IDEAL education–Consciousness based education

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over 600 studies testify the success of consciousness based aducation implemented around the world; this document offers a glimpse of it

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IDEAL education–Consciousness based education

  1. 1. I nternatIonal F oundatIon oF C onsCIousness -B ased eduCatIon Summary of Scientific Research on Consciousness-Based SM Education Selected from more than 600 research studies documenting holistic development of life through the Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® programs Bringing perfection to education in every nation through study and research in consciousness
  2. 2. 2 SummAry of Scientific reSeArch on conSciouSneSS-BASed educAtion Summary of Scientific Research on Consciousness-Based Education Selected from more than 600 research studies documenting holistic development of life through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs Contents 1. Scientific Research Findings: Development of All Aspects of Life—Scientific research find- ings relevant to the unfolding of the student’s potential, with numbered references to the original scientific papers (pp. 3–6) 2. Description of Selected Studies (pp. 6–7) 3. Benefits for Teachers and Administrators—Scientific research findings especially relevant to teachers and educational administrators (pp. 7–9) 4. Benefits for Society—Scientific research findings verifying an influence of harmony generated in the whole social environment (p. 9) 5. Description of the Maharishi Transcendental Meditationsm Technique—Unique effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program: Results of meta-analyses (p. 10) 6. Achievements of Educational Institutions Implementing Consciousness-Based Education— United States and United Kingdom (pp. 11–14) 7. Conclusion (p. 14) 8. Scientific Research References Cited in Text (pp. 14–19) IntroduCtIon Consciousness-Based education minutes twice daily, sitting comfortably with eyes program fulfills fundamental needs closed. This technique settles the mind and body T his scientifically documented program, to a unique state of restful alertness, allowing the founded by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and mind to naturally experience the level of its own full applied for over four decades worldwide, potential, Transcendental Consciousness. fulfills fundamental needs in education. Research verifies that the experience of Tran- This program provides— scendental Consciousness is uniquely effective in • systematic way to holistically develop all stu- A activating latent reserves of the brain. With regular dents, irrespective of their background, so that they practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique, grow in ideal citizenship and inner fulfillment; the immense creative intelligence inherent in every • A reliable, practical way to eliminate stress; individual increasingly expresses itself in thought • reliable, practical way to improve any school’s A and action. atmosphere, creating an increasingly happy, When the majority of students and teachers in a focused, orderly learning environment. school practice the Transcendental Meditation technique, the entire school atmosphere changes Central component of the dramatically, and the school becomes a center of Consciousness-Based education program— harmony and peace for the whole neighborhood the Transcendental Meditation program and community. This effect is greatly enhanced The Transcendental Meditation program is a simple, by group practice of the advanced Transcendental natural, effortless technique, practiced 15 to 20 Meditation Sidhi program.
  3. 3. Scientific reSeArch findinGS: deVeLoPment of ALL ASPectS of Life 3 Easily implemented in any school Fundamental scientific principles The consciousness-Based education program is Quantum physicists have identified the field of easily implemented in any school. it has two com- Transcendental Consciousness, experienced dur- ponents: ing the Transcendental Meditation technique, as • wice-daily practice of the transcendental medita- t the unified field of natural law, which, through its tion program; and later the TM-Sidhi program. self-interacting dynamics, gives rise to all forces • course of study, taught once or twice per week, A and phenomena governing the orderly evolution which presents universal principles—natural laws— of the universe. Viewed from this perspective, the that are common to all areas of study and to the stu- Transcendental Meditation technique is a means dents’ lives as their creative potential develops. this for the mind to twice daily identify itself with this integrated study makes learning any subject more relevant, holistic, and fulfilling for the students. fundamental field of nature’s intelligence—which is one’s own total intelligence—and thereby infuse Extensive scientific research the unlimited creative potential of this field into over 600 scientific research studies have document- practical life. ed the benefits of the Transcendental Meditation and advanced TM-Sidhi program for development from the physiological perspective, neuroscientist of mental potential, health, social behavior, and the Professor tony nader, m.d., Ph.d., under the social environment. This research, conducted at guidance of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, made the more than 250 universities and research institutes profound discovery that the dynamical structures in 33 countries, confirms the universal and profound of natural law within the unified field precisely effectiveness of this program in raising the quality correspond to the fundamental structures and of life. functions of human physiology. Therefore, by This brochure summarizes and reports on the enlivening one’s inner intelligence, the transcen- research studies related to education, and cites dental Meditation technique stimulates more com- outstanding educational achievement of students plete and integrated functioning of all the laws of in schools that use the Consciousness-Based edu- nature governing the body, producing a healthier, cation program. more integrated and balanced individual. 1. sCIentIfIC researCh fIndIngs: development of all aspeCts of lIfe The following are research findings on the Transcendental Meditation program that are significant for improving the effectiveness of education. The numbers in parentheses after the findings refer to the refer- ences in the original research papers, which are listed at the end of this document. Increased Intelligence, Learning Ability, (4, 13, 15) and Intellectual Performance • ognitive orientation towards Positive Values (16) c • increased intelligence (1–7) • mproved Problem-Solving Ability (2) i • increased Learning Ability (8–9) Improved Academic Performance • improved memory (9–10) and Academic Orientation • ccelerated cognitive development in children A (11–13) • mproved Academic Performance at the elemen- i • improved cognitive flexibility (9–10) tary, Secondary, college, and Postgraduate Levels • increased efficiency of concept Learning (8) (17–20) • aster Processing of cognitively complex infor- f • mproved Standardized test Scores on General i mation (14) Academic Achievement, Social Studies, Literary • roader comprehension and improved Ability to B materials, reading, mathematics, Language, and focus Attention—increased field independence Work Study Skills (17–18)
  4. 4. 4 SummAry of Scientific reSeArch on conSciouSneSS-BASed educAtion —improved Spinal reflex Activity (29–30) Improvement — mprovements in reaction-time measures cor- i in Academic Skills related with intelligence (7) • Greater Adaptability of Brain functioning (31) through the Transcendental Meditation program • aster Processing of cognitively complex infor