Tofﬂer’s First Wave - The Agriculture Revolution 1900-1910 8000 B.C. - A.D. 1750 1910-1920 1920-1930 1930-1940Tofﬂer’s Second Wave - The Industrial Civilization A.D. 1750 - A.D. 1955 1940-1950 1950-1960 1960-1970 Tofﬂer’s Third Wave - The Information Age A.D. 1955 - A.D. 2040 1970-1980 1980-1990 1990-2000 The Fourth Wave - The Biotechnology Era A.D. 2040 - Unknown 2000-2010
1900-1910 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATIONThe Wright Brothers achieved the first successful The Ford Motor Company was incorporated with Mary Mcleod Bethune starts the Daytona Normalairplane flights. Henry Ford as vice-president and chief engineer. and Industrial Institute for Negro Girls. Link: education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1787/Link: nps.gov/wrbr/index.htm Link: hfmgv.org/exhibits/hf/default.asp#fmc Bethune-Mary-Mcleod-1875-1955.htmlGuglielmo Marconi transmitted the first trans- When opened in 1906, Sears mail-order plant, with The Francis W. Parker Progressive School opens.Atlantic radio message from Massachusetts to more than 3 million square feet of floor space, was The school promoted the notion that learningEngland. the largest business building in the world. could be fun and should be child-centered. Link: legacy.oise.utoronto.ca/research/edu20/Link: massmoments.or/moment.cfm?mid=22 Link: searsarchives.com/history/history1900s.htm moments/1901parker.html SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE Irving Berlin publishes first song, “Marie from National Tuberculosis Association (now American Sunny Italy”. Lung Association) is founded. Link: library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/ Link: songwritershalloffame.org/exhibits/C3?exhibitld=3 timeline.html#1900 The Summer Olympic Games of the II Olympiad are Karl Landsteiner discovered blood is divided into held in Paris, France. This is the first Olympics different groups, thus making blood transfusions where women are allowed to compete. possible. Link: localhistories.org/20thcent.html Link: thepeoplehistory.com/1900to1909.html
1910-1920 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATIONAT&T installs the first dial telephones in the Bell Ford Motor Company creates first moving assembly The Progressive Education Association is founded.System, in Norfolk, VA. line ever used for large-scale manufacturing. Link: jstor.org/pss/997312Link: corp.att.com/history/milestones.html Link: pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dt13as.html The National Education Association publishes theEdward Kleinschmidt invents the teletype, which The 16th amendment, ratified in 1913, allows the “Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education,”replaces Morse code clickers in delivering news to Federal government to tax the income of individuals which endorses different curricula for differentnewspapers. without regard to the population of each State. students. Link:pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/roots_in_history/Link:historyofscience.com/G2l/timeline/index.php?id=681 Link: pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dt13as.html testing_master3.html SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE United States declares war on Germany. Polio epidemics break out in New York and Boston. Link: library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/ Link: spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWchronology.htm timeline.html#1900 The Titanic sinks on her maiden voyage from Paul Erhlich tests salversan, first treatment effective Southampton to New York. against syphilis; regarded as birth of modern chemotherapy. Link: thepeoplehistory.com/1910to1919.html Link: library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/ timeline.html#1900
1920-1930 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATIONThe first radio news program is broadcast by station The stock market crashed, triggering the Great8MK in Detroit, Michigan. The “Monkey Trial” dominated headlines as John Depression.Link: historyofscience.com/G21/timeline/index.php? Scopes is indicted by a grand jury for violating Link: wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary/index.asp?era=1920 Tennessees anti-evolution law. action=view&term_id=936&term_type_id=3&term_type_tPhilo T. Farnsworth succeeds in transmitting an Link: npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyld=4723956 ext=things&letter=Bimage through purely electronic means of a device Lewis Terman establishes various groupcalled an “image dissector.” This was the first all- The year 1920 was a historical tipping-point. In that intelligence tests in schools so that students couldelectronic television. year, for the first time in our nations history, more be classified into homogenous ability groups.Link: historyofscience.com/G21/timeline/index.php? people were living in cities than on farms. Link: education.com/reference/article/terman-era=1920 Link:ssa.gov/history/briefhistory3.html lewis-1877-1956 SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE Prohibition began as the 18th Amendment to the Insulin is isolated and is first used to treat a person U.S. Constitution took affect. with diabetes. Link: baltimoresun.com/news/nation-world/sns-ap- Link: library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/ history-2011jan16,0,1391462.story timeline.html#1900 Henry Ford started mass production of the car. He Elmer V. McCollum and associates identify Vitamin had manufactured and sold some 15 million Model D. Ts by 1927. Link: library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/ Link: thepeoplehistory.com/1920s.html timeline.html#1900
