History of the hospitality industry


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by Dr. Brian Miller, University of Delaware

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  • The term hospitality is derived from the French word hospice. A famous hospice was the Hospice du Beaune in Beaune, France. This was a long-term hospital support through the generosity of the wealthy. When people are traveling it is nice for businesses providing service provide them with hospitality.
  • During the Greek and Roman era people began to travel. Romans were famous for an extensive network of organized travel routes (highways). This lead to a development of business travel. Once the fall of the Roman Empire these routes fell into disrepair and became quite dangerous to use. Prior to the Medieval Period this was known as the dark ages. Very few people traveled and those who did, did so a great risks. As we approach the medieval period, business people who operated housing for travelers were considered crooks and were not held in high regard. In early day the Code of Hammurani made it illegal for landowners to charge for extra rooms in their homes. Penalty for charging travelers to use their homes was execution. The people who operated inns during this time were often retired gladiators that were used for slumming (prostitution) and drinking. These houses of sin were unsanitary and carried a bad reputation.
  • As people began to use other forms of transportation (other than on foot) traveling became a lot more popular.
  • During the 16 th century coffee houses were a popular destination for the community to conduct official business. After the long period of the dark ages people were into drinking alcohol. In the 16 th century drinking was taboo, therefore the coffee houses were used to sober up the population.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • During and shortly after the French Revolution, many French immigrants came to the US. Most had experience in culinary arts. The legendary figure during this time was Escoffier who was a world famous chef. One of his contributions to the Culinary Industry is the organization of chefs in a kitchen. This hierarchy of cooks is known as the Brigade System. Each category of chef has a specific title which when used today we know exactly what types of food he/she is responsible for producing/supervising. Boulanger was an early vender of food. During his time there was not a name for the type of business that he had. He sold a soup based food that he called restorantes (which translates into restore the body). If is believed that the popularity of his soups led to the term restaurant. Which today are businesses that restore the body with food.
  • As more French immigrants came to the US and the ability of the Elite to travel back to Europe led to a cultural food revolution. Eating in Restaurants was for only the high society and the educational elites. Most hotels and restaurants were grand affairs borrowing the style of the old world (Europe) Cesar Ritz was a famous hotelier and he and Escoffier operated some of the finest hotels in Europe and latter in the US. The early 1900’s is called the grand period of hotels because so many large hotels were built during this period. Delmonico was an example of the early restaurants found in the US. Very expensive and very pretentious. This restaurant was operated for over 100 years by the same family. As more people had the opportunity and means to go eat in restaurants they had difficulty reading/ understanding the menus of the early restaurants because they were written in French. Delmonico’s is credited to have created a bilingual menu so as not to offend their guests who could not read or understand French.
  • These are some of the early chain of restaurants that were developed in the US. White Castle is still operating, Howard Johnson’s is now a hotel company and Marriott Hot Shoppes are defunct (this was the precursor business for the Marriott Hotel Company).
  • The largest growth in commercial food service is in the casual dining sector. People are looking for good food in a comfortable and relaxing atmosphere. Mass tourism has resulted in world wide increase of travel products, this growth is contributed to the fact that people are earning more, living longer, and the time to travel from place to place has gotten quicker. Baby Boomers are the most wealthiest generation to ever live. As the more into retirement age and have more free time they are expected to spend a large portion of their disposable income on travel related products and services.
  • History of the hospitality industry

    1. 1. History of the Hospitality Industry Dr. Brian Miller
    2. 2. History of the Hospitality Industry <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>The history of the hospitality industry dates all the way back to the Colonial Period in the late 1700s. Things have changed quite a bit since then; the hospitality industry has experienced significant development over the years as it has faced World Wars, The Depression and various social changes. The industry as we know it today began to take form in the early 1950s and 60s, leading the way for growth into the dynamic industry we know today. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the factors that influenced the development of the hospitality industry. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>At the end of this lesson students will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Define hospitality and describe its characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and describe the characteristics of various historical periods </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the multiple factors influencing the hospitality industry </li></ul><ul><li>Chronicle the developments in the hospitality industry (from early beginnings to present) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Hospitality <ul><li>From the French word “hospice” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide for the weary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take care of those traveling </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Early Hospitality <ul><li>Greek/Roman culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noted as early as 40 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and religious purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roman businessmen traveled </li></ul><ul><li>Romans were the first pleasure travelers </li></ul><ul><li>After fall of roman empire, public hospitality fell to religious orders </li></ul>
    6. 6. Medieval Period <ul><li>English travelers </li></ul><ul><li>Inns were actually private homes </li></ul><ul><li>Nobility stayed in monasteries </li></ul><ul><li>Stagecoach became favored transportation </li></ul>
    7. 7. Renaissance Period (16 th Century) <ul><li>High demand for inns and taverns </li></ul><ul><li>1st hotel - Hotel de Henry IV 1788 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>built at cost of $17,500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 beds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coffee houses </li></ul>
    8. 8. The New World (18th Century) <ul><li>New York / New England - taverns </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania - inns </li></ul><ul><li>Southern colonies - ordinaries </li></ul>Eating and Sleeping Places
    9. 9. The French Revolution <ul><li>Changed the course of culinary history </li></ul><ul><li>Escoffier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brigade system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M. Boulanger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ father of modern restaurant” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>called soup he sold “restorantes” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revolution caused some of the chefs to come to the New World </li></ul>
    10. 10. Nineteenth Century <ul><li>1898 Savoy Hotel opened in London </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Manager was Cesar Ritz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chef was Auguste Escoffier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delmonico’s in New York City </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1827 - 1923 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual menu </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Twentieth Century Travel <ul><li>After WWII, travel began </li></ul><ul><li>1950’s - advent of cross-continental flights </li></ul><ul><li>1958 - Trans-Atlantic flights </li></ul><ul><li>First motel in California </li></ul><ul><li>Resurgence of inner city lodging properties </li></ul><ul><li>Increased interest in cruises </li></ul>
    12. 12. Twentieth Century Restaurants <ul><li>1921 White Castle </li></ul><ul><li>1927 Howard Johnsons </li></ul><ul><li>1927 Marriott Hot Shoppe </li></ul><ul><li>1965 TGI Friday’s </li></ul><ul><li>1982 Chili’s </li></ul>
    13. 13. 1960 to Today <ul><li>Major growth in casual dining </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the number of hotel chains </li></ul><ul><li>Mass tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Package travel </li></ul><ul><li>Baby Boomers </li></ul><ul><li>Living longer </li></ul><ul><li>Mergers and acquisitions </li></ul>