Module 13

Earthquake
EARTHQUAKE

Photo credit: USGS
EARTHQUAKE
Earthquake
 A series of shock waves generated at a point ( the
focus) within the Earth”s crust or mantle
 The...
EARTHQUAKE
P-Waves
S-Waves
• High-frequency
• High-frequency
• Short-wavelength
• Short-wavelength
• Longitudinal waves • ...
EARTHQUAKE
Seismic Wave Types

 Body Waves
 Primary or Compressional
 Secondary or Shear
 Surface Waves
 Rayleigh (la...
EARTHQUAKE
Body Waves

Seismic Wave Types

Secondary (S) Wave

Surface Waves

Primary (P) Wave

Love Wave

Rayleigh Wave
EARTHQUAKE
Elastic Rebound Theory

3 m offset

1906 San Francisco Earthquake
EARTHQUAKE
Elastic Rebound Theory

Wher e does t he of f set occur ?
r aw t he r elat ive movement
Offset Lettuce Rows - E...
EARTHQUAKE
Equations for velocities
Vp =

k + 4/3µ
ρ

1/2

ρ density

µ
ρ

shear modulus (rigidity)

k
Vs =

µ

bulk modul...
Effects of the Earthquake
Earthquakes don’t kill people - buildings do!

Pancaked Building - 1985 Mexico City
Effects of the Earthquake

Soil Liquefaction - 1964 Niigata, Japan
Effects of the Earthquake

Surface Displacement - 1964 Alaska
Effects of the Earthquake

Ground Rupture, 1906 Olema, CA
Effects of the Earthquake

Fence Compression - Gallatin County, MT
Effects of the Earthquake

Buckled Concrete - 1971 San Fernando, CA
Effects of the Earthquake

Tsunami Devastation - 1964 Alaska Earthquake
Effects of the Earthquake

Tsunami Generation
Effects of the Earthquake

Tsunami Wave Propagation Times
Locating the Earthquake
Vertical Component Seismometer
Locating the Earthquake
Horizontal Component Seismometer
Locating the Earthquake
First Arrivals – Seismographic Record
Locating the Earthquake
Distance – Time Ralations
Locating the Earthquake
P vs S Wave Travel Time Curves
Locating the Earthquake
Earthquake Location by Range
Measuring the Earthquake
• Three distinct methods to measure earthquakes. Two
based on energy and one based on intensity.
...
Measuring the Earthquake
Magnitude-Description-Intensity-Frequency Relations
Measuring the Earthquake

Modified Mercalli Intensity Index (1931)

1886 Charleston, SC earthquake
Measuring the Earthquake

Historical Earthquake Magnitudes
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics

• Earthquakes at Plate Boundaries
• Subduction Angle
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics

Earthquake Distribution
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics

Relative plate motion and boundaries
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics
different types of structures are associated with each boundary type:
divergent/rifting: ex...
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics
Divergent Boundary and Earthquakes
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics
Divergent Boundary and Earthquakes

Earthquakes along
mid-ocean ridge are
shallower than th...
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics

Transform Boundary and Earthquakes
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics

Transform Boundary and Earthquakes

The western US
is somewhat
anomalous
Note: absence of
...
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics

Convergent Boundary and Earthquakes
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics
Shallow vs. Deep Subduction Earthquakes
Continent-continent collision
zones have broad area...
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics
deep intermediate shallow

• Epicenters: location of earthquake rupture projected to
surfac...
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics
Seismicity of subduction zones

Seismicity Fiji Islands
Region: 1977 - 1997

Seismicity of ...
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics
Tomography (3D seismic)
blue is fast…
interpreted as slab

note continuity of blue slab
to ...
Earthquake and Plate Tectonics

Seismicity along subduction zones:
earthquakes are shallow, intermediate, and deep
but hav...
Tsunami Hazard Area Map of Indonesia
Earthquake Hazard Area Map of Indonesia
Map of Distribution of Active Faults and
Destroying Earthquake Epicenters of Indonesia
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Module 13 earthquake