1930-1940 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATION The National Labor Relations Act became the single Dick and Jane books are published andEdwin H. Armstrong develops wide-band frequency most important piece of labor legislation in the 20th subsequently taught many children how to read.modulation, FM radio, which delivers clearer century. Link: mediahistory.umn.edu/archive/dickandjane.htmlsound, free of static. Link: britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/633977/Wagner-Link:historyofscience/G2l/timeline/index.php?era=1930 The Association for the Advancement of Act Progressive Education conducts a famous EightLazlo Biro creates the first commercially The decade of the 1930s found America facing the Year Study in which students in an experimentalsuccessful ballpoint pen. worst economic crisis in its modern history. program are compared with peers in traditionalLink:historyofscience/G2l/timeline/index.php?era=1930 Link:ssa.gov/history/briefhistory3.html programs. Link: pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/roots_in_history/ testing_master3.html SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE Parker Brothers introduced the game of Monopoly The first true blood bank was organized at and 20 thousand sets were sold in one week. Chicago’s Cook County Hospital. Link: kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade30.html Link: americasblood.org/go.cfm?do=Page.View&pid=30 Paul Hermann Muller discovers DDT and later Shantytowns form consisting of wood and receives the Nobel Prize in Biology and Medicine for cardboard in the United States. They are often this discovery, which is thought to have saved the referred to in history as Hoovertowns after President lives of over 21.000,000 people worldwide. Hoover Link: historyofscience.com/G2l/timeline/index.php? Link: thepeoplehistory.com/1930s.html category=Medicine
1940-1950 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATIONThe first general-purpose electronic computer, the The US government introduces Rosie the Riveter in The Mendez vs. Westminster and the CaliforniaElectronic Numerical Integrator and Computer a campaign meant to convince women to work Board of Education case ends segregation in(ENIAC), was announced. during World War II. California schools.Link: seas.upenn.edu/about-seas/eniac/ Link: nps.gov/pwro/collection/website/rosie.htm Link: idra.org/mendezbrown/mendez_case.htmlIBM produces the Pluggable Sequence RelayCalculator for the US Army. This special-purpose The Fair Labor Standards Act provided for the Ralph W. Tyler publishes Basic Principles ofpunched-card calculator performed a sequence of maximum work week of 40 hours and minimum Curriculum and Instruction.up to fifty arithmetic steps wage of 40 cents an hour by 1945. Link:legacy.oise.utoronto.ca/research/edu20/moments/Link: historyofscience.com/G2l/timeline/index.php?era Link: u-s-history.com/pages/h1678.html 1949tyler.html+1940 SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE Penicillin is produced and used to cure life Peter Goldmark, working for CBS, demonstrated his threatening infections. color television system to the FCC. Link: library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/ Link: fcc.gov/omd/history/tv/1930-1959.html timeline.html#1900 Selman Waksman discovers Streptomycin, the first Following the end of World War II Jackie Robinson specific agent effective in the treatment of human signed a contract to play first base for the Brooklyn tuberculosis. Dodgers, breaking the color barrier in baseball. Link: waksmanfoundation.org/html/ Link: thepeoplehistory.com/1940s.html foundation_history.html
