ANCIENT EGYPT:“THE GIFT OF THE NILE”(HERODOTUS)
Yashaullah Somroo*Introduction*Geography*Gift of NileQamar uddin*Politics*Government*Law and orderKamran* Religious aspect*Role of priest*Role of pharaohRabia Zahid*Social structureZubaida Batool ( Group Leader)*Achievements*DeclineContrasts with Mesopotamia and Chinese Civilization
Egypt on the NileI. GEOGRAPHYNile RiverA. The Nile1. Egypt’s settlements arose along narrow strip ofland made fertile by the river2. Yearly flooding, but predictableRegular cycle: flood, plant, harvest, flood, plant, harvest...3. Intricate network of irrigation ditches4. Worshiped as a god – giver of life and benevolent
Egypt on the NileB. Upper and Lower Egypt1. Most of Egypt’s history focused aroundLower Egypt,around the Nile delta which flows into theMediterranean Sea.2. Upper Egypt developed later upstream3. Nile provided reliable transportation- to go north, drift with the current toward the sea- to go south, sail catching the Mediterranean breezeC. Environment1. Unlike Mesopotamia, the Nile was predictable2. Deserts on both sides of Nile- provided natural protection againstinvaders- also reduced interaction with other people.PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Ancient Egyptian HistoryPERIODS TIME FRAMENILE CULTUREBEGINS3900 B. C. E.ARCHAIC 3100 – 2650 B. C. E.OLD KINGDOM 2575 – 2134 B. C. E.MIDDLE KINGDOM 2040 – 1640 B. C. E.NEW KINGDOM 1532 – 1070 B. C. E.LATE PERIOD 750 – 332 B. C. E.GREEK PTOLEMAICERA332 – 30 B. C. E.ROMAN PERIOD 30 B. C. E. – 395 C. E.
WHY WAS EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION ABLE TOLAST THOUSANDS OF YEARS, RELATIVELYUNCHANGED WHEN MESOPOTAMIANCIVILIZATION DID NOT LAST SO LONG? Egypt had even better natural borders, so nonatural enemies. The common economy of the Nile The early unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
The PHAROAH was at the top of the socialhierarchy.• Under them were the HIGH PRIESTS,followed by ROYAL OVERSEERS(administrators) who ensured that the42 DISTRICT GOVERNORS carried outthe pharaohs orders.• Next to him, the most powerful officerswere the VIZIERS, the executive heads ofthe bureaucracy.• At the bottom of the hierarchywere the SCRIBES, ARTISANS,FARMERS, and LABORERS.
Menes:Unifier of Upper & Lower EgyptOriginally two kingdomsdeveloped along the NileLower EgyptLocated along the northernNileGood farmlandAccess to copper mines inSinai PeninsulaUpper EgyptLocated along the southernNileKing Menes (~3000 BCE)conquered lower Egypt,unifying the kingdom andestablishing the first dynastyCapital at Memphis
THE OLD KINGDOM(2575-2134 BCE)Pharaohs organized a strong central state, wereabsolute rulers, and were considered gods.Khufu and others built pyramids at Giza.Power struggles, crop failures, and cost ofpyramids contributed to the collapse of the OldKingdom.
