Micro enterprise development and rural women enterpurinship by Parvani Sharma


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small effort done by me to relate women with micro enterprise which will help them to become empower

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Micro enterprise development and rural women enterpurinship by Parvani Sharma

  2. 2. “A woman is the full circle. Within her is the power to create, nurture and transform".
  3. 3. UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 ) Article 1. "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights..'' Article 2: "Everyone has the right of life,liberty and
  4. 4. HISTORY OF INDIAN WOMEN • VEDIC ERA • MEDIEVAL ERA Women were at par with the men. • MODERN ERA Condition of women deteriorated Improved status of women in society
  5. 5. GENDER COMPOSITION OF POPULATION INDICATORS 2001 2011 Population (in million) Proportion (in %) Population (in million) Proportion (in %) Male 381.7 51.4 427.9 51.3 Female 360.9 48.6 405.1 54.5 Male 150.6 52.6 195.8 57.9 Female 135.6 47.4 181.3 48.5 Rural: Urban: source :-censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/.../india/Rural_Urban_2011
  6. 6. Although Women represent only 50% of the total population, they contribute 75% to the develpoment of our Society, while men contribute only 25% Late Dr.Manibhai Desai
  7. 7. WOMEN AND FOOD :- SOME FACTS AND FIGURES • Women are the main producers of the worl'd staple crops which provide 90% of the rural poor's food intake • In south-east Asia, women provide up to 90% of labour for rice cultivation • In sub-Saharan Africa,women produced up to 80% of basic food stuff both for household consumption and for sale • Fewer than 10% of women farmers in India,Nepal and Thialand have their own land • Women perform from 25 to 45% of agricultural field tasks in Colombia and Peru • Women constitue 53% of the agricultural labour in Egypt • Only 15% of the World's Agriculture Extension Agents are Women source :- www.fao.org/gender/en/agrib4.-e.htm.
  8. 8. WOMEN AND FOOD :- SOME FACTS AND FIGURES • Labour force participation rate of women is 22.7%,as comapre to males (51.6%) • In rural India, agriculture and allied industrial sectors employ as much as 89.5% of the total female labour • Extensive work loads with dual responsibility for farm and household production • Work is getting harder and more time-consuming. • Active role and extensive involvement in livestock production, forest resource use and fishery processing • Contribute considerably to household income through farm and non-farm activities as well as through work as landless agricultural labourers source : kurukshetra,2013
  9. 9. RURAL WOMEN IN FARM SECTOR FEMINIZATION IN AGRICULTURE - concept emerged after migration of male member to urban sector for employment FAO's State of Food and Agriculture Report 2010-11 reveals that that if women farmers had the same access to productive resources as men, they could increase yields on their farms by 20 to 30 percent, raising total agricultural output in developing countries by 2.5 to 4 percent, in turn reducing the number of hungry people in the world by 12 to 17 percent.
  10. 10. ACTIVITIES IN AGRICULTURE Direct agricultural field supportive activities non-farm activities source :- Rural Develpoment in India,pg-492
  11. 11. DIRECT AGRICULTURAL FIELD OPERATION • • • • • Sowing Transplantation Hoeing Weeding Harvesting Operation like :Thershing,dehusking, drying and Winnowing source :- Rural Develpoment in India,pg-492
  12. 12. PREARATORY OR SUPPORTIVE ACTIVITIES • • • • Fetching water watering plants tending cattle collecting fodder and fuel • Preparing manure • Storing and transporting seeds • Processing rice Source :- Rural Develpoment in India,Page no-492
  13. 13. NON-FARM ACTIVITIES • Fishing • Collecting fruits and vegetables • Dairy Products • Basket Making • Pottery and other small business activites • Artisan activities Source :- Rural Develpoment in India,page-no 492
  14. 14. GLOOMY PICTURE OF RURAL WOMEN Extension and training services are only directed towards men D en full ied from l eg a l sta tus Spend 3485 hours in 1 hectare of land Ou fem t of 7 10 for ale 0% % l ha ce o abou ve nly r ow nl an d of
  15. 15. ISSUSES OF RURAL WOMEN Gend wage er based differ and i nvisib entials ilt y o f wor k. Long hours an d heavy work Health pr ob lems Lac k of of H knowled uma g n r ig e ht Illiteracy
  16. 16. Why to empower rural women • 48.6% of the Rural women are contributing towards Agriculture as main occupation (source-kurukshetra ,2013) • Rural women, as opposed to women in urban settings, face inequality at much higher rates, and in all spheres of life • Rural women and girls have restricted mobility, access to education, access to health facilities, and lower decision-making power Source:-The Asian Foundation,Women's Empowerment in India An Analytical Overview
  17. 17. Women must be directed to solve their own problems their own ways.Our Indian women are as capable of doing as any in the world.                                                        Swamy Vivekananda
  19. 19. THE EVOLUTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP • Concept was first established in 1700s A.D • French word entreprendre- “to undertake”. • No single definition of entrepreneur exists but still some scholar gave their concept
  20. 20. ENTREPRENEURS HIP • A process of action an entrepreneur undertakes to establish his enterprise. • Peter Drucker Entrepreneurship is defined as ‘a systematic innovation, which consists in the purposeful and organized search for changes,and it is the systematic analysis of the opportunities such changes might offer for economic and social innovation.’
