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Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
Infection
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Infection

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referred from ananthanarayan and paniker's textbook of microbiology, 8th edition.

referred from ananthanarayan and paniker's textbook of microbiology, 8th edition.

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  • 1. INFECTION<br />A MICROBIOLOGY TOPIC<br />
  • 2. DEFINITIONS <br />INFECTION<br />INFECTIOUS DISEASE<br />PARASITE<br />COMMENSALS<br />PATHOGEN<br />OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN<br />
  • 3. SAPROPHYtE<br />Free-living microbes that live on dead or decaying matter.<br />PARASITE<br />Microbes that can establish themselves and multiply in hosts<br />Commensal<br />Microbes that live with the host in complete harmony without causing any damage.<br />Eg: streptococcus salivarius<br /> E. coli<br />
  • 4. Opportunistic pathogen<br />Pathogen that is normally safe but when host’s immunity is lowered, thay can be dangerous.<br />Eg: bacilllusbactillus<br /> streptococcus sp.<br />
  • 5. Types of infection<br />Primary<br />Reinfection<br />Secondary<br />Focal infection<br />Nosocomial infection<br />Iatrogenic infection<br />Endogenous <br />Exogenous<br />Inapparent/subclinical<br />Atypical<br />Latent<br />Local<br />Systemic<br />
  • 6. Primary infection<br />Exposure of pathogen for the first time<br />Reinfection<br />Exposure of the same pathogen for second or many times.<br />Secondary<br />Infected by a pathogen, immunity lowered and cause invasion by other pathogen<br />
  • 7. Focal infection<br />Localised infection<br />Nosocomial infection<br />A person make a hospital visit, immunity is low, and get infected by hospital microbes.<br />Eg: wound sepsis<br />
  • 8. Iatrogenic infection<br />Drug induced infection during course of treatment<br />Eg: muscle sepsis caused by unsterilized equipment used.<br />Endogenous infectiom<br />When a commensal enter places it should not be.<br />Eg: entrance of E. coli to urinary tract cause infection.<br />Exogenous infection<br />When a pathogen comes from other source<br />Eg: soil<br />
  • 9. Inapparent /subclinical<br />Asymptomatic<br />Atypical infection<br />Symptoms are atypical<br />Latent infection<br />Parasites remains in tissues in latent or hidden form, proliferating and producing clinical disease when the host resistance is lowered.<br />Eg: herpes infection<br />
  • 10. Systemic infection<br />Spread throughout the body<br />Eg: streptococcus infection<br />
  • 11. Source of infection<br />Human<br />Animal<br />Vectors<br />Insects <br />Food, water, soil<br />
  • 12. From human<br />Carrier- a person who harbours the pathogenic microorganism without suffering any ill effect because of it.<br />Types of carrier<br />Healthy carrier- never get infected.<br />Convalescent carrier- the one that recovered from the disease.<br />Temporary carrier- &lt;6 months<br />Chronic carrier- several years or the rest of the life<br />
  • 13. Patient<br />Contact carrier- someone who acquires pathogen from a patient.<br />Paradoxical carrier-someone who acquires pathogen from a carrier.<br />Animals<br />Zoonoses-infectious disease transmitted from animals to humans<br />Zoonoses could be<br />Bacterial (plague from rats)<br />Viral (rabies from dogs)<br />Protozoal (toxoplasmosis from cats)<br />Helminthic (hydatid disease from dogs)<br />Fungal (zoophilicdermatophytes from cats and dogs)<br />
  • 14. Insects<br />Arthropod-borne disease-disease cause by blood sucking insects.<br />Vectors- insects like mosquitoes, ticks, mites, flies, fleas, and lice.<br />Types of vectors<br />Mechanical vectors- transmission of dysentry by flies<br />Biological vectors- anopheles mosquito in malaria<br />“Extrinsic incubation period”<br />Time of entry of the pathogen into the vector and the vector becoming infective.<br />
  • 15. Soils<br />Has fungi(eg: histoplasmacapsulatum) and parasites(eg: hookworm, roundworm)<br />Water<br />Contaminated with pathogenic microbes<br />Eg: cholera vibrio, infective hepatitis virus<br />Food<br />Contaminated due to external contamination or pre-existent infection in meat or othe animal product.<br />
  • 16. Modes of infection<br />Contact<br />Direct<br />Indirect<br />Inhalation<br />Ingestion<br />Inoculation<br />Congenital transmission<br />
  • 17. Types of infectious disease<br />Endemic-constantly present in particular area<br />Epidemic- spreads rapidly and infect many persons in an area at a time.<br />Pandemic- epidemic that spreads through many areas of the world, very large number of persons in short period.<br />Prosodemic- creeping and smouldering epidemics<br />Sporadic<br />

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