. approach has been discussed and tested Value creation: by some pilots, (e.g. Leicestershire, Source: John Benington and Mark Moore, The Theory and Practice of Public Value, Palgrave (forthcoming 2010) Leicester). This involves applying Public Public value is often co-produced at Value Stream Analysis (PVSA) to some the very front-line of public service of the complex problems facing citizens (e.g. between teachers and pupils in and communities (e.g. alcohol and drug school class rooms; between nurses, abuse). patients and families in hospital wards; Value stagnation: Value destruction: between police and local people, This is where increased quality, productivity, This is where most savings can be made. Public Value Stream Analysis businesses and voluntary organisations and value for money can be achieved. • Where is public value being subtracted begins by asking three key questions: in neighbourhood communities). • Where in the process is public value or destroyed? • What does the public most value in this • Where specifically in the process is lying stagnant or idle? • How do we eliminate waste and leakage situation? public value being built? • How do we remove the blockages, and from the public value stream? • What will add most value to the public • How do we support and strengthen free up the flow? • How do we stop doing things which sphere? these points in the value stream and • How do we re-align, re-energise and add little or nothing to the production • What are the key outcomes we most concentrate resources there? re-mobilise the efforts of de-moralised of the public value outcomes we want want to achieve jointly with citizens, • How do we strengthen these processes staff behind the achievement of public to achieve? communities and other stakeholders? of co-creation of public value at the value outcomes for citizens and • How do we remove unproductive front-line? communities? stages or activities which interfere with We then work backwards from the specific or interrupt the creation of public value outcomes we want to achieve and trace in outcomes? detail the stream of activities and processes This type of analysis creates potential for a much more forensic approach to changing our processes, creating more value for the citizen at less cost to the tax payer. 114 115
    • Force Field Analysis What forces affect the achievement of young people not in employment, eduction and training? (NEETs) Mike Attwood, Coventry, Warwickshire and Solihull Driving forces Strength Strength Restraining programme manager, Coventry City Council forces Cost of failure in Many schools the criminal justice want disruptive system means that pupils who Often the oldest tools are the simplest and best! there is a clear disproportionately Force Field Analysis derives from the work of social understanding that affect average psychologist Kurt Lewin. Human behaviour is driven – a creative new approach is needed school performance to be removed by what we believe, the cultural norms exerted by the Some NEETs Intergenerational organisation and wider environment in which we work have survived worklessness is and the expectations of the system and those who the system and are championing entrenched in some communities exert influence within it. change as mentors of their peers Simply, Force Field Analysis enables us to Usually the situation being handled is Partners are Information map those influences that either support or mapped onto a Force Field Diagram prepared to risk sharing between resist the change we are trying to achieve. like the example opposite: share resources Connexions and It is a very useful tool because it is quick The arrows show the direction of between agencies Job Centre Plus is to use and for those of us who may work each force as well as the scale of it. to invest upstream very limited intuitively, it is a way of stepping back The evidence suggests that working to and mapping the changes at work in the reduce or overcome restraining forces environment a little more objectively. For is more effective than strengthening the the more structured thinker, it can help us driving forces as this can lead to a mirrored get over ‘paralysis by analysis’ by plotting increase in the power of the resistance. one simple, overall picture of the whole The tool also enables real conversations system. This helps when anxiety and over- about what is driving resistance and detailed analysis can slow us down. whether genuine risks have been missed. “This is a handy way of actually plotting what’s going In practical terms, the driving forces have In the NEETs example, national legislation, on with the diagram shown here being populated with to be stronger than the restraining forces or at least permission to local Job Centre the various forces. This needs to be done as an explicit to overcome inertia. It’s also a powerful Plus teams, is needed to make sure that information is shared so that the young part of the work and then the specific forces addressed tool to use with groups of change leaders because it enables each person to map person who is NEET only has to tell their or exploited in the work plan, remembering that they their own take on the ‘for’ and ‘against’ story once. Schools and GPs come from will obviously change over time. The forces plotted forces and for these to be compared and a long tradition of autonomy and force on this need to be real things which actually make a contrasted to build a shared view of how field analysis can lead to powerful dialogue difference – they don’t need to be particularly clever or about how the innovation of individual best to focus the energies of the team. erudite. Remember, what you are trying to do is kill the creative teams can be spread across the system through capacity building, restraining forces and magnify the driving forces.” workforce redesign and tactical use of Roger Britton, Worcestershire programme manager, Worcestershire County Council incentives or contractual sanctions. 116 117
