Ancient Civilizations Emerging Europe and The Byzantine Empire
Germanic Kingdoms <ul><li>Germanic people began moving into Rome in the 3 rd  century </li></ul><ul><li>Visigoths occupied...
 
Germanic Kingdoms <ul><li>Clovis converted to Christianity after calling for Jesus help during battle – the enemy fled aft...
Clovis
Germanic Kingdoms <ul><li>Extended families in German society worked together & defended each other during violent times <...
Role of the Church <ul><li>Christianity became main religion of Roman empire by 4 th  century </li></ul><ul><li>Roman chur...
 
Patriarch Archdiocese/Archbishop Bishop/Diocese Priest/Parish Pope Gregory I
Roman Catholic Church <ul><li>Pope claim was based on the belief that Jesus gave Peter the keys to Heaven </li></ul><ul><l...
Gregory I
Role of Church <ul><li>Gregory – pope from 590-604, extended papal authority over the Western Church & actively converted ...
Role of Church <ul><li>Monks meditated & read privately/ They prayed together seven times a day </li></ul><ul><li>All aspe...
Role of Church <ul><li>Nuns = women who withdrew from the world to dedicate themselves to God </li></ul><ul><li>Nuns lived...
St. Benedict
Roles
 
Nuns  Monks
Charlemagne <ul><li>600 & 700’s, Frankish kings lost their power to the chief officers of the king’s household = mayor’s o...
 
 
Charlemagne <ul><li>Charlemagne established  missi dominci  (messengers of the lord king) two men who were sent to make fo...
Fall of Carolingian empire <ul><li>Charlemagne died in 814/ by 844 Carolingian empire divided into 3 kingdoms by grandsons...
 
 
Feudalism Political and Social system <ul><li>Invaders posed a threat to the safety of the people due to decentralized gov...
<ul><li>In practice it meant the country was not governed by the king but by individual lords who administered their own e...
<ul><li>A Lord's Obligations . On the lord's side, he was obliged to protect the vassal, give military aid, and guard his ...
Feudalism:  Military Service for Land
Feudalism  <ul><li>Knights = heavily armored warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Mail = armor made of metal links or plates </li></...
Feudalism <ul><li>Vassals had political authority in their fief - in charge of keeping order </li></ul><ul><li>Feudalism b...
Feudal Obligations <ul><li>Vassals/Knights: </li></ul><ul><li>Military service for 40-60 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Homage. <...
Page, Squire, Knight
Joust
Feudalism <ul><li>Castles = permanent residences & fortresses/#’s increased in high middle ages(1000-1300) </li></ul><ul><...
 
 
Feudalism <ul><li>11 th  & 12 th  century, under influence of Church- chivalry became important to knights </li></ul><ul><...
Eleanor
 
 
Alfred the Great Unified The Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy
England <ul><li>King Alfred the Great united the various kingdoms of England that had been ruled by Anglo-Saxon kings </li...
Norman Conquest <ul><li>10/4/1066, William of Normandy defeated King Harold of England at the battle of Hastings </li></ul...
William I, the Conqueror Brought Norman Feudalism To England
 
Henry II <ul><li>Henry II enlarged English monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded the power of the royal courts & king’s powe...
 
Magna Carta <ul><li>English nobles resented the growth of the king’s power/ rebellion was raised against King John </li></...
John Was Forced To Sign the Magna Carta in 1215
English Parliament <ul><li>Eventually 2 houses were formed </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles & church lords formed = House of the L...
Edward I Called a Parliament Of Lords and Commons
French Kingdom <ul><li>Kingdom of France was 1/3 of the former Carolingian empire </li></ul><ul><li>Hugh Capet was chosen ...
 
