Nepal has been divided into five Physiographic Division: –
Physiographic Division Of Nepal
2. High Mountain
1. High Himal
3. Middle Hills
Nepal’s Unique Features
Diverse Topography (62 m– 8,848m) and
11 Bio - Climatic Zone (Tropical to Nival)
75 Vegetation types
35 Forest types
Mix Sal ForestTemperate Forest
Example: Forest type
More gradual year-on-year changes in temperature have also been
observed, with a 0.09ºC per year increase in recorded in the
Himalayas and 0.04ºC per year increase in the Terai (with higher
increases in winter).
•Climate change is likely to bring particularly rapid temperature
increases in Nepal – faster than their average global rate of
•Winter temperatures will increase more than summer
temperatures. The level of winter rainfall is expected to
decrease, while summer rainfall will increase.
•Extreme weather events such as heat waves and very high
rainfall are likely to become more frequent.
•Overall, Nepal is likely to become wetter, with the east of
Nepal experiencing more rain than the west.
Climate Change in Nepal
Figure: Schematic Diagram of Impacts Caused By Global Warming
Biological Impact of Climate Change
• Biodiversity declines
• Phenology shift
• Morphology change
• Range shift
• Change in community composition
• Reduce the ecological resilience
• In Nepal, grasslands are particularly under threat.
• Tropical wet forest and warm temperate rain forest will
disappear, and cool temperate vegetation will turn into warm
• The sub-alpine and alpine regions of Nepal will be
significantly changed by warming, and the altitude at which
vegetation is found could rise by up to 500m. (Policy briefing ,
• Wetlands of Nepal are most vulnerable toward climate change.
• Evidence has shown that climate change has been affecting
vegetation patterns such as phenology (the timing of life cycle
events in plants and animals, especially in relation to climate)
• They have the potential to cause great challenges to species
• Eg. Gyalpo Gurung, a local resident of Humde, Manang
district observed greening of pastures in high altitudes (3,000–
4,000 masl) much earlier than the normal season. (Gurung and
• Only with best adaptation can survive.
• Tropical species may shift their ranges to higher elevations in
pursuit of cooler temperatures.
• Constraints to movements to higher elevations may increase
the number of species threatened by climate change in tropical
• Alpines fauna may shift to further elevations.
Change in community composition
• Altering the food chain of ecosystem.
Reduce the ecological Resilience
• Many plants & animals could be restricted by insect or disease.
• Various plant & animal disease reproduce & spread mostly
rapidly under conditions of warmth & high humidity.