    • Getting into service re-design Cat Parker, Coventry, Warwickshire and Solihull programme manager, Coventry City Council Phil Mayhew, director for commissioning, Solihull Council There are a number of service re-design options available to improve both cost and outcomes of service delivery which we’ve trailed. We see continuous improvement and radical change as key to addressing the challenges that the public sector will face over the coming years. One of the most promising ways of Understanding the process (baseline) making the change has been the use of • Map the process – this can be manual Lean reviews, delivering significant savings (post-its and a large wall) or electronic relatively speedily (although not without • Capture the voice of the customer – resource committed to the process) this can be through questionnaires, There has been lots written on Lean, and focus groups, or existing information its possible application in the public sector, • Reach consensus on the waste in the here are the basic steps to take if you want process – using the visual map makes it to try Lean: easier to see the root causes of problems, Source: thinkpublic Getting started linkages and possible disconnects. Implementing the change We’re going to be establishing a network • Identify your community – these are the • Calculate the cost of the current service • Short term improvements should of lean practitioners, so if you’d like people who are involved in the work, any further advice or support don’t Re-design be agreed and implemented quickly either as providers or users. hesitate to contact us through the • Design the optimum way of operating (this can be something simple like • Leaders to create a clarity of purpose, Leadership Centre. focusing on simplifying the process physically moving desks so people and a need for change. They will act as and structure can hand over quickly) unblockers for the change so its crucial to have sign up • Calculate the cost of proposed new • Longer term opportunities should service be signed off by leaders and a clear plan established with timescales • Create a culture of continuous improvement & sustain it. 118 119
    • Finding sources of innovation Total place – Supporting innovation: The Goldilocks solution Steve Nicklen, Leicester and Leicestershire programme lead, Paralysis ‘Anxiety level too hot’ managing partner, DNA LLP Predictability Anarchy Top tips: ‘Uncertainty level too cold’ ‘Uncertainty level too hot’ • Consciously build in sources of innovation. Don’t assume they will emerge spontaneously ‘Just Right’ • Encourage ‘play’, through new ways of working and in different environments • Disturb the system, e.g. through novel ways of involving politicians and Complacency customers in the work ‘Anxiety level too cold’ • Manage the levels of ambiguity and anxiety in people, so that these stimulate rather than paralyse Source: Steve Nicklen, DNA Associates Total Place is a radical approach to The space within which you work matters. A whole systems view of the world leads development programme being run seeking ambitious improvements in service When we find ourselves in an environment one to see the value of disturbances to the across the public and third sectors in outcomes and efficiency savings, and we associate with other activities, we tend systems. In Leicester/Leicestershire we the sub-region, as grit in the oyster. this requires innovation to be successful. to behave in ways appropriate to those disturbed the system in a variety of ways, But too much uncertainty or by too Otherwise, if you always do what you’ve activities, not to what we’re now seeking and with varying success. The access to much anxiety about delivering results can always done, you’ll always get what you’ve to achieve. So a committee room at a service project team spent a lot of time suppress innovation. This is illustrated always got. But an instruction to be more local authority is not an obvious stimulus talking with customers. As a result, as above. Managing these levels of ambiguity innovative is not very helpful! What can to innovative challenges to the status quo! well as hard data, we also had many and anxiety is a particular challenge given be done in practice to stimulate and The drugs and alcohol misuse project team evocative stories about individuals’ the great ambitions and short timescales support innovation? at Leicester/Leicestershire consistently met experiences and desires. The views of necessarily associated with change in the in unusual (and usually neutral) spaces, at politicians, who had been exposed to the We know that play is a good source public sector now and, perhaps even more the Police Training Centre, and at various night time economy and its impact on innovation. While the pinball tables of in the future. Keeping these levels where commercial and charity events rooms the NHS and police, were important to Microsoft may not be practical, some they stimulate innovation, rather than around Leicester. Then, when the time our work on drugs and alcohol misuse. Total Place programmes have used novel paralyses and destroy it, will be one of the came to end divergent thinking and to And we used the participants at the ways of encouraging their project teams major leadership challenges going forward. start concentrating on the precise changes Leicestershire In Partnership Programme, to play, to find creative ways of looking we wanted to make, with specific targets a whole systems-based leadership at problems. There are a plethora of for improvement, we moved to the more techniques around, for example, using business-like environment of one of the pictures, as well as words. What you councils. should use is what feels right. 120 121