French Kingdom <ul><li>Phillip II successors continued to add land to the Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>13 th  century, Louis ...
Louis IX
Philip IV Called the Estates- General to Raise Taxes
 
Holy Roman Empire <ul><li>German kings attempted to rule both German & Italian lands but struggled to do so </li></ul><ul>...
Otto I
East & Central Europe <ul><li>Slavic people divided into 3 groups: western, eastern, & southern Slavs </li></ul><ul><li>We...
St. Cyril and St. Methodius
Russia <ul><li>Eastern Slavic people settled in present day Ukraine & Russia </li></ul><ul><li>8 th  century, Swedish Viki...
Kievan Rus <ul><li>Oleg, Viking leader, settled in Kiev at the beginning of 10 th  century & created principality of Kiev ...
 
Oleg
 
Vladimir I Chose Eastern Orthodoxy
Mongol Rule in Russia <ul><li>13 th  century, Mongols conquered Russia & forced Russian princes to pay tribute to them </l...
Alexander Nevsky, Prince Of Novgorod
Reign of Justinian <ul><li>5 th  century, Eastern Roman empire was centered around Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>Justin...
Constantinople
Emperor Justinian
 
Beginning of Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Justinian’s conquest left Eastern Roman empire with too much land to protect far fro...
Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Both a Greek & Christian state </li></ul><ul><li>Greek replaced Latin as the official language </...
 
Life in Constantinople <ul><li>Largest city in Europe in the Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Based on trade until the 12 th ...
Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Macedonians ruled the Byzantine Empire from 876-1081 </li></ul><ul><li>Macedonians expanded the e...
EOC & Catholic Split <ul><li>Eastern Orthodox Church did not accept the pope’s claim as head of Church </li></ul><ul><li>1...
Byzantine Art: Mosaics and Illuminated Manuscripts
Hagia Sophia
Crusades <ul><li>11 th  & 13 th  centuries, European Christians carried out a series of military expeditions to take back ...
 
Alexius I Asked For Help and Urban II Called For the First Crusade
 
First Crusades <ul><li>Mostly French knights  = captured Antioch in 1098 & Jerusalem in 1099 </li></ul><ul><li>Massacred M...
2 nd  Crusade <ul><li>The fall of a Latin Kingdom led to the call of another crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Bernard of Cl...
Louis VII and Conrad III Respond To Bernard of Clairvaux’s Call For a Second Crusade
Saladin’s Capture of Jerusalem Sparked the Third Crusade
3 rd  Crusade <ul><li>Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted) of England, Phillip II of Augus...
Philip II, Frederick I And Richard I Responded
4 th  Crusade <ul><li>6 years after the death of Saladin in 1193, Pope Innocent III initiated the 4 th  crusade </li></ul>...
Sultan Mahmet II: Conqueror of  Constantinople Osman: Founder  Of the Ottoman Turks
Results of the Crusades <ul><li>Increased wealth of Italian city-states like Genoa and Venice. </li></ul><ul><li>Began Jew...
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Emerging Europe (Ch.9 Honors and Regular)

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Emerging Europe (Ch.9 Honors and Regular)