1950-1960 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATION Ray Kroc opens his first McDonalds outside The plaintiffs in Brown v. Board of Education wereThe Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. Chicago. able to show that segregated schools were Link: thebiographychannel.co.uk/biographies/ray- inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional.Link: history.nasa.gov/sputnik/ kroc.html Link: www.apa.org/research/action/segregation.aspxEckert and Mauchly design the world’s first The American Federation of Labor and the Congress John Goodlad proposes non-graded schoolscommercially available computer, UNIVAC 1. of Industrial Organizations merge making the new provoking waves of debate through out education AFL-CIO an organization with 15 million members. circles as Goodlad’s critiques challenged the veryLink: computermuseum.li/Testpage/UNIVAC-1- Link: kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade50.html foundation of the education system.FullView-A.htm Link: www.apa.org/research/action/segregation.aspx SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE Disneyland opens to the public. Dr. Jonas Salk becomes famous overnight for discovering a polio vaccine. Link: www.yesterland.com/dl1955.html Link: www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/sal0bio-1 The Diners Club issues the first “general purpose” Major study documents fluorides role in credit card, invented by Diners Club found Frank X. preventing dental cavities. McNamara. Link: library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/ Link: historyofscience.com/G2l/timeline/index.php? timeline.html#1900 era=1950
1960-1970 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATIONTwo mathematicians at Dartmouth College develop Jerome Bruner, one of the architects of Head Start, General Motors, Standard Old of New Jersey andBASIC (Beginner’s All Purpose Symbolic publishes The Process of Education. Ford had larger incomes than all the farms in theInstruction Code) as a teaching tool. Link: legacy.oise.utoronto.ca/research/edu20/moments/ United States.Link: library.thinkquest.org/TQ0312479 1961bruner.html Link: elcoushistory.tripod.com/economics1960.htmlThe Computer Curriculum Corporation (CCC) is The Elementary and Secondary Education Act was By the end of the decade the average Americans real passed in 1965. ESEA emphasizes equal access toformed. income had increased 50 percent. education and establishes high standards andLink: www.allbusiness.com/government/government- accountability. Link: elcoushistory.tripod.com/economics1960.html Link: k12.wa.us/esea/bodies-offices-heads/6962880-1.html SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. leads the March on U.S. Congress passes legislation creating Medicare Washington and delivers his “I Have A Dream” and Medicaid. speech. Link: library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/ Link: www.thekingcenter.org/DrMLKingJr/ timeline.html#1900 Chronology.aspx Surgeon Rene Favaloro performs first coronary Neil Alden Armstrong and Edwin Eugene ‘Buzz’ bypass operation using patient’s vein in Cleveland, Aldrin, Jr. became the first humans to land on the Ohio. moon. Link: library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/ Link: thepeoplehistory.com/1960s.html timeline.html#1900
1970-1980 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATIONTed Hoff designed the microprocessor chip forIntel. Jimmy Carter creates United States Department of Apple computer is founded by Steven Wozniak,Link:pbs.org/transistor/background1/events/ Education. Steven Jobs and Ron Wayne.mircropinv.html Link: whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jimmycarter Link: theapplemuseum.com/index.php?id=55The Altair 8800 micro-computer is introduced. It is Isabelle Liberman et al. publish ‘Explicit syllable OPEC oil embargo imposed. The rising oil pricesconsidered by many to be the first mass produced and phoneme segmentation in the young child’, an continued to be a threat to not only America’spersonal computer. influential work in the field of reading acquisition. economy, but also that of the world.Link: oldcomputers.net/altair.html Link: legacy.oise.utoronto.ca/research/edu20/ Link: recession.org/history/1970s-oil-crisis moments/1974liberman.html SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE Louise Brown, the first test-tube baby, was form on First Earth Day celebrated as environmental July 25, 1978. movement is launched. Link:enotes.com/history-fact-finder/medicine-disease/ Link:kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade70.html when-was-first-test-tube-baby-born Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision legalizes Computed axial tomography, commonly known as abortion. CAT scanning, was introduced in 1972. Link: kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade70.html Link: osti.gov/accomplishments/cat.html
