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  1. 1. Sanchita Poddar Reg.No.B114084140204 Student ID 02-0157 X-D 34 FA 3
  3. 3. "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: •the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and •the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs." The underground water is a permanent source of water as the rate of the evaporation here is minimum. It is of great importance for the following reasons: •Where the surface water is not freely available underground water is tapped by digging wells. Man uses it for domestic purposes like drinking, washing, cook-ing, etc. •It can be used to irrigate the fields. •It can be used for industrial purposes like in paper, dyeing, jute and steel industries. •It sustains vegetation on land. Some of the springs have medicinal value for skin diseases and stomach problems.
  4. 4. The U.S. Geological Survey compares the water stored in the ground to money kept in a bank account. If the money is withdrawn at a faster rate than new money is deposited, there will eventually be account-supply problems. Pumping water out of the ground at a faster rate than it is replenished over the long-term causes similar problems. Groundwater depletion is primarily caused by sustained groundwater pumping. Some of the negative effects of groundwater depletion: 1)Lowering of the Water Table Excessive pumping can lower the groundwater table, and cause wells to no longer be able to reach groundwater. 2)Increased Costs As the water table lowers, the water must be pumped farther to reach the surface, using more energy. In extreme cases, using such a well can be cost prohibitive. 3)Reduced Surface Water Supplies Groundwater and surface water are connected. When groundwater is overused, the lakes, streams, and rivers connected to groundwater can also have their supply diminished. 4)Land Subsidence Land subsidence occurs when there is a loss of support below ground. This is most often caused by human activities, mainly from the overuse of groundwater, when the soil collapses, compacts, and drops. 5)Water Quality Concerns Excessive pumping in coastal areas can cause saltwater to move inland and upward, resulting in saltwater contamination of the water supply.
  5. 5. WATER CONSERVATION, RAINWATER HARVESTING and water shed management
  6. 6. Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and to meet current and future human demand. Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change will increase pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation. Sustainability. To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate. Energy conservation. Water pumping, delivery and waste water treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water management. Habitat conservation. Minimizing human water use helps to preserve fresh water habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, as well as reducing the need to build new dams and other water diversion infrastructures.
  7. 7. Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, and indoor heating for houses etc.. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit with percolation. The harvested water can be used as drinking water as well as for storage and other purpose like irrigation Rainwater harvesting provides an independent water supply during regional water restrictions and in developed countries is often used to supplement the main supply. It provides water when there is a drought, prevents flooding of low-lying areas, replenishes the ground water level, and enables dug wells and bore wells to yield in a sustained manner. It also helps in the availability of clean water by reducing the salinity and the presence of iron salts.(a)Makes use of a natural resource and reduces flooding, storm water , erosion, and contamination of surface water with pesticides, sediment, metals, and fertilizers. (b)Excellent source of water for landscape irrigation, with no chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine, and no dissolved salts and minerals from the soil.(c)Home systems can be relatively simple to install and operate and it may reduce your water bill. (d)Promotes both water and energy conservation. (e)No filtration system required for landscape irrigation. In the state of Tamil Nadu, rainwater harvesting was made compulsory for every building to avoid ground water depletion. It proved excellent results within five years, and every other state took it as role model. Since its implementation, Chennai saw a 50 percent rise in water level in five years and the water quality significantly improved. In Rajasthan, rainwater harvesting has traditionally been practiced by the people of the Thar Desert. There are many ancient water harvesting systems in Rajasthan, which have now been revived Water harvesting systems are widely used in other areas of Rajasthan as well, for example the chauka system from the Jaipur district. At present, in Pune, rainwater harvesting is compulsory for any new society to be registered. An attempt has been made at Dept. of Chemical Engineering, IISc, Bangalore to harvest rainwater using upper surface of a solar still, which was used for water distillation13
  8. 8. Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement. Friends of River Narmada is the unofficial website of the NBA. Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support from film and art personalities. Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte, received the Right Livelihood Award in 1991. There were groups such as Gujarat-based Arch-Vahini (Action Research in Community Health and Development) and Narmada Asargrastha Samiti (Committee for people affected by the Narmada dam), Madhya Pradesh-based Narmada Ghati Nav Nirman Samiti (Committee for a new life in the Narmada Valley) and Maharashtrabased Narmada Dharangrastha Samiti (Committee for Narmada dam-affected people) who either believed in the need for fair rehabilitation plans for the people or who vehemently opposed dam construction despite a resettlement policy. While Medha Patkar established Narmada Bachao Andolan in 1989, all these groups joined this national coalition of environmental and human rights activists, scientists, academics and project-affected people with a non-violent approach.