  1. 1. Ancient Civilizations Emerging Europe and The Byzantine Empire
  2. 2. Germanic Kingdoms <ul><li>Germanic people began moving into Rome in the 3 rd century </li></ul><ul><li>Visigoths occupied Spain & Italy until the Ostrogoths took control of Italy in the 5 th century </li></ul><ul><li>By 500 Western Roman empire had became # of states ruled by German kings </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic Angles & Saxons = Anglo-Saxons moved into Britain in 5 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Clovis-Christian convert, established Frankish kingdom -500 </li></ul>
  3. 4. Germanic Kingdoms <ul><li>Clovis converted to Christianity after calling for Jesus help during battle – the enemy fled after the plea </li></ul><ul><li>Clovis gained support of the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>By 510, Clovis established Frankish kingdom from Pyrenees to present day Germany </li></ul><ul><li>After Clovis death, his sons divided the kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Germans & Romans intermarried = German customs had an important role </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family was center of society </li></ul>
  4. 5. Clovis
  5. 6. Germanic Kingdoms <ul><li>Extended families in German society worked together & defended each other during violent times </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic law was personal, one injuring another led to a savage blood feuds </li></ul><ul><li>Wergild (money for a man) system was developed to avoid bloodshed after crimes such as murder/ wrongdoer paid the injured party’s family a set amount of money which varied by social status </li></ul>
  6. 7. Role of the Church <ul><li>Christianity became main religion of Roman empire by 4 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Roman church developed a system of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Priests was head of parishes – local communities </li></ul><ul><li>Bishop was head of diocese - a group of parishes or bishopric </li></ul><ul><li>Archbishop – head of groups of diocese </li></ul><ul><li>Bishop of Rome became known as Pope – the head of what is now known as the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul>
  7. 9. Patriarch Archdiocese/Archbishop Bishop/Diocese Priest/Parish Pope Gregory I
  8. 10. Roman Catholic Church <ul><li>Pope claim was based on the belief that Jesus gave Peter the keys to Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Peter was considered to be the chief apostle & the first bishop of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Bishops who succeeded Peter were called popes = Latin word for “ papa” – father </li></ul><ul><li>Western Christians accepted the pope as the church’s leader, but could not agree on the pope’s powers </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory I strengthened power by taking political control of Rome & surrounding territories </li></ul>
  9. 11. Gregory I
  10. 12. Role of Church <ul><li>Gregory – pope from 590-604, extended papal authority over the Western Church & actively converted non-Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Monk = man who separates himself from the rest of the world to become closer to God/ Monasticism is the practice of living like a monk </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Benedict founded an order of Monks & wrote rules for their practice </li></ul><ul><li>Benedict’s rules divided the day into activities; emphasizing prayer & physical labor to keep monks busy </li></ul>
  11. 13. Role of Church <ul><li>Monks meditated & read privately/ They prayed together seven times a day </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of Benedict life was communal </li></ul><ul><li>Abbot (father) ruled each Benedictine monastery </li></ul><ul><li>Monks were to obey the Abbot/ took a vowel of poverty/monks dedication made then new heroes of Christian civilization/ were social workers in communities </li></ul><ul><li>Monks spread Christianity throughout Europe/Irish & English monks were enthusiastic missionaries </li></ul>
  12. 14. Role of Church <ul><li>Nuns = women who withdrew from the world to dedicate themselves to God </li></ul><ul><li>Nuns lived in convents headed abbesses </li></ul><ul><li>Abess Hilda founded a monastery in Whitby in 657 where she educated five future bishops </li></ul>
  13. 15. St. Benedict
  14. 16. Roles
  15. 18. Nuns Monks
  16. 19. Charlemagne <ul><li>600 & 700’s, Frankish kings lost their power to the chief officers of the king’s household = mayor’s of the palace </li></ul><ul><li>Pepin assumed the kingship </li></ul><ul><li>Pepin’s son became king after his death in 768 = son was Charles the Great – Charlemagne </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne = one of history’s great kings/ curious, driven, intelligent, strong warrior, devout Christian/ was illiterate, but strongly supported learning </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled from 768 to 814/ Expanded the Frankish kingdom into Carolingian empire = covered much of western & central Europe </li></ul>