  21. 21. entrepreneur • An entrepreneur is a person who starts an enterprise • Richard Cantillon: An entrepreneur is a person who pays a certain price for a product to resell it at an uncertain price, thereby making decisions about obtaining and using the resources while consequently admitting the risk of enterprise.
  22. 22. ENTERPRISE • An enterprise is the business organization that is formed and which provides goods and services, creates jobs, contributes to national income, exports and over all economic development.
  23. 23. TYPE OF ENTERPRISE Micro enterprise Small enterprise Medium enterprise
  24. 24. AREAS OF MICRO-ENTERPRISE • Micro Enterprise development related to Agriculture and allied agricultural activities • Micro-Enterprise development related to livestock management activities • Micro – Enterprise development related to household based operations Source :- eSS Student papers Sathiabama/Women Empowerment,April 2010
  25. 25. AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED AGRICULTURE ACTIVITIES • Cultivation of organic vegetables • Growing seasonal fruits • Florists • Mushroom growing • Bee-keeping • Value Addition like:•Dehydration of fruits and vegetables •Pickles •Chutney & Jam ...etc.
  26. 26. LIVESTOCK MANAGMENT Dairy Farming Poultry Farm Domestic animals Feed Production Production of cow dung cakes through animal wastes
  27. 27. HOUSE-HOLD BASED OPERATION Knitting Stitching Weaving Embroidery BakeryFlour Milling
  28. 28. A C ACHIEVEMENT THROUGH MICRO ENTERPRISE Increarse in family income H I Assured employment E V Improved status of family in the society E M Gaining self-confidence E N T Increase in GDP
  29. 29. “Agriculture is locomotive of our economy and a prosperous rural economy based on agriculture will ultimately make the nation prosperous “ Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Source :- Agri. Entrepreneurship Sustainable livelihood by Mayank Mehta
  30. 30. AGRICULTURE IN INDIAN SCENARIO India an “Agriculture Gaint.”  Geographically 7th largest country.  3rd largest economy.  4th largest agriculture sector.  2nd in total agriculture output.  Largest producer of milk, spices, cashew nut, coconut, tea, etc.  Largest cattle population(193 million).  2nd largest producer of rice, wheat, sugarcane, groundnut & inland fish & 3rd largest producer of tobacco.  India home to 10% of world’s fruit production & 1st rank in production of banana & sapota.  Source: Dte. of Economics & Statistics
  31. 31. AGRI-PRENUER • “He, who is in the business of agriculture,” Agri.-enterprise AGRI-ENTERPRISE • An Agri.-enterprise is any business in the agricultural industry, which includes production of agriculture, food, natural fiber, the environment and natural resources.
  32. 32. WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR • Woman or group of women who initiate, organise and run a business enterprise. • Government of India- Women entrepreneurs as owing and controlling an enterprise with a woman having a minimum financial interest of 51% of the capital and giving atleast 51% of the employment generated in the enterprise to women.