  9. 9. Post-1947, investigations were carried out to evaluate mechanisms for using water from the Narmada River. the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was constituted by the Government of India on 6 October 1969 to adjudicate over the disputes. On 12 December 1979, the decision as given by the tribunal, with all the parties at dispute binding to it, was released by the Indian government. As per the tribunal's decision, 30 major, 135 medium, and 3000 small dams, were granted approval for construction including raising the height of the Sardar Sarovar dam. In 1985, after hearing about the Sardar Sarovar dam, Medha Patkar and her colleagues visited the project site and noticed that the project work being shelved due to an order by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. What she noticed was that the people who were going to be affected were given no information but for the offer for rehabilitation. Furthermore, the officials related to the project had no answers to their questions. While World Bank, the financing agency for this project, came into the picture, Patkar approached the Ministry of Environment to seek clarifications. She realized, after seeking answers from the ministry, that the project was not sanctioned at all and wondered as to how funds were even sanctioned by the World Bank. They realized that the officials had overlooked the post-project problems. Through Patkar's channel of communication between the government and the residents, she provided critiques to the project authorities and the governments involved. At the same time, her group realized that all those displaced were only given compensation for the immediate standing crop and not for displacement and rehabilitation. She organized a 36-day solidarity march among the neighboring states of the Narmada valley from Madhya Pradesh to the Sardar Sarovar dam site. The march was resisted by the police, who according to Patkar were "caning the marchers and arresting them and tearing the clothes off women activists”
  10. 10. Using the right to fasting, Patkar undertook a 22-day fast that almost took her life. In 1991, Patkar's actions led to an unprecedented independent review by the World Bank. The Morse Commission, appointed in June 1991 at the recommendation of World Bank President Barber Conable, conducted its first independent review of a World Bank project. This independent review stated that "performance under these projects has fallen short of what is called for under Bank policies and guidelines and the policies of the Government of India." This resulted in the Indian Government pulling out of its loan agreement with the World Bank. The World Bank's participation in these projects was cancelled in 1995. She undertook a similar fast in 1993 and resisted evacuation from the dam site. In 1994, the Bachao Andolan office was attacked reportedly by a couple of political parties, where Patkar and other activists were physically assaulted and verbally abused. In protest, a few NBA activists and she began a fast; 20 days later, they were arrested and forcibly fed intravenously. The Supreme Court's decision is still pending, seeking stoppage of construction of the Sardar Sarovar dam. The court initially ruled the decision in the Andolan's favor, thereby effecting an immediate stoppage of work at the dam and directing the concerned states to first complete the rehabilitation and replacement process. The Court deliberated on this issue further for several years but finally upheld the Tribunal Award and allowed the construction to proceed, subject to conditions. The court introduced a mechanism to monitor the progress of resettlement pari passu with the raising of the height of the dam through the Grievance Redressal Authorities in each of the party states. The court’s decision referred in this document, given in the year 2000 after seven years of deliberations, has paved the way for completing the project to attain full envisaged benefits. The court's final line of the order states, "Every endeavour shall be made to see that the project is completed as expeditiously as possible".
  11. 11. Reclaimed water or recycled water, is former wastewater (sewage) that is treated to remove solids and certain impurities, and used in sustainable landscaping irrigation or to recharge groundwater aquifers. The purpose of these processes is sustainability and water conservation, rather than discharging the treated water to surface waters such as rivers and oceans. In some cases, recycled water can be used for streamflow augmentation to benefit ecosystems and improve aesthetics. The definition of reclaimed water, as defined by Levine and Asaneo, is "The end product of wastewater reclamation that meets water quality requirements for biodegradable materials, suspended matter and pathogens." In more recent conventional use, the term refers to water that is not treated as highly in order to offer a way to conserve drinking water. This water is given to uses such as agriculture and sundry industry uses.
  12. 12. With so much emphasis on the environment, and an ever-increasing demand for renewable water resources, learning how to recycle water not only saves you money, but is also good for the planet. Implementing reclaimable-water ideas and other comprehensive ecological solutions help protect aquifers and replenish lakes, especially during droughts. For tips on how to recycle water, consider these ideas: 1) Initiate the appropriate recycling methods. While it is possible to sanitize grey water, black water, and even sea salt water to a degree, you may not be in a position to make the investment required, at least initially. Predetermine your objectives with a clear budget in mind. 2) Conserve water in your everyday routine. Conservation is a critical link to recycling, and there are numerous effective ways to conserve water in the average household and in the yard. •Simply turning off the faucet while brushing your teeth could save 300 gallons of water a year. •Cut back on shower time. Showering uses about 2.5 gallons of water per minute. •Wait till the dishwasher is full. It will use approximately 20 gallons. •Training children how to use water wisely is crucial for a lifetime of good conservation habits. 3) Compare the water bill before and after. Depending on the methods you choose, recycling can be expensive, but saves money in the long run. Eliminating bad habits and reclaiming renewable water allows you the benefit of saving precious life giving water and money without compromising your lifestyle.