    • Using the Radical Efficiency model Radical Efficiency to help drive innovation thinking • New knowledge-generators - Other sectors as knowledge generators • Non-consumers • New consumer units - Users as knowledge generators • Community as consumer • New knowledge Ruth Kennedy, Manchester City Region including Warrington - Uncovering old ideas in new places - Mining data and Croydon programme lead - Collecting new Data New New New perspectives information customers on challenges When you know you want to think innovatively, New perspectives but it’s a struggle to break out of the current way of New suppliers New resources on solutions viewing the world, a robust theoretical model can be hugely helpful. • Users as co producers • Reduce • New entrants • Reuse In Croydon we had scoped some They all offer different and better outcomes • Mini-Tribes • Recycle • Sweat assets potentially exciting propositions, and we for users at significantly lower cost. • Digital technology wanted to make sure we didn’t lose our The model radical edge as we developed the detail The Radical Efficiency model (opposite) further. The Innovation Unit (IU) helped us Source: The Innovation Unit is a simple framework that extracts the interrogate and progress our thinking with How did the model help Total Place? common principles from all the exemplars “A really helpful morning, which will a very creative workshop based on their examined. The bottom half of the This framework provides a powerful way make us think differently – and more Radical Efficiency model. framework describes good innovation that in for service leaders from across agencies radically – about our proposals for What is Radical Efficiency? generates new solutions to old problems. to think differently about the shared improvement.” Radical Efficiency is all about public service This is about improving existing systems. challenges they face. Taking the two ways Caroline Taylor, Chief Executive, NHS Croydon innovations that deliver different, much It is useful and can be very powerful – but of ‘rethinking the challenge’ – through better outcomes for users at significantly it is not radically efficient. ‘new insights’ from other sectors or new lower cost. Radical efficiency is not about Taken together however, the top and sources of data; and through considering We identified potential ‘new providers’ and tweaking and improving existing services. bottom halves of the framework describe ‘new customers’ or reconceptualising who ‘new resources’ to address our priorities. It is about generating new perspectives radical efficiency. They illustrate that by is truly being served – participants’ thinking What might users bring to ‘co-producing’ on old problems to enable a genuine taking a fresh look at the nature of the is opened up to a whole new domain services for themselves for example? paradigm shift in the services on offer – challenge – as well as thinking creatively for innovation. We discovered the ‘real’ Which organizations are users already and transform the user experience. about how to construct better solutions challenge, rather than the one we had been interacting with who might be good service – we can fundamentally change systems, working on by default for many years. partners? We worked together to identify The IU have uncovered more than 100 whole new directions to investigate in examples of radical efficiency from across not just improve them. In Croydon we were pushed to consider further developing our propositions. the globe in different services, contexts who the new customers for our early years and on different scales. Top ten case “I wish we’d done it two months ago – services might be (for example, the wider We had a range of light-bulb moments, studies range from Mental Health First Aid which is recognition of its usefulness family or older siblings), and to imagine and agreed that we should use the thinking in Australia to mobile banking in Kenya, and and generative capacity.” how private industry or third sector methodology more widely. Participants in from the Chicago Police Department’s virtual organisations might approach the same Croydon said that the experience stimulated Jon Rouse, Chief Executive, Croydon Council crime mapping tool to solar lamps in India. challenges. We were made to think more ‘the extra 20% of new thinking’ that will boldly and differently. allow them to truly transform services. 122 123
    • Changing public attitudes and behaviour Seven steps for helping communities change – nudging our way forward The Capital Ambition Guide suggests seven key steps: • Set a clear goal – (deciding by how much you want behaviour to change; whether you want to change the behaviour of targeted groups or everyone etc) Sue Goss, South Tyneside, Sunderland and Gateshead • Understanding the lifestyles and experiences of our communities in relation to programme lead, Office for Public Management this change – and what might motivate them; what they are up against etc • Segment target groups – understand differences • Understand the ‘theory in use’ about how behaviour is likely to change – what is the combination of stages we are planning and why? As we explore ways to get more for less, attention • Engage with local people – understand their views, preferences and worries – focuses on those areas where public spending co-design the approach with them ‘mops up’ problems that could be prevented. • Design an approach that works over time, combining different interventions • Ensure public and political support – and account to the community for the choices made. Some Total Place pilots have explored how Thaler and Sunstein argue that policy citizens could take greater responsibility makers can act as ‘choice architects’ to set for their own well-being and the well-being defaults to elicit better choices. Well-known of their ‘place’ – and how if we changed examples are the opt-out only polices for our behaviours we could reduce the vast pensions or organ donation, which use Harvard sociologist Robert Sampson terms • Human conversation is very important spending on alcohol and drug abuse, inertia to create socially beneficial outcomes. this ‘collective efficacy’ – we need to know in helping someone to