  33. 33. WOMEN ENTERPRISE Policy measure announced in Parliament on 06.08.1991,the definition of ‘Women Enterprises’ is as follows: A small scale industrial unit or industry –related service or business enterprise, managed by one or more women entrepreneurs in a concern, in which they will individually or jointly have a share capital of not less than 51% as shareholders of the private limited company members of co-operative society". Source:-Asian Journal of Business and Economics Volume 2, No.2.2 Quarter II 2012
  34. 34. CHARACTERISTIC S OF WOMEN AS ENTREPRENEUR S • Imaginative • • • • Attribute to work hard Profit earning capacity Risk Taker Leadership
  35. 35. WHY WOMEN BECOME ENTREPRENEURS PULL FACTORS • An urge to do something new Liking for business • Recognition, importance and social status. • Economic independence • To Build confidence • Developing risk-taking ability • Gain greater freedom and mobility
  36. 36. RELATED STUDIES S.NO NAME OF THE AUTHOR YEAR TOPIC OF RESEARCH RESULT 1. Singh and Gupta 1984 Potential women entrepreneurs. their profile, vision and motivation Economic gain,keeping one busy. Fulfillment of one's ambition ,Wanted to become independent 2. Shah 1990 Fostering Women Economic needs or pressures; Entrepreneurship utilization of own experience and education; family’s interest and support; availability of free time and finance and desire to become independent and personal ego satisfaction. 3. Azad 1989 Development of Entrepreneurship among Indian Women Economic compulsion, use of knowledge and skills need for achievement. Success of others and frustration in present occupation Source :A study by Amudha Rural Women Owned Micro Enterprises: A Stepping Stone for Promoting Enterprises
  37. 37. PUSH FACTORS • Death of bread winner • Sudden fall in family income • Permanent inadequacy in income of the family • The category of push factors forms a negligiblepercentage of women entrepreneurs.
  38. 38. KEY CHANGES OF WOMEN ENTREPRENURES • Women entreprenures of the 50's • Women entreprenures of the 60's • Women entreprenures of the 70's • Women entreprenures of the 80's • Women entreprenures of the 90' • Women entreprenures of the 21st Source:-project on Women entreprenurship in India
  40. 40. IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN ENTREPRENUER • A good share of the population. • Traditionally outside the domain of economic activities. • Seen as part of economic and social development • Economic status of women is now accepted as an indicator of a society’s stage of development.
  41. 41. THE INDIAN APPROACH 3 E s 3Ps 3ks source :- Entreprenuer in India, slideshare.com
  42. 42. TRAITS OF WOMEN ENTREPRENUER • • • • • • • • • • Accept challenges Adventurous Ambitious Enthusiastic Determination to excel Hard work Skillful Patience Intelligent Motivator source :- Entreprenuer in India, slideshare.com
  44. 44. NUTRIMIX POWDER (NUTRITION POWDER) MANUFACTURING -INITIATED BY SHG Source :- eSS Student papers Sathiabama/Women EmpowermentApril 2010
  47. 47. S.NO NAME OF THE PROJECT AREA 1. Tanzania Women Entrepreneurs 2. INFO-LADY 3. WEFOG(WomenEn trepreneurs, Financing Opportunities for Growth) Canada, August-2011 4. Rural Entrepreneur Access Project (REAP) 2005 ENTREPRISE Designed by SIDO and To promote women's UNIDO under sponsorship of entrepreneurship development in the Austrian government,1993 the food processing subsector through the improvement of existing micro enterprises managed by women, and the encouragement of new ventures with a potential to grow into SMEs. Umme Salma, Bangladesh ICT-enterprise carried by women To help women especially the immigarnts (new comers) Aid with sustainable income and helps women to “graduate” from extreme poverty by giving them the tools they need to start small
  49. 49. S.NO NAME OF THE PROJECTs AREA ENTREPRISE 1. Eco-friendly Rural Development through Women’s Entrepreneurship Wardha District, Maharashtra,supported by IDRF and Magan Sangrahalaya Samiti Manufacture organic hand-made products like herbal candles,mosquitoes repallents 2. GCCI Project, Goa,Pannaji Deep Lakshmi, opened resturant in Canacona with self-help group Mallika 3. Shakti Started by HUL, in district Nalgonda,Andhra Pradesh,2000 Provide training to the women to open their venture and get financial help 4. Anmol Mahila Dugad Samiti Self help group from Amritpur Kalan in collaboration with NDRI Paneer, gulabjamun, whey-based drinks, desi ghee, and butter
