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Adaptive cruise control

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adaptive cruise control is used to control speed of vehicle and is used to maintain the safe distance between two vehicle

adaptive cruise control is used to control speed of vehicle and is used to maintain the safe distance between two vehicle

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  • 1. A PRESENTATION ON ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL 2013-2014 SUBMITTED TO:Mr. DURGESH KUMAR Mr. PRAVEEN AGARWAL SUBMITTED BY:VIPUL KUMAR JAIN (EC/10/128) VIBHOR RATHI (EC/10/148) SHWETA SHARMA (EC/10/99) SHUBHAM CHOUDHARY (EC/10/97) SHRAVAN CHOUDHARY (EC/10/96) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION POORNIMA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ISI-2, RIICO INSTITUTIONAL AREA, JAIPUR
  • 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Availability  Working Principle  Working of Adaptive Cruise Control  Block Diagram  Component Required  Sensors  Microcontroller  Controller Action  Advantages  Disadvantages  Future Scope  Conclusion 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION The concept of assisting driver in longitudinal vehicle control to avoid collisions is adaptive cruise control. When switched on, this device takes up the task of accelerating or braking to maintain a constant speed. An “Adaptive Cruise Control” (ACC) system developed as the next generation assisted the driver to keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front. 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. availability ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL is a common term used for enhanced cruise control system. Depending on car maker ACC can also be called as Active Cruise Control (BMW), Distronic (MERCEDES), Dynamic Cruise Control (TOYOTA). PORSCHE PANAMERA  VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT 5
  • 6. Working principle ACC works by detecting the distance and speed of the vehicles ahead by using radar system. The time taken by the transmission and reception is the key of the distance measurement. The shift in frequency of the reflected beam by Doppler Effect is measured to know the speed. Depending on this speed, the brake and throttle controls are done to keep the vehicle in a safe position with respect to the other. 6
  • 7. DOPPLER EFFECT Doppler Effect is the change in frequency of the waves when there is a relative motion between the transmitting and receiving units. The Doppler Effect can be categorize in two ways:- DOPPLER EFFECT HIGHER PITCH SOUND LOWER PITCH SOUND 7
  • 8. HIGHER PITCH SOUND  In this case the vehicle is speeding towards the stationary listener. The distance between the listener and the car is decreasing. The listener will hear a higher pitch sound from the car, which means the frequency of sound, is increased. 8
  • 9. LOWER PITCH SOUND In this case the vehicle is moving away from the listener. The distance between and the car is increasing. The listener will hear a lower pitch sound from the car, which means the frequency of sound, is decreased. So that is the Doppler Effect in case of sound waves. 9
  • 10. WORKING OF ACC The gun transmits the waves at a given frequency toward an incoming car. Reflecting waves return to the gun at a different frequency, depending on how fast the car being tracked is moving. A device in the gun compares the transmission frequency to the received frequency to determine the speed of the car. 10
  • 11. We can design the chip or ACC having an algorithm such that it will give output only when the input signals are less than the corresponding safe distance value. So only when the between the car and the object in front of it is less then the same distance value the embedded system will give output to the breaking and the accelerating units. Thus the safe distance will be kept always. 11
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  • 13. Block diagram obstacle detects CONTROLLER AUTO BRAKE INDICATOR acute brakes auto braking signal BRAKES RADAR sense radar signal BRAKE ACTUATOR release throttle read data RADAR SENSOR ENGINE CONTROL brake signal BLOCK DIAGRAM WHEN VEHICLE IS STOPPED 13
  • 14. CONTROLLER actuate speed RADAR sense radar signal read data RADAR SENSOR SPEED ACTUATOR release throttle ENGINE CONTROL BLOCK DIAGRAM WHEN VEHICLE IS ACCELARATED 14
  • 15. sensors SENSOR is a converter that measure physical quantity and converts it into signal which can be read by observer or by instrument. SENSOR responds to an input quantity by generating a functionally related output usually in form of electrical or optical signal. In this project three type of SENSOR can be used SENSORS RADAR FUSION SENSOR LIDAR 15
  • 16. RADAR It is an electromagnetic system for detection and location of vehicle. It operates by radiating energy into free space and detecting echo signal reflected from an object. The reflected energy is not only indicative of the presence but on comparison with the transmitted signal , other information of target can be obtained. The currently used “Pulse Doppler RADAR” uses the principle of Doppler effect in determining the velocity of target. 16
  • 17. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PULSE DOPPLER RADAR 17
  • 18. FUSION SENSOR This include millimeter wave RADAR linked to a stereo type camera with a 40 degree view angle. These two parts work together to track the car from non moving object. RADAR’s target is the car rear bumper, the stereo camera is constantly captures all objects in its field of view. It was first used by Fujitsu Ltd. and Honda. 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. LIDAR LIDAR stands for “Light Detection and Ranging”. It measure distance by illuminating laser and analyzing the reflected light. By measuring the beat frequency between frequency modulated continuous light wave and its reflection. It is of low cost and provide good resolution. Weather condition restrict its use to 30 to 40 meter range. The first ACC system used LIDAR sensor. 20
  • 21. RANGE ESTIMATION USING LIDAR 21
  • 22. MICROCONTROLLER The AT89S51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 4K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. The AT89S51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. Components required RADAR TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER MICROCONTROLLER SENSORS RESISTORS CAPACITORS LDR LCD POWER SUPPLY 24
  • 25. CONTROLLER ACTION Depending on present traffic situation two type of controller are possible: SPEED CONTROL and HEADWAY CONTROL. SPEED CONTROL: if there is no vehicle presently in front, then the speed is controlled about a set point just as in conventional cruise control. HEADWAY CONTROL: in order to keep a safe distance between the vehicle’s the headway control is required. 25
  • 26. CONTROLLER FLOW CHART: SITUATION ASSESMENT THREAT ASSESMENT COMMAND GENERATOR CONTROLLING THE MECHANICAL DEVICE 26
  • 27. ADVANTAGE The driver is relieved from the task of careful acceleration, deceleration and braking in congested traffic. A high responsive traffic system that adjust itself to avoid accident can be developed. Since the braking and acceleration are done in systematic way, the fuel efficiency of vehicle is increased. 27
  • 28. disadvantage Cost of ACC system is very high. A high market penetration is required if a society of intelligent vehicles is to be formed. Encourages the driver to become careless, it can lead to severe accident if the system is malfunctioning. 28
  • 29. Future scope The advanced version of ACC is known as COOPERATIVE ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL (CACC).  In CACC preceding vehicle can communicate actively with the following vehicle so that their speed can be coordinated with each other. 29
  • 30. conclusion It will probably take decades but car accident may eventually become as rare as plane accidents are now. Road laws have to be changed, up to an extent since the non human part of the vehicle controlling will become predominant. 30
  • 31. references www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.1000project.com www.123seminar.com 31
  • 32. Queries ??? 32
  • 33. Thank you 33