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Webcasting

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Presentation from Sm East2007

Presentation from Sm East2007
source - www.StreamingMedia.com

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    Webcasting Webcasting Presentation Transcript

    • Hands on Guide to Webcasting May 14, 2007 Streaming Media East
    • The Goal
      • Live at noon
      • Audience participation
        • yes, that means you
    • What We Have To Do
      • Planning
        • programming
        • production
        • network infrastructure
        • web presence
      • Execution
        • a/v production
        • authoring
        • encoding
      • Testing
        • everything – twice.
    • Rough Schedule
      • Initial discussion (10 mins)
      • Planning (1 hour)
        • basics (who/what/where/why)
      • Execution (1 hour)
        • a/v production setup
        • a/v testing
        • encoding setup
        • encoding testing
    • Why Webcasts are Tricky
      • They’re live
        • No second chance
      • Additional hardware requirements
      • Additional personnel requirements
      • They test the limits of your streaming infrastructure
        • Bandwidth
        • Server architecture (web & streaming)
      • They’re expensive and therefore can be hard to justify
    • Are you ready?
    • First: Make the Business Case
      • Who
        • is the audience?
      • What
        • are we webcasting?
      • Where
        • is the location suitable
      • When
        • is there enough time to do it right?
      • Why
        • is this the best way to address the need?
    • We need a crew.
      • Executive Producer
      • Audio engineer
      • Videographer (camera op)
      • Encoding engineer
      • Host
      • Guest(s)
    • Planning
      • Location
        • Size, power, access, union fees
      • Signal Acquisition
        • On site connectivity, satellite
      • Equipment
        • Usually best to work with a partner
      • Crew
        • May come with equipment
      • Presentation
        • Talent, Pre/post show, technical difficulties
      • Network Infrastructure
        • host, bandwidth usage, encoding specs
      • Production area
      • Stage
      • Audio
      • Video
      • Encoding
      Setup
      • Avoid ground hum
        • Placement or extra equipment
      • Ambient mics
        • Absolutely for musical events
      • Tape down loose cables
      • Use compression
      • Test!
      Audio Setup
    • Setting Up A Gain Structure
      • Make sure each piece of equipment operates in its optimal range
      • Start with first piece of equipment and work through the signal chain
      • set the input and output gain for each
      • Peaks at -3dB for analog, -10dB for digital
    • Audio Production Tips
      • Compression “evens out” audio levels
        • Protects your equipment from “spikes” in level
        • Attenuating loud sections enables overall signal gain
        • “Fattens” audio
        • Hardware compressor is essential for webcasts
    • Compression Illustrated
      • Tripods (heavy duty)
      • Risers if available
      • Lights
        • 3-point?
        • Flat wash?
      • White balancing (shading)
      • Test!
      Video Setup
    • How Video Codecs Work
      • Intra-frame compression
        • Just like a .jpg or .png file
      • Inter-frame compression
        • Differences between frames are encoded
      • Key frames
        • Entire frame is encoded
        • Uses a lot of bandwidth
      • Difference frames
        • Only differences are encoded
        • Use relatively little bandwidth on low motion content
    • Video Production Tips
      • Avoid unnecessary motion/changes
        • Use a tripod, use a tripod, use a tripod
        • Avoid moving objects in the background
        • Avoid special effects
        • Simple edits are best
        • Keep the number of cuts to a minimum
      • Framing
        • Smaller screen, so frame tighter
    • Video Production Tips
      • G-I-G-O
      • Use good video engineering practice
        • If you don’t know, hire someone
      • Good equipment, proper technique
        • If you don’t own it, rent it
      • Lighting is essential
        • Nearly impossible to correct using software
        • Low-light = no light
    • Video Processing Techniques
      • VGA vs. Television displays
        • VGA screens are far more detailed
        • Traditional video tends to look dark & washed out
      • Adjust Brightness
        • Add gain to match screen to a TV monitor
        • Be careful if you’re going back out to the broadcast world!
      • Adjust Contrast
        • Adding a small amount is good; be careful though
        • Too much contrast adds grain (bad for codecs)
      • Color
        • Increasing saturation a bit can be helpful
    • Encoding Setup
      • Bit rate
      • Resolution
      • Capture card?
      • Encoding software?
      • Local Archive?
      • Push vs. pull encoding
      • Redundancy is key
        • Ideally redundant connectivity
        • Extra equipment
      • Multiple stream solutions
    • Authoring
      • Link to webcast page from home page
      • Always offer a metafile link
      • If embedding, keep it simple
      • Test!
    • Authoring
      • Problem: browsers don’t stream
        • Browsers don’t understand RTSP or MMS protocols
        • Browsers download entire file
      • Solution: metafiles
        • Small file delivered via HTTP
        • Contains information about streaming file
      4 Web Server Streaming Server 1 2 3 5
    • Authoring - Metafiles
      • QuickTime .qtl files
      • RealSystem .ram files
      • Windows Media .asx files
      <?xml version=&quot;1.0“ ?> <?quicktime type=&quot;application/x-quicktime-media-link“ ?> <embed src=“rtsp://your.qtserver.com/YourStream.mov&quot; /> rtsp://your.realserver.com/YourStream.rm <asx version=&quot;3.0&quot;> <entry> <ref href=&quot;mms://your.wmserver.com/YourStream.wmv&quot; /> </entry> </asx>
    • Distribution Techniques
      • Redundancy is key
      • Robust load balancing required
      • Use multicast where appropriate
      • Usually best to work with a partner
      • TEST!
    • Distribution Methods
      • Unicast/multicast to servers
      • Unicast/multicast to local clients
    • Countdown
      • Test the audio
      • Test the video
      • Test the encoder(s)
      • Test the link(s)
      • Go live at least 10 minutes before event begins, preferably 30 minutes
    • Liftoff?
    • Q & A Thank You Steve Mack [email_address]