THE MIDDLE KINGDOM(2040-1640 BCE) New capital Thebes in upper (southern) Egypt ~1600 BC ruler became known as the pharaoh Came to an end when the Hyksos, a people from western Asia, invaded.The Hyksos had Bronze Weapons and Horse Drawn Chariots The Hyksos ruled Egyptfor 110 years
NEW KINGDOM(1532-1070 BCE) Early female ruler Hatshepsut (1473-1458BCE) Had a tomb built as part of a major building project Succeeded by stepson, Thutmose III Thutmose established Egypt as an empire, gainswealth Through trade and conquest, Egyptianslearned other ideas and blend cultures(movement)
Powerful pharaohscreated a large empirethat reached theEuphrates River.Hatshepsutencouraged trade.Tutankhamen: boy-kingRamses II expandedEgyptian rule to Syria.Egyptian powerdeclined.Large drainage projectcreated arable farmland.Traders had contacts withMiddle East and Crete.Corruption and rebellionswere common.Hyksos invaded andoccupied the deltaregion.Pharaohs organized astrong central state,were absolute rulers,and were consideredgods.Khufu and others builtpyramids at Giza.Power struggles, cropfailures, and cost ofpyramids contributed tothe collapse of the OldKingdom.NEW KINGDOM(1532-1070 BCE)MIDDLEKINGDOM(2040-1640 BCE)OLD KINGDOM(2575-2134 BCE)THREE KINGDOMS OF ANCIENT EGYPT
Pharaohs organizedcentralized stateBuilt enormous tombs,the pyramidsPower struggles, cropfailures and cost ofpyramids causedcollapseCorrupt governmentsuffered frequentrebellionsLand drained forfarmingHittites invaded andconqueredPharaohs created alarge empireTraded with lands alongeastern Mediterraneanand Red SeaNubians, then othersinvadedOld Middle NewGovernmentDeclineAchievements
MILITARYThe Ancient Egyptianarmy was divided intotwo forces Army navy.
To reinforce their image as powerful divine rulers, the PHARAOHSrepresented themselves in writings and sculptured reliefs on temple walls.They often DEPICTED THEMSELVES AS WARRIORS who single-handedly killed scores of enemies and slaughtered a whole pride of lions.
LAW In Ancient Egypt, the courtsystems were very unfair. Noble men and rich Also, judgesand tax collectors used theirpower to control other people andfor their own gods, The pharaohs made many strictrules and harsh punishments sothat the citizens will stay incontrol
PHARAOH, PRIESTS, AND TEMPLES Pharaoh as a chiefpriest Priests Temples
MAIN DUTIES OF PRIESTS IN TEMPLES Egyptian priests were the servantsof the deities. They also made sure that the peopleare following the rules of thepharaoh They are more of a member of alocal government rather than beingholy figures They were told to keep records
Death in Egyptian religion• It is known that Egyptiansbelieved in the concept of “deathafter life”;• Egyptians devoted much timeand wealth to preparing forsurvival in the next world.(MUMMIFICATION)• They believed that soulstravelled through the after lifethat’s why they gave importancein preserving the bodies of thedead.
EARLY MUMIFICATION Early Mummies weremade when they diedin the desert an wereburied under sand.They were left out andall the water in therebody’s evaporatedcauseing mumification
ROLES IN MUMMIFICATIONThere were 3 major roles in themummification. the Scribe, the Cutter the Embalmer.
BACKGROUND Information comesthrough Paintings Reliefs Models in TomsScribeEgyptiangetting water
PaintingThis painting is somewhat unusual. Can youspot the reason why?