1980-1990 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATION Boyd and Myers publish Transformative Education thusIBM launches the Personal Computer (IBM 5150) challenging Jack Mezirow’s transformative learningsetting the industry standard for personal In 1980, a corporate CEO earned 30 times more than theory by highlighting emotional and spiritualcomputing. the average factory worker. dimensions of learning.Link:www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/pc/pc_1.html Link:truth-it.net/average_american_family_incomes.html Link:wordiq.com/definition/Transformative_learningPBS launches PBS Adult Learning Service (ALS), On October 19, 1987, a date that subsequently The University of Chicago School Mathematics Projectthe first nationally-coordinated distance learning became known as “Black Monday,” the Dow Jones founded the Everyday Math program which emphasizesservice for adults. Industrial Average plummeted 508 points, losing reading, problem-solving, everyday applications, and theLink: pbs.org/aboutpbs/news/20011128_goldstein.html 22.6% of its total value. use of calculators, computers, and other technologies. Link: hnn.us/articles/895.html Link: ucsmp.uchicago.edu SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE The collapse of the Berlin wall and the break up of A global commission certified that smallpox had what was the USSR marked the collapse of the been eradicated, and this certification was officially traditional communism and the end of the cold war. accepted by the 33rd World Health Assembly. Link:thepeoplehistory.com/1980s.html Link: pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm79sp.html The 1980 Moscow Games saw the largest boycott in Scientists identify HIV as the cause of AIDS. Olympic history. More than 60 nations refused to Link: avert.org/aids-timeline.htm compete in an American-led protest against the Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan. Link: cbc.ca/sports/indepth/feature-boycotts- countries.html
1990-2000 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATIONBirth of the world wide web. Google files for incorporation in California on The Carl D. Perkins Vocational-Technical Education September 4. Act sets out a new vision of vocational andLink: zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/ technical education for the 21st century. Link: www.google.com/corporate/history.html Link: www2.ed.gov/offices/OVAE/CTE/legis.htmlPresident Bill Clinton announced a new programknown as the Technology Literacy Challenge Fund Jeff Bezos opens Amazon.com on the Internet, President Clinton signs the Reading Excellence Act,to serve as the catalyst to insure that all students offering one million titles. amending Title II of the Elementary and Secondaryare prepared to live and work in a growing Education Act of 1965 by adding a readingtechnological society . component to, among other things, teacher every Link: referenceforbusiness.com/businesses/A-F/Link: zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/ child to read by the end of the third grade. Timeline-of-American_Business.html Link: www2.ed.gov/offices/OVAE/CTE/legis.html SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE More immigrants came to live in the United States The Human Genome Project was launched. than in any decade in the nation’s history. Link: zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/ link:pbs.org/transistor/background1/events/ mircropinv.html Automatic External Defibrillator use by lay Michael Jordan and Chicago Bulls won six NBA personnel was approved by the FDA. titles. Link: thepeoplehistory.com/1990s.html link:emedicine.medscape.com/article/780533- overview
2000-2010 TECHNOLOGY WORK EDUCATIONApple launches iTunesU, a service that offers Numerous studies confirm the existence of acollege-level lectures via podcasts. substantial shortage of workers with the required The controversial No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)Link: historyofscience.com/G2l/timeline/index.php? level of skills to fill vacant positions. is approved by Congress and signed into law.era=2000 Link: icpd.org/employment/Empltrends21century.htm Link: www2.ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtmlAt the Frankfurt Book Fair Google announces the Jobs previously done locally such as design,Google Print project to scan and make searchable research and engineering, publishing, customer The Common Core Standards are created. Theseon the Internet the texts of more than ten million service, technical support and some types of standards define the knowledge and skillsbooks. marketing are outsourced to foreign countries such students should have within their K-12 educationLink: historyofscience.com/G2l/timeline/index.php? as India where qualified manpower was in surplus. careers.era=2000 Link: icpd.org/employment/Empltrends21century.htm Link: corestandards.org SOCIETY AND MEDICINE CULTURE Facebook is created. Link: historyofscience.com/G2l/timeline/index.php? Functional MRI includes maps of human brain era=2000 function. Link: fmri.ogr/fmri.htm The Christian Science Monitor becomes the first newspaper with a national audience to shift from a In June 2000 came the announcement that the daily print format to an online publication that is majority of the human genome had in fact been updated continuously each day. sequenced. Link: historyofscience.com/G2l/timeline/index.php? Link: genome.org/12011239 era=2000
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