  50. 50. S.NO NAME OF THE PROJECTs AREA ENTERPRISE 5. Exhibition for women Launched during 11th -5 under promotional package year plan for micro and small enterprise approved by CCEA under Marketing Support Participation of women entrepreneurs in international exhibiton to enhance the export from such units. 6. Toptomato.in Sneha roy and Sananda Misra Banglore , 2012 Online Grossery store started by Sneha Roy and Sananda Misra 7. ICAR-NAIP Project Banglore, in collaboration with AWAKE ,‘Value Chain Commercialization of Maize’ MAIZY promoted by AWAKE like :- Rava Flour, Vermicelli, Papads and Noodles. 8. RIP (Rural Industrial Programme )project Koppal and Gulbarga district, Karnataka in collaboration with AWAKE Provide skill develpoment to women for the promotion of small-scale industries in that area 9. Project Sukanya Aparna Banerjee, Retain Entreprise in Pickles, spices, soft toys, decorative items, and artifacts
  52. 52. S.NO NAME OF THE PROJECTs 1. Seed Capital Fund Scheme (SCFS) Initaited by JKEDI, Provide training to women supported regarding development of SKEWPY skills 2. SKEWPY(Sher-eKashmirEmployment & Welfare Programme for the Youth) 5th December, 2009 To provide financial help to Grameen Bank Project J&K,October,2011 Owned by the poor borrowers of the bank who are mostly women & works exclusively for them, provide loan for setting up of micro-entreprise 3. 4. Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Project AREA ENTREPRISE those who are facing the problem of unemployment 11th- 5 year plan, J&K A call Center for Micro,small and medium enterprises and its aim is to
  54. 54. S.NO RURAL DEVELPOMENT PROGRAMME YEAR OF PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES 1. Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) 1982 Suitable opportunities of self-employment to the women belonging to the rural families who are living below the poverty line. 2. Mahila Samridhi Yojana 1993 Encourage the rural women to deposit in Post Office Saving Account. 3. Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana 1999 For eliminating rural poverty and unemployment and promoting selfemployment. 4. Council for Advancement of People's Actions and Rural 1986 Provide funds to voluntary agencies working for rural women's
  55. 55. S.NO RURAL DEVELPOMENT PROGRAMME YEAR OF PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES 5 Rahistriya Mahila Kosh March.1993 Facilitate credit support or micro-finance to poor women to start income generating activities such as dairy, agriculture, shop,beekeeping, vending, handicrafts etc 6. TRYSEM(Training Rural Youth For Self Employment) April,1994 Is to train rural youth from the target group of families in skills so as to enable them to take up self/wage employment 7 Indira Mahila Yojana mearged into Swayamsiddha Programme 1994 Empower women, both socially and economically, by ensuring their direct access to resource through a sustained process of mobilisationand convergence of all the ongoing sectoral programmes.
  56. 56. S.NO RURAL DEVELPOMENT PROGRAMME YEAR OF PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES 8. National Equity Fund (NEF) Scheme 15th Februrary, 2002 To provide equity type support to entrepreneurs for the setting up of new projects in tiny/ small scale sector 9. Small Industries October 2007 renamed Cluster Development as Micro & Small Programme (SICDP)’ EnterprisesCluster Development Programmes (MSECDP) Support the sustainability and growth of MSEs by addressing common issues such as improvement of technology, skills and quality, market access, access to capital, etc 10. Integerated Develpoment Programme Self-employment program intended to raise the incomegeneration capacity of target groups among the poor Rural 1978
  58. 58. S.NO RURAL DEVELPOMENT PROGRAMME YEAR OF PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES 1. Himayat 2012 To empower the youth of J&K by providing employment opportunities through vocational training programs 2. Udaan 2012 Will provide skills and consequently employment to 8000 youth from Jammu and Kashmir per annum over a 5 year period in key high growth sectors. 3. Jammu & Kashmir Self Employment Scheme (JKSES) 1st April 1999 Aims at establishing large number of small units and help entrepreneurs to open individuals or joint ventures/Groups
  59. 59. S.NO RURAL DEVELPOMENT PROGRAMME YEAR OF PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES 4. Nehru Yuva Kendra Scheme 1972, but in 1987,all Kendras Training for unemployed were re-organized and termed youth and women in the as Nehru Yuva Kendra Jammu and Kashmir Region. Sangathan(NYKS) 5. PMEGP Prime Minster's Employment Generation of employment GenrationProgramme, merged opportunities through after 2 programmes i.e.PMRY establishment of micro &REGP enterprises in rural as well as urban areas. 6. JK Bank Saral Finance Scheme On occassion of 75th year plan The scheme has been tailored as a simple and hassle-free credit dispensation for small businessmen/traders/vendors in the state.