  13. 13. 4)Sanitize grey water. Grey water is distinguished from black water as anything not flushed down the commode. Water from showers, sinks, laundry, and humidity from air conditioners fall into this category, accounting for 50-80 percent of household waste water. Sanitized grey water can be reclaimed for toilet tanks and irrigation for lawns and gardening, especially during droughts. A grey water harvesting system processes particles in grey water through a complex system of filtration, straining, and sterilization methods connected directly to your drainage pipes. Storage tanks facilitated by an automatic control system complete the process, allowing the water to be reused. Grey water harvesting system can be purchased through reputable dealers. Contact a dealer for consultation on the right system for your needs. 5)Reclaim rainwater. Install a rainwater collection system from to reclaim relatively fresh water from rain and condensation. Rainwater collection systems may be regulated by various authorities, so check with your municipal utility department to proceed. Rainwater is collected in a storage tank below gutter downspouts. Roofs and gutters should be free of lead solder, paint, leaves, and other foreign material to safely recycle rainwater for drinking. Potable water, or water that is free from pollutants and is safe for drinking, requires a higher concentration of filtration. Once the rainwater is safely harvested, filtration and reverse osmosis are required to make it potable
  14. 14. The cost of reclaimed water exceeds that of potable water in many regions of the world, where a fresh water supply is plentiful. However, reclaimed water is usually sold to citizens at a cheaper rate to encourage its use. As fresh water supplies become limited from distribution costs, increased population demands, or climate change reducing sources, the cost ratios will evolve also. Using reclaimed water for non-potable uses saves potable water for drinking, since less potable water will be used for non-potable uses. It sometimes contains higher levels of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen which may somewhat help fertilize garden and agricultural plants when used for irrigation. The usage of water reclamation decreases the pollution sent to sensitive environments. It can also enhance wetlands, which benefits the wildlife depending on that eco-system. For instance, The San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant instituted a water recycling program to protect the San Francisco Bay area's natural salt water marshes.
  15. 15. Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010,[1] and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Conventional (dams) Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. Pumped-storage This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. Run-of-the-river Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that the water coming from upstream must be used for generation at that moment, or must be allowed to bypass the dam Tide A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides Underground An underground power station makes use of a large natural height difference between two waterways
  16. 16. Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design and turbine technology , indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels. Tidal stream generator Tidal stream generators (or TSGs) make use of the kinetic energy of moving water to power turbines Tidal barrage Tidal barrages make use of the potential energy in the difference in height (or head) between high and low tides. When using tidal barrages to generate power, the potential energy from a tide is seized through strategic placement of specialized dams. When the sea level rises and the tide begins to come in, the temporary increase in tidal power is channeled into a large basin behind the dam, holding a large amount of potential energy. With the receding tide, this energy is then converted into mechanical energy as the water is released through large turbines that create electrical power through the use of generators. Dynamic tidal power Dynamic tidal power (or DTP) is an untried but promising technology that would exploit an interaction between potential and kinetic energies in tidal flows.
  17. 17. Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots γη (ge), meaning earth, and θερμος (thermos), meaning hot.
  18. 18. Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects. Water's hardness is determined by the concentration of multivalent cations in the water. Multivalent cations are cations (positively charged metal complexes) with a charge greater than 1+. Usually, the cations have the charge of 2+. Common cations found in hard water include Ca2+ and Mg2+. These ions enter a water supply by leaching from minerals within an aquifer. Common calcium-containing minerals are calcite and gypsum. A common magnesium mineral is dolomite. Rainwater and distilled water are soft, because they contain few ions.The following equilibrium reaction describes the dissolving/formation of calcium carbonate scale: CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O ⇋ Ca2+ + 2HCO3− Calcium carbonate scale formed in water-heating systems is called limescale.Calcium and magnesium ions can sometimes be removed by water softeners.
  19. 19. Temporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved bicarbonate minerals. When dissolved these minerals yield calcium and magnesium cations (Ca2+, Mg2+) and carbonate and bicarbonate anions (CO32-, HCO3-). The presence of the metal cations makes the water hard. However, unlike the permanent hardness caused by sulfate and chloride compounds, this "temporary" hardness can be reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) through the softening process of lime softening. Boiling promotes the formation of carbonate from the bicarbonate and precipitates calcium carbonate out of solution, leaving water that is softer upon cooling. Permanent hardness is hardness that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium sulfate and/or magnesium sulfates in the water, which do not precipitate out as the temperature increases. Ions causing permanent hardness of water can be removed using a water softener, or ion exchange column. Total Permanent Hardness = Calcium Hardness + Magnesium HardnessThe calcium and magnesium hardness is the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions expressed as equivalent of calcium carbonate.Total permanent water hardness expressed as equivalent of CaCO3 can be calculated with the following formula: Total Permanent Hardness (CaCO3) = 2.5(Ca2+) + 4.1(Mg2+)
  20. 20. With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap: 2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca Hardness can thus be defined as the soap-consuming capacity of a water sample, or the capacity of precipitation of soap as a characteristic property of water that prevents the lathering of soap. Synthetic detergents do not form such scums.