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Module 13 earthquake

  1. 1. Module 13 Earthquake
  2. 2. EARTHQUAKE Photo credit: USGS
  3. 3. EARTHQUAKE Earthquake  A series of shock waves generated at a point ( the focus) within the Earth”s crust or mantle  The point on the surface of the Earth above the focus is called the epicenter  Three main types of wave motion are generated by an earthquake: P-Waves; S-Waves; dan LWaves
  4. 4. EARTHQUAKE P-Waves S-Waves • High-frequency • High-frequency • Short-wavelength • Short-wavelength • Longitudinal waves • Transverse waves • Can be reflected and • Can be reflected and refracted refracted • Travel through the • Travel through the solid and the liquid solid part of the part of the Earth Earth at varying velocities. • Propagated in all directions from the focus L-Waves • Low-frequency • Long-wavelength • Transverse vibrations • Confined to the outer skin of the crust • Responsible for most of the destructive force of earthquake
  5. 5. EARTHQUAKE Seismic Wave Types  Body Waves  Primary or Compressional  Secondary or Shear  Surface Waves  Rayleigh (large vertical displacements)  Love (shear)
  6. 6. EARTHQUAKE Body Waves Seismic Wave Types Secondary (S) Wave Surface Waves Primary (P) Wave Love Wave Rayleigh Wave
  7. 7. EARTHQUAKE Elastic Rebound Theory 3 m offset 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
  8. 8. EARTHQUAKE Elastic Rebound Theory Wher e does t he of f set occur ? r aw t he r elat ive movement Offset Lettuce Rows - El Centro, CA
  9. 9. EARTHQUAKE Equations for velocities Vp = k + 4/3µ ρ 1/2 ρ density µ ρ shear modulus (rigidity) k Vs = µ bulk modulus (rigidity) 1/2 because shear modulus (rigidity) for fluid is zero, S waves cannot propagate through a fluid consequence of equations is that P waves are 1.7x faster than S can infer physical properties from P and S waves
  10. 10. Effects of the Earthquake Earthquakes don’t kill people - buildings do! Pancaked Building - 1985 Mexico City
  11. 11. Effects of the Earthquake Soil Liquefaction - 1964 Niigata, Japan
  12. 12. Effects of the Earthquake Surface Displacement - 1964 Alaska
  13. 13. Effects of the Earthquake Ground Rupture, 1906 Olema, CA
  14. 14. Effects of the Earthquake Fence Compression - Gallatin County, MT
  15. 15. Effects of the Earthquake Buckled Concrete - 1971 San Fernando, CA
  16. 16. Effects of the Earthquake Tsunami Devastation - 1964 Alaska Earthquake
  17. 17. Effects of the Earthquake Tsunami Generation
  18. 18. Effects of the Earthquake Tsunami Wave Propagation Times
  19. 19. Locating the Earthquake Vertical Component Seismometer
  20. 20. Locating the Earthquake Horizontal Component Seismometer
  21. 21. Locating the Earthquake First Arrivals – Seismographic Record
  22. 22. Locating the Earthquake Distance – Time Ralations
  23. 23. Locating the Earthquake P vs S Wave Travel Time Curves
  24. 24. Locating the Earthquake Earthquake Location by Range
  25. 25. Measuring the Earthquake • Three distinct methods to measure earthquakes. Two based on energy and one based on intensity. – Richter Magnitude Scale: originally developed for southern California. Log scale, which has no upper bound. Small earthquakes may yield negative values. Tends to be inaccurate at >7 magnitudes. – Moment Magnitude Scale: measurement of the amount of work done during the earthquake. Based on rock strength, area of rupture, and displacement during event. – Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale: based on the damage associated with a particular event at a particular location. Ranges from I (less damage) to XII (more damage).
  26. 26. Measuring the Earthquake Magnitude-Description-Intensity-Frequency Relations
  27. 27. Measuring the Earthquake Modified Mercalli Intensity Index (1931) 1886 Charleston, SC earthquake
  28. 28. Measuring the Earthquake Historical Earthquake Magnitudes
  29. 29. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics • Earthquakes at Plate Boundaries • Subduction Angle
  30. 30. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Earthquake Distribution
  31. 31. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Relative plate motion and boundaries
  32. 32. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics different types of structures are associated with each boundary type: divergent/rifting: extensional (normal faulting) convergent/collisional: compressional (thrust faulting) transform/transcurrent: shear-dominated (strike-slip faulting)
  33. 33. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Divergent Boundary and Earthquakes
  34. 34. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Divergent Boundary and Earthquakes Earthquakes along mid-ocean ridge are shallower than those along subduction zone from: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/coax/coax.html
  35. 35. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Transform Boundary and Earthquakes
  36. 36. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Transform Boundary and Earthquakes The western US is somewhat anomalous Note: absence of deep earthquakes from: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/coax/coax.html
  37. 37. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Convergent Boundary and Earthquakes
  38. 38. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Shallow vs. Deep Subduction Earthquakes Continent-continent collision zones have broad areas of of relatively shallow seismicity Ocean-continent convergent margins have earthquakes foci that extend to great depths. Mechanism tend to change from extension to compression downdip.
  39. 39. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics deep intermediate shallow • Epicenters: location of earthquake rupture projected to surface; • Dip of slab leads to observed seismicity patterns: deeper farther from trench • Location of downgoing slab as it dives into mantle is defined by seismicity. • Earthquakes occur along an inclined belt: the Wadati-Benioff zone reaches maximum depth of ~670 km from: http://www.geo.lsa.umich.edu/~crlb/COURSES/270
  40. 40. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Seismicity of subduction zones Seismicity Fiji Islands Region: 1977 - 1997 Seismicity of Japan and Kuril Island: 1975 - 1995 Seismicity of Peru-Bolivia Border Region: 1977 - 1997 all from: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/coax/coax.html
  41. 41. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Tomography (3D seismic) blue is fast… interpreted as slab note continuity of blue slab to depths on order of 670 km slab is cold and thus can have earthquakes at greater depths from: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/coax/coax.html
  42. 42. Earthquake and Plate Tectonics Seismicity along subduction zones: earthquakes are shallow, intermediate, and deep but have systematic location related to subducting slab shallow adjacent to trench and deep farthest away from: http://www.geo.lsa.umich.edu/~crlb/COURSES/270
  43. 43. Tsunami Hazard Area Map of Indonesia
  44. 44. Earthquake Hazard Area Map of Indonesia
  45. 45. Map of Distribution of Active Faults and Destroying Earthquake Epicenters of Indonesia
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