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Meningitis

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  • 1. Meningitis is a disease caused by the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges. The inflammation is usually caused by an infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  • 2. HISTORY 1. It is suggested that HIPPOCRATES may have realized existence of meningitis. 2. First recorded major outbreak ---GENEVA 1805 3. In Africa ---1840, more common in 20th century 4. Mortality rate was high(upto 90 %) in early reports 5. Penicillin was first reported to be effective in meningitis
  • 3. *Bacterial Meningitis *Viral Meningitis *Parasitic Meningitis *Fungal Meningitis *Non Infectious Meningitis
  • 4. CAUSES OF MENINGITIS VIRAL BACTERIAL Haemophilus influenzae Neisseria meningitidis mosquito-borne viruses. Echovirus coxsackieviruses A and B Streptococcus pneumoniae polioviruses, Escherichia coli Arboviruses Listeria monocytogenes Herpes family viruses Nonpolio enteroviruses(rhinoviruses) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
  • 5. EPIDEMIOLOGY Acquired from both Community Health care settings
  • 6. EPIDEMIOLOGY Largest epidemic ever recorded in history swept across entire region in 1996-97 causing over 250,000 cases and 25,000 deaths
  • 7. 2005-2009
  • 8. FACTORS Medical conditions Demographic conditions Socio economic conditions Climate conditions Concurrent infections
  • 9. LAB WORK CBC w/diff,chem 10 Blood cultures CT head w/o contrast Lumbar puncture and CSF studies
  • 10. COMPLICATIONS (HACTIVE) •Hydrocephalus •Abcess •Cerebritis and cranial nerve lesion •Thrombosis •Infarct •Ventriculitis and ventriculopathy •Extra axial collections
  • 11. PREVENTIVE VACINATION THERAPY Polio vaccine: this vaccine is also called inactivated polio vaccine or IPV prevent a disease called polio. Infants and children usually get 4 doses of IPV. The vaccine is usually given at ages 2 months, 4 months, between 6 and 18 months, and between 4 and 6 years of age. MMR vaccine: prevent measles, mumps, and rubella. Children 1 year of age and older get 2 doses. usually given between ages 15 and 18 months and again between ages 4 and 6 years. Varicella vaccine: prevent infection with varicella (chickenpox). Children usually get 2 chickenpox vaccinations. The first dose usually is given between 12 and 15 months of age. The second dose usually is given between 4 and 6 years of age. Any older child or adult who is not fully vaccinated or who has never had chickenpox should receive the vaccine Influenza vaccine: prevent influenza (flu). older than age 6 months should get a yearly influenza vaccine. usually in october or november each year.
  • 12. CASE NO #1 VIRAL MENINGITIS
  • 13. Acyclovir Phenytoin Acetaminophen Promethazine
  • 14. CASE NO # 2 BACTERIAL MENINGITIS
  • 15. PRETREATMENT EVALUATION History — the following historical information should be obtained before antimicrobial therapy of presumed bacterial meningitis is instituted. ●Serious drug allergies ●Recent exposure to someone with meningitis ●A recent infection (especially respiratory or ear infection) ●Recent use of antibiotics ●Recent travel, particularly to areas with endemic meningococcal disease such as sub-Saharan Africa ●A history of injection drug use ●Otorrhea or rhinorrhea
  • 16. PREVENTIVE MEASURES Clean surfaces with soap and water. Disinfect with a solution that has water and chlorine-containing bleach. Completely heat chilled foods before you eat or serve them. Discard tissue after you wipe or blow your nose. Wash your hands often with soap and water. Do not share food or drinks.
  • 17. DIET FOR MENINGITIS PATIENTS • In the case of meningitis fruits and vegetables that are rich in vitamins A, B, C, D and E such as watermelon, grapefruit, cantaloupes, papaya, broccoli, carrots, cabbage and dark green leafy vegetables are very helpful in strengthening the immune system • foods to avoid include dairy products, meats, sugary foods, white flour foods, salt, caffeinated beverages and even alcoholic drinks.
  • 18. THANK YOU