understand their energy, waste, obesity, offending, anti- Other social science suggests we need to not just what is right or even what is in our own motivations and find their own route social behaviour etc. start from people’s lived experience and self-interest but also that our participation to change Governments have always sought to help them take control of personal choices. will make a difference.1 • Public service workers can play an impact on public behaviour, but traditional The health service is adopting ideas from important role – but they need to explore There are good places to look for learning approaches use tax or financial incentives cognitive behavioural therapy and social their own behaviours, values and from current projects. The Social Marketing or financial or legal penalties – and rely on therapy to work with individuals through motivations to help to others Centre has detailed case-studies on the the assumption that we always think and ‘motivational conversations’. Other factors • Public agencies have to think hard about website; and the London Collaborative has act rationally. Books like ‘Nudge’ suggest include the confidence people have in their ‘who decides’ which behaviours are produced a guide to Behaviour Change for we should pay more attention to ‘irrational’ own ability to take action and persist, so acceptable and unacceptable Capital Ambition with several case studies, processes. When choices are complicated: that it often helps to set and reward small which can be found on their website. • Local partnerships can create the • We make mental short-cuts that skew incremental goals. relationships and space necessary our preferences Some important learning: to enable to enable the ‘who decides’ People often look around at others for • We tend to prefer immediate gratification guidance on how to behave. Cialdini’s • Different people have very different question to be satisfactorily answered to long-term pay-offs research shows, for example that people are experiences – a blanket ‘advertising – and enable the community to act • We tend to default to the easiest course twice as likely to litter if their environment is campaign’ is unlikely to work collectively to implement the decisions of action dirty. We are learning that social norms and • Personal change takes place over time made social values such as loyalty, commitment and has several stages – a combination and reciprocity play an important role in of interventions has to match the behaviour change, and that in order to different stages people have reached2 participate in solving collective problems, people need to feel part of a wave of change, rather than isolated or powerless. 1 For sources, see Prendergast et al SMF 2008 2 Prochaska and DiClemente have described this as a ‘cycle of change’ 124 125
    • Creating the world café Lesley Cramman, WiT Partnership Ltd The purpose of a world café is to bring together people with diverse views and experience to foster collaborative dialogues and constructive possibilities for action. It works on the assumption that people How the world café works often just need the right context to work There are some key things that need to innovatively and creatively. It is a flexible be worked on to ensure the café is as and fun process that creates a real successful as possible. opportunity for people to share and cross- • Use small tables which seat four or five pollinate ideas and make new connections. people at most. The point is to have World cafés are excellent for large smaller groups where everyone can numbers of people but are less effective really connect and talk in some depth for groups under 20. • Cover the tables with paper tablecloths Preparing for a world café – for people to draw, doodle, write their There are a number of things to consider ideas on. You may choose to write key © Nancy Margulies before the world café happens. ideas on large post-its and place them • Be clear about why you want to use around the room the café • There are usually three café rounds each draw, doodle ideas, connections, and • Is the café the right process to use? lasting about 30-35 minutes (including questions (use the tablecloths). At the Follow up changeover time) end of each café round, hosts help the • Do you have an appropriate venue? People will want to know what • Every table usually (but not always) table to decide on three or four of the • Who will you involve in formulating has emerged from the energy addresses the same question at the most important points they want to share the questions? and record these in an agreed format and goodwill of the café and same time • Who will be the table hosts (you will what happens next. You could • Each table needs a host. Table hosts • In the final round of the café people often need one host for four/five participants)? go back to their original tables to share produce a short report which stay at the table and their role is key. They welcome people to the table and what they have learned and synthesise includes photographs of the Getting the questions right do introductions at the beginning of each their insights and learning event, a write up of the key Good questions that people care about points and future actions. cafe round. They share ideas from each • The world café closes with a meeting of are at the heart of the world café. You will round of the café with new people and all participants to share ideas, insights, For more information need to work with the table hosts before encourage people to listen carefully to questions and agree a way forward the café to get the questions right – this is about the world café, visit one another and build on ideas. They a good investment of time. encourage people at their table to write, www.theworldcafe.com 126 127
    • To t a l Place Leadership Centre for Local Government Local Government House Smith Square London SW1P 3HZ Switch 020 7187 7388 www.localleadership.gov.uk Leadership Centre for local government