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Tribes,Forest Ifs Ak


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The presentation questions the current and future policy directions with respect to the Scheduled Tribes and Forest in India. It also suggests a model for future direction. …

The presentation questions the current and future policy directions with respect to the Scheduled Tribes and Forest in India. It also suggests a model for future direction.
This presentation was made to the senior Indian Forest Officers in Indira National Forest Academy,Dehradun

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  • 1. Forest Land and Rights of Tribal March 16, 2010 Dr. Avanish Kumar Public Policy Management Email: [email_address]
  • 2. Its not to freeze, but to show future dynamism
    • Erosion of Forest Land Or Traditional Rights of the Tribal ?
  • 3. Key Concerns
  • 4. Development Social Inequity Source: Planning Commision,2008 Incidence of overall under-nutrition (under weight) is significantly higher among ST children than among others. ST children also have a much higher incidence of anaemia. Incidence of stunting and wasting much higher among ST children. The proportion of ST children, aged 12-23 months who received basic vaccinations, is much lower than the rest of the population. 18% STs 51 % Deliveries in a health facility 43.8 STs 36.1 Infant mortality rate (2005/6 National Family Health Survey 3 ) 47% Rajasthan 37% Orissa 37% Andhra Pradesh 52% Chhattisgarh 41% Madhya Pradesh 41% Jharkhand 28% Bihar 47% Overall for tribal people 65% Proportion of literates (Census 2001 National Average
  • 5.
    • Approx. 900 Tribes (8.2%)
    • STs traditionally lived in about 15 % of the country’s area.
    • Forest Dept. controls 23 % the country’s territory
    Tribes, Forest and Spatial Inequity North East Low(< 20%) Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Rajasthan Moderate (20 to 30 %) West Bengal, Maharsshtra, Assam, U.P. (including Uttaranchal) High (30 to 50%) Orissa, Jharkhand, M.P. (including Chattisgarh) Extremely High (>50%) Spatial Conclave Incidence of Poverty among STs
  • 6. Report of National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Government of India, 2005 Health Inequity
  • 7. Forest, Land, Tribes & Occupation
    • 70 % of their total income is from collection and marketing of MFP.
    • Only 3.5 % of the total employment in the group of A and B
    • About 35% of STs are below the poverty line
    • Out of 58 districts , which have 67 % of forest cover, 51 happens to be tribal districts.
      • A survey of 2001-03 forest cover shows net increase of 321,100 ha in tribal districts.
    ? 11.76 38.04 Other Workers 1.04 2.56 Household Industry 32.69 19.66 Agricultural Labourers 54.50 39.74 Cultivators Amongst STs Amongst total population Items (Distribution in %)
  • 8. Tribes Development is not necessarily forest Dependent/Philanthropy Low Cost Technology, Equitable Market and Inclusive Policies Strengthen Culture Nature Nurture
  • 9.
          • On one hand by inequalities in contemporary living conditions, &
          • On the other, by real threats to the prospects of human life in future.
    One of the Key Concern is…
  • 10. Rights of the Scheduled Tribes
    • 13 listed forest rights includes rights
      • to land under individual and communal occupation for habitation or self cultivation
      • Usufructs & grazing including the right to protect, regenerate and/or conserve/manage
      • Settlement of disputed claims, pattas/leases, and conversion of forest villages to revenue villages ( as per 1990 circular)
      • Rights over minor forest produce, intellectual property rights on traditional knowledge &
      • Habitat & habitation rights of primitive tribal groups and pre-agricultural communities.
    • These rights are
      • Heritable but not alienable
      • Subsistence and livelihood purpose, &
      • Not for exclusive commercial use
  • 11. Policy Assumptions Before 31 st December 2008 and After 4 th November 2009 - ? Homogeneous Management Capability Panchayat “ Whose Brain & Brawn” Homogeneous demands of forest/land products Tribes “ Stomach of Poor” Homogeneous Supply of public good Forest “ Lungs of Earth” Assumptions Stakes
  • 12. Key Challenges
  • 13. Contextualizing Tribes and Forests Incentives Adopted from Olson Forest Tribes Key Incentives Purposive incentives - Accomplishment of a significant goal for the common good Solidarity incentives - Intangible rewards available only to coalition members Material incentives -Rewards of money, products, jobs, collective platform
  • 14. Contextualizing Tribes & Forests Partnership Adopted form Ostrom High Medium Low Key Activities Dispersion - extent to which members live in geographic proximity to one another Homogeneity - extent to which overlaps in knowledge, interest, status Multiple Function - extent to which social relationships serve economic and emotions Reciprocity - extent to which resource/support are both given and received
  • 15.
    • … why incur costs when the benefit is provided to all regardless of who participates/contributes?
    Contextualizing Tribes & Forests Participation Costs of participation with respect to time Benefits C Less cost high benefits A ? High cost, equal benefits B End
  • 16. Value of Public Good + Selective Benefits - Cost of Participation = Individual Benefits Contextualizing Tribes & Forests Concern and Consequence
  • 17. 165 Districts Now 222 Contextualizing Tribes & Forests Concern and Consequence
  • 18. Common Endeavor
  • 19.
    • According to Fried, tribes…“are the product of specific political and economic pressures emanating from already existing state-organized societies.”
    Target & Definitional Challenges
  • 20. Rethink Definition of the ST
    • Primitive Traits – What is the expression of
    • Geographically isolated
    • Distinct culture
    • Shyness of contact with community at large
    • Economically backward
    Communities are notified as ST under Article 342 of the Constitution based on the following Characteristics
    • Not Primitive Traits
    • Geographically Knitted
    • Distinct culture
    • Symbiotic contact with community at large
    • Economically not backward
    After 40-50 years
  • 21. Evolve a New School of Thought Realistic Tribes & Peasants exercise sovereign rights over woodland Populist Guha,1990 State Management of ecologically sensitive & strategically valuable Forest, allowing other areas to remain under communal system of management Pragmatic Total State Control over forest Annexationist
  • 22.
    • Scientific & Local Realities
    • Equity and Environment Principles
    • Short Term & Long-term Interest
    Realistic School of Thought require Three Consensus & Convergence
  • 23. Required Changes for Realistic Model
      • Decision Making
      • Technical Inputs
      • Value Chain Creation
      • Benefit Distribution
  • 24. This would require to create…
      • Common understanding of “Strain”
      • Crystallization of Beliefs
      • Quality control through social collateral
      • Structural Conduciveness
  • 25. It will mainly depend upon
    • Strong Credible leadership
    • Compelling mission/purpose
    • Well informed/knowledgeable Membership
    • Incentives for stakeholder involvement
  • 26. “ The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them”… Albert Einstein Thank You !