  61. 61. S.NO ASSOCIATIONs YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT OBJECTIVES 1. Federation of Indian Women Entrepreneurs (FIWE) National-level organization, founded in 1993 To foster the Economic Empowerment of Women, particularly the SME segment, by helping them to become successful entrepreneurs 2. Consortium of Women Entrepreneurs(CWEI) 3. Association of Lady Entrepreneursof Andhra Pradesh Was registered in 1996 Entrepreneurship & Skill as a civil society Development trainings (ESDP), nonprofit organization financial inclusion and support in New Delhi services are being provided to set up micro enterprises amongst women minorities, SC and tribals in various states in the country. December 1993 To foster women entrepreneurship with a focus on creativity, financial sustainability, and social impact
  62. 62. S.NO ASSOCIATION 4. Women Entrepreneursof Karnataka (AWAKE) 5. 6. Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) Women Entrepreneurs Promotion Association (WEPA) YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT OBJECTIVES Non-Governmental Empowering Women through Organization, 1983 Entrepreneurship for Economic Development Trade union To organise women workers for registered in 1972 full employment,means employment whereby workers obtain work security, income security, food security and social security Chennai Empowering women especially priority sector in health, education,self-employment in way of conducting exhibition camps and counseling and training.
  63. 63. S.NO ASSOCIATION YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT OBJECTIVES 7. The Marketing Organisation of Women Enterprises (MOOWES) Chennai Help micro level Women Entrepreneurs in marketing their products and to motivate and train aspiring women to become entrepreneurs and economically independent by conducting exhibitions and sale of women entrepreneurs products and through seminars, workshops, Training and counselling. 8. SAARC Chamber Women Entrepreneurship Council March 29, 2001 in Developing and promoting women Colombo,Sri Lanka entrepreneurs in the South Asian region
  65. 65. Indira Nooyi • Current Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer of PepsiCo • She was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 2007.
  66. 66. Jyoti Naik • President of famous Lijjat Papad • Started with a modest loan of Rs 80, the cooperative now has annual sales exceeding Rs 301 crore(6.50 billion) • Headquartered in Mumbai and has 67 branches and 35 divisions all over IndiaHad given employment to 42,000 women uptil 2005
  67. 67. PUSHPA MAURYA • In 2009 with the collbaboration between UNDP India andIKEA Foundation and the name of the Centre was kept as Swaayam Ksheer • Manager of the milk Chilling Centre,in the village of Chak Padri in the state of Uttar Pardesh • Centre collects milk from 56 villages and supplies on average 2000 litres of milk a day to the state’s milk grid.
  68. 68. Ela Bhatt • Founder of SEWA,1972 • Awarded the Padmashri, the Padmabhushan as well as the Ramon Magsaysay Award • Assists the women to buy solar bulbs with loans from SEWA and sell or rent them to families in the villages and towns of Bihar.
  69. 69. CHETNA GALA SINHA • Founder of Mann Deshi Mahila Sahakari Bank,established in 1994 • Completely operated by women and serves women customers • Collaboration with HSBC, Mann Deshi Bank established the Udyogini Business School in 2007 • Providing vocational training and financial training to these young women to enable them to become entrepreneurs
  70. 70. Rifat Mushtaq • Establishing a matchbox manufacturing unit • Runs a cardboard box manufacturing unit and a printing press in the industrial area of Zakura, Kashmir • Gets an impressive annual return of 5 to 6 billion
  71. 71. CONSTRAINT FACED BY WOMEN • Dual responisibilties of women • Illiteracy among Rural women • Less risk bearing Capacity • Need for training and Develpoment • Male dominated society
  72. 72. RELATED STUDIES • Kumari, et. al.(2010) conducted work in the rural areas, the results of the study indicate lack of supportive network, financial and marketing problems were the major problem areas for rural women entrepreneurs and major de-motivator for other women to initiate entrepreneurial activity. • Srinivasan (2009) conducted study in Microfinance and the SHG bank linkage programme.The study revealed that poor quality of information about microfinance that is available to people renders their decision making and conservatives.
  73. 73. SWOT ANALYSIS • S Positive attitude among rural women towards morden - technology,training facilities through KVK • W- Inadequate facility,less literacy rate • O Support from NABARD and facilities by other bank - • T Still remain marginalize,financial dependence on men - Source:- Indain Farming,2009,page no-40-41
  74. 74. CONCLUSION • Play a role of catalyst in social and economic development of country like India • Can do wonders by their effectual and competent involvement in entrepreneurial activities. • Are having basic indigenous knowledge, skill, potential and resources to establish and manage enterprise • For ages together they have been confined to a secondary role and confined to the homes and now the time has come to become self-reliant, self-respecting enterprising people. • In a better position where in women participation in the field of entrepreneurship are increasing at a considerable rate.
  75. 75. • More effective steps are needed to provide entrepreneurial awareness, orientation and skill development programs to women • Women entrepreneur networks are major sources of knowledge and are increasingly recognized as a valuable tool for its development and promotion. • Will motivate other rural women to engage in micro entrepreneurship with the right assistance • Can strengthen their capacities besides adding to the family income and national productivity.