HOUSES All Houses made Bricks dried out inthe sun Windows were small and high upwindows and doors with woodenshutters Wealthy families has large housesand poor has small with 4 roomsshared with domesticated animals Oil lamps used for light the homes
Girls married in the age of12 to 14 Boys married in the age of16 to 20 Marriages usuallyarranged and in family forthe sake of purification ofbloodDUTIES Responsible for parentsburials & funeral Protect and care theirwives Provided in their old age Followed father’s footstepand took the same job
WOMEN IN EGYPT Typically Male dominated butWomen get far more rights Legally independent citizen Equal inheritBoth male female attendedSocial ocassions togetherList of possible ocupatians wereServantLaundrywomenShop managerSingerDancerWork in field with hysbands
DRESSESWhite simple dressMade of linenRich wore fine woven linenMale wore line cloths from waistto kness upper class also woreskirtsWomen wore simple white tightfitting clothesRich ladies also wore shawls &breaded coolarsEgyptian also wore sandalsmade from leather or reed
Fashion and Jewelry Extremely image concious andinterested in fashion Both wore earings, braclets,rings, necklace Jewelry made from gold & alsodecorated with stones likecarnelian, feldspar, amethyst Cosmetis used both they usedeye makeup & oil only wealthy Believe makeup had magical &healing powers
EDUCATIONFew Upper classboyswent to school1% of population ableto read and writeThey taught ScribesAlso taught ElementryMathematics,Goegraphy, AstronomyNo evidence for theteaching of foreignLanguage
ENTERTAINMENTEgyptian love musicMusicians played flutes, lute,trumpers, drumsStorytelling popular in egyptiansocietyThey like Hunting, Fishing , andSwimmingThey liked boardganes such asSennet, Twenty squares, and Snakegames
NVENTIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS OFEGYPTIAN CIVILIZATIONI Ancient Egyptians are believed tohave been very intelligent andthorough people. Research into theirlifestyle reveals that they developedquite a few tools to make their liveseasy and efficient. Religious based Social based
RELIGIOUS BASED Irrigation system Pyramids building Mummification Obelisks Cartouches The book of Death
SOCIAL BASED INVENTIONS Calendarinvention Nileometer Paper
EGYPTIAN ACHIEVEMENTS Bricks Locks Language
DECLINE OF EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATIONThe world of ancient Egypt continues tofascinate even today, but we still dont knowwhy it foundered. What was it that broughtthis glittering and mighty civilisation to anend?
DECLINE OF EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION Anthropocentriccauses Non anthropocentriccauses
ANTHROPOCENTRIC CAUSES Weak pharaoh (Ramasesiii) Sedition of priest class Foreign invasion Uneven distribution ofwealth Sign of troubles Demise of the hieroglyphs Weak militia
NON ANTHROPROCENTRIC CAUSES Environmental changes Lack of flood Sand storm
COMPARE AND CONTRAST OF EGYPTIAN WITHMESOPOTAMIA AND CHINESE CIVILIZATION
COMPARISON OF MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPTMesopotamia EgyptAgriculture +“Land between the rivers”(Tigris and Euphrates formsFertile Crescent+Artificial irrigation+”Gift of the Nile”+Artificial irrigationSpecialization +Pottery, textiles, woodworking,leather, brick making,stonecutting, masonry+Pottery, textiles, woodworking,leather production, stonecutting,masonryCities -Numerous, densely populatedcity-states (Ur and Babylon)-Fewer cities with highcentralization (Memphis andThebes)Social Hierarchy -Noble class-Patriarchal+Slaves-Absolute authority of thepharaoh made a noble classunnecessary (had bureaucratsinstead)-Patriarchal, but the presence ofQueen Hatsheput may indicategreater opportunities for women+Slaves
COMPARISON OF MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPTMesopotamia EgyptReligion and Education -Polytheism-afterlife was bad-Polytheism, but brief period ofmonotheism under Akhentan-Afterlife and judgment - couldbe good or bad (mummification)New Technologies -Superior in metallurgy -Papyrus, shipbuilding,pyramidsEconomic exchange -Trade by land and water -Trade principally by water alongthe Nile-Trade more important becauseEgypt lacked natural resourcesbeside the NileArt and Writing -Cuneiform -Hieroglyphs (more pictorialthan cuneiform)
COMPARISON OF CHINESE AND EGYPTchinese EgyptReligion The Chinese were polytheisticwith the addition of ancestorworship. Over time, thesebeliefs were sometimes blendedwith Taoism, Buddhism orConfucianism.The religion of ancient Egypt waspolytheistic and centered aroundthe divinity of the ruler and theeternity of the soulFuneral Customs In Egypt, people were buriedwith thought to preservation, asthey believed that the deadwould be able to use theirbodies in the afterlifeChinese burial style depended onthe province as well as the mainreligion of the person. Peoplewould be buried in the ground, inwater, put in a hanging coffin orcremated.Money Egyptians did not have propercurrency until 1000 B.C.Instead, goods and serviceswere exchanged for other goodsand services deemed ofcomparable valueancient Chinese used cowrieshells and metal beads. Coins andeven paper money were used aswell.
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