  17. 22. Charlemagne <ul><li>Charlemagne established missi dominci (messengers of the lord king) two men who were sent to make for sure the kings wishes were followed </li></ul><ul><li>800, he was crowned emperor of the Romans/ the coronation symbolized the coming together of the Roman, Christian, & Germanic elements that forged European civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Carolingian Renaissance was promoted by Charlemagne desire to promote learning </li></ul><ul><li>Benedictine monks played important role in revival of learning </li></ul>
  18. 23. Fall of Carolingian empire <ul><li>Charlemagne died in 814/ by 844 Carolingian empire divided into 3 kingdoms by grandsons </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims invaded southern France </li></ul><ul><li>Magyars settled on the plains of Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings (Norsemen of Scandinavia) attacked the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings were superb warriors & shipbuilders/ famed dragon ships carrying about 50 men could go shallow rivers to attack inland </li></ul><ul><li>9 th century, Vikings settled in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>911, Frankish king gave Vikings land of Normandy </li></ul>
  19. 26. Feudalism Political and Social system <ul><li>Invaders posed a threat to the safety of the people due to decentralized government </li></ul><ul><li>People began to turn landed aristocrats or nobles for protection – this led to feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Feudalism arose between 800-900/ similar system in Japan- Samurai </li></ul><ul><li>Vassalage = center of feudalism came from Germanic society where warriors swore oath to their leader </li></ul><ul><li>Vassal = man who served a lord in a militarily capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Knights = a member of the heavily armored cavalry </li></ul>
  20. 27. <ul><li>In practice it meant the country was not governed by the king but by individual lords who administered their own estates, dispensed their own justice, minted their own money, levied taxes and tolls, and demand </li></ul><ul><li>Feudal Ties. Feudalism was built upon a relationship of obligation and mutual service between vassals and lords. A vassal held his land, or fief, as a grant from a lord. When a vassal died, his heir was required to publicly renew his oath of faithfulness (fealty) to his lord (suzerain). This public oath was called &quot;homage&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>A Vassal's Obligations. The vassal was required to attend the lord at his court, help administer justice, and contribute money if needed. He must answer a summons to battle, bringing an agreed upon number of fighting men. As well, he must feed and house the lord and his company when they travelled across his land. </li></ul>
  21. 28. <ul><li>A Lord's Obligations . On the lord's side, he was obliged to protect the vassal, give military aid, and guard his children. If a daughter inherited, the lord arranged her marriage. If there were no heirs the lord disposed of the fief as he chose. </li></ul><ul><li>The Serf's Life . Although not technically a slave, a serf was bound to a lord for life. He could own no property and needed the lord's permission to marry. Under no circumstance could a serf leave the land without the lord's permission unless he chose to run away. If he ran to a town and managed to stay there for a year and a day, he was a free man. However, the serf did have rights. He could not be displaced if the manor changed hands. He could not be required to fight, and he was entitled to the protection of the lord. </li></ul>
  22. 29. Feudalism: Military Service for Land
  23. 30. Feudalism <ul><li>Knights = heavily armored warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Mail = armor made of metal links or plates </li></ul><ul><li>Frankish army initially set up foot soldiers in mail </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily armored knights dominated warfare for over 500 years </li></ul><ul><li>Knights had great prestige & formed much of European aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Early Middle Ages (500-1000) wealth was based on owning land/very little trade </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles gave a piece of land to vassals in exchange for fighting = fief </li></ul>
  24. 31. Feudalism <ul><li>Vassals had political authority in their fief - in charge of keeping order </li></ul><ul><li>Feudalism became complicated = kings had vassals who had vassals </li></ul><ul><li>Feudal contract = unwritten rules that characterized feudalism - relationship between king & vassal/knights for about 40-60 days a year </li></ul><ul><li>Vassals were to advise the lord, financial obligations to the lord, knighting of his eldest son, </li></ul><ul><li>Lord supported the vassal with land grant & protection in military & court </li></ul>
  25. 32. Feudal Obligations <ul><li>Vassals/Knights: </li></ul><ul><li>Military service for 40-60 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Homage. </li></ul><ul><li>Serve on the lord’s court. </li></ul><ul><li>Gifts for weddings and knighthoods. </li></ul><ul><li>Ransom. </li></ul><ul><li>Lords: </li></ul><ul><li>Protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Wardship – oversee personal affairs and family if vassal dies in service. </li></ul>
  26. 33. Page, Squire, Knight
  27. 34. Joust
  28. 35. Feudalism <ul><li>Castles = permanent residences & fortresses/#’s increased in high middle ages(1000-1300) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Ages = nobles dominated European society/ main concern was warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles = kings, dukes, counts, barons, bishops, archbishops </li></ul><ul><li>Knighthood = united lords & knights in aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Knights = trained as warriors/ no adult responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Young knights held tournaments to show their skills/ joust became main attraction </li></ul>
  29. 38. Feudalism <ul><li>11 th & 12 th century, under influence of Church- chivalry became important to knights </li></ul><ul><li>Chivalry = civilized behavior, knights were to defend the church & defenseless people, treat captives as honored guests, fight for glory not rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Women could own property, but were under control of men/ first their fathers, then their husbands </li></ul><ul><li>Lady of the castle in charge of household & estate </li></ul><ul><li>Eleanor of Aquitane = married to king Louis VII of France & Henry II of England/ 2 children became kings of England </li></ul>
  30. 39. Eleanor
  31. 42. Alfred the Great Unified The Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy
  32. 43. England <ul><li>King Alfred the Great united the various kingdoms of England that had been ruled by Anglo-Saxon kings </li></ul><ul><li>Angles, Saxons, Germanic people were united </li></ul>
  33. 44. Norman Conquest <ul><li>10/4/1066, William of Normandy defeated King Harold of England at the battle of Hastings </li></ul><ul><li>William was then crowned King of England </li></ul><ul><li>Norman knights received land as a fief and swore allegiance to the king </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage of French & Anglo-Saxons led to a new English culture </li></ul><ul><li>Normans adopted Anglo-Saxon institutions = office of sheriff, census called Domesday Book </li></ul><ul><li>William further developed taxation & royal courts </li></ul>
  34. 45. William I, the Conqueror Brought Norman Feudalism To England
  35. 47. Henry II <ul><li>Henry II enlarged English monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded the power of the royal courts & king’s power/increased # of criminal cases tried on the king’s court </li></ul><ul><li>Common law replaced law codes across the kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to control Church but failed </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Beckett, archbishop of Canterbury said only Roman Catholic Church could try clergy </li></ul><ul><li>Four knights murdered Beckett, Henry was outraged & backed down </li></ul>
  36. 49. Magna Carta <ul><li>English nobles resented the growth of the king’s power/ rebellion was raised against King John </li></ul><ul><li>1215, King John was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta </li></ul><ul><li>Magna Carta = feudal document, written recognition that the power of the king was limited </li></ul><ul><li>13 th century, under Edward I = English parliament emerged </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament = 2 knights from every county, 2 people from every town, and all the bishops & nobles throughout England </li></ul>
  37. 50. John Was Forced To Sign the Magna Carta in 1215
  38. 51. English Parliament <ul><li>Eventually 2 houses were formed </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles & church lords formed = House of the Lords </li></ul><ul><li>Knights & townspeoples = House of Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Parliaments granted taxes & passed laws </li></ul>
  39. 52. Edward I Called a Parliament Of Lords and Commons
  40. 53. French Kingdom <ul><li>Kingdom of France was 1/3 of the former Carolingian empire </li></ul><ul><li>Hugh Capet was chosen to be king by west Frankish nobles establishing the Capetian dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Capetians had little power & only controlled the land around Paris/ Dukes had more power than kings </li></ul><ul><li>Phillip II of Augustus = was the turning point in the French monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Phillip waged war against England & gained control of the Normandy, Maine, Anjou, & Aquitaine </li></ul>
  41. 55. French Kingdom <ul><li>Phillip II successors continued to add land to the Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>13 th century, Louis IX ruled/ deeply religious man who later made a saint by the Catholic church/Known for his attempts bring justice to his people </li></ul><ul><li>Phillip IV, Phillip the Fair, effective in strengthening the French monarchy & expanding the royal bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Phillip IV started a French parliament/Estates General </li></ul>
  42. 56. Louis IX
  43. 57. Philip IV Called the Estates- General to Raise Taxes
  44. 59. Holy Roman Empire <ul><li>German kings attempted to rule both German & Italian lands but struggled to do so </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick’s attempt to conquer northern Italy caused problems </li></ul><ul><li>Pope opposed him fearing that he wanted to include Rome & the papal states </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Italian cities did not want to be his subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance of Italian cities & pope defeated Frederick I in 1176 </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick II also waged a war against the pope & northern cities & lost </li></ul>
  45. 60. Otto I
  46. 61. East & Central Europe <ul><li>Slavic people divided into 3 groups: western, eastern, & southern Slavs </li></ul><ul><li>Western Slavs formed the Polish & Bohemian kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Poles, Czechs, Hungarians were all converted to Christianity by German Monks </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Slavic people were converted to Orthodox Christianity by two Byzantine missionary brothers; Cyril & Methodius </li></ul><ul><li>Croats, Serbs, & Bulgarians were converted to Eastern Orthodoxy </li></ul>
  47. 62. St. Cyril and St. Methodius
  48. 63. Russia <ul><li>Eastern Slavic people settled in present day Ukraine & Russia </li></ul><ul><li>8 th century, Swedish Vikings began to move in search of plunder & trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings eventually dominated the native people </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings named it Rus = where word Russia is derived </li></ul>
  49. 64. Kievan Rus <ul><li>Oleg, Viking leader, settled in Kiev at the beginning of 10 th century & created principality of Kiev </li></ul><ul><li>Oleg successors expanded Kiev until it reached territory between Baltic & Black Seas, & Danube & Volga rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings married Slavic wives & gradually assimilated into the Slavic population </li></ul><ul><li>Rus leader, Vladimir, married sister of Byzantine Emperor & officially accepted the Eastern Orthodox Church for all the people in 988 </li></ul><ul><li>Kievan Rus prospered up until invasions brought an end to the 1 st Russian state in 1169 </li></ul>
  50. 66. Oleg
  51. 68. Vladimir I Chose Eastern Orthodoxy
  52. 69. Mongol Rule in Russia <ul><li>13 th century, Mongols conquered Russia & forced Russian princes to pay tribute to them </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Nevsky, prince of Novgorood, defeated a German army in northwest Russia in 1242 </li></ul><ul><li>Khan, leader of Mongolia, rewarded Nevsky title of grand prince </li></ul><ul><li>Nevsky descendants became princes of Moscow & eventual leaders of Russia </li></ul>
  53. 70. Alexander Nevsky, Prince Of Novgorod
  54. 71. Reign of Justinian <ul><li>5 th century, Eastern Roman empire was centered around Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian became emperor in 527/ determined to reestablish the Roman empire in the Mediterranean/ reached his goals by 552 </li></ul><ul><li>3 years after Justinian’s death, the Lombards conquered Italy & most of the area that Justinian had controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian created the Body of Civil Law = code of Roman laws that was the basis of imperial law in Eastern Roman empire until its end in 1453 </li></ul>
  55. 72. Constantinople
  56. 73. Emperor Justinian
  57. 75. Beginning of Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Justinian’s conquest left Eastern Roman empire with too much land to protect far from Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>Arab Muslims were the biggest threat to Eastern Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic forces defeated an army of Eastern Roman at Yarmuk in 636 & lost Syria & Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>679, Bulgars defeated the Eastern Roman empire & took possession of the lower Danube Valley </li></ul><ul><li>8 th century, Eastern Roman empire was much smaller (Asia minor & eastern Balkans) </li></ul>
  58. 76. Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Both a Greek & Christian state </li></ul><ul><li>Greek replaced Latin as the official language </li></ul><ul><li>Christian church became known as Eastern Orthodox Church </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine emperor controlled the church & the state </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor appointed the head of the church </li></ul><ul><li>Government & religious officials were all bound together in the service of a spiritual ideal </li></ul>
  59. 78. Life in Constantinople <ul><li>Largest city in Europe in the Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Based on trade until the 12 th century/ Europe’s greatest center of Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>During Justinian’s reign, silkworms were smuggled from China to begin a silk industry </li></ul><ul><li>Hagia Sophia = church of Holy Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Hippodrome = arena where gladiator fights & chariot races were held </li></ul>
  60. 79. Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Macedonians ruled the Byzantine Empire from 876-1081 </li></ul><ul><li>Macedonians expanded the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded trade relations w/ Western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Late 11 th century = lot of political & social disorder </li></ul>
  61. 80. EOC & Catholic Split <ul><li>Eastern Orthodox Church did not accept the pope’s claim as head of Church </li></ul><ul><li>1054, Pope Leo IX & Michael Cerularius (Head of Byzantine Church) excommunicated each other </li></ul><ul><li>Great Schism = seperation between two great branches of Christianity </li></ul>
  62. 81. Byzantine Art: Mosaics and Illuminated Manuscripts
  63. 82. Hagia Sophia
  64. 83. Crusades <ul><li>11 th & 13 th centuries, European Christians carried out a series of military expeditions to take back the holy land from the Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Seljuk Turks won the battle of Manzikert & threatened Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades began when Pope Urban II responded to the request of Alexius I to liberate Jerusalem & Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Urban II called for crusades @ infidels </li></ul><ul><li>Infidels were the non believers = Muslims, Jews </li></ul>
  65. 85. Alexius I Asked For Help and Urban II Called For the First Crusade
  66. 87. First Crusades <ul><li>Mostly French knights = captured Antioch in 1098 & Jerusalem in 1099 </li></ul><ul><li>Massacred Muslim & Jewish inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>4 Latin Crusader states were established that lasted 100 years </li></ul><ul><li>1120’s, Muslims began to strike back which led to another Crusade </li></ul>
  67. 88. 2 nd Crusade <ul><li>The fall of a Latin Kingdom led to the call of another crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Bernard of Clairvaux called for the crusade & got the support of King Louis VII of France & Conrad III of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Crusade was a total failure </li></ul><ul><li>1187, Jerusalem fell to Saladin </li></ul><ul><li>3 important rulers then agreed to begin a third Crusade </li></ul>
  68. 89. Louis VII and Conrad III Respond To Bernard of Clairvaux’s Call For a Second Crusade
  69. 90. Saladin’s Capture of Jerusalem Sparked the Third Crusade
  70. 91. 3 rd Crusade <ul><li>Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted) of England, Phillip II of Augustus of France </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the 3 rd arrived in the East by 1189 & encountered problems </li></ul><ul><li>Barbarossa drowned while swimming in a river </li></ul><ul><li>English & French had success with their naval fleets against coastal cities, but failed as they moved inland </li></ul><ul><li>Richard I negotiated a settlement with Saladin to allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem </li></ul>
  71. 92. Philip II, Frederick I And Richard I Responded
  72. 93. 4 th Crusade <ul><li>6 years after the death of Saladin in 1193, Pope Innocent III initiated the 4 th crusade </li></ul><ul><li>On their way to the East became involved a conflict with the Byzantine Empire over the succession to the Byzantine throne </li></ul><ul><li>Crusaders diverted to Constantinople & sacked the city in 1204/ Byzantine empire was reestablished in 1261 but was never as powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Turks eventually conquered Byzantine 190 years later </li></ul>
  73. 94. Sultan Mahmet II: Conqueror of Constantinople Osman: Founder Of the Ottoman Turks
  74. 95. Results of the Crusades <ul><li>Increased wealth of Italian city-states like Genoa and Venice. </li></ul><ul><li>Began Jewish persecution and genocide. </li></ul><ul><li>Started the breakdown of feudalism and an increase in the power of kings. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved technology such as better ships and maps, and skills in siege techniques and weapons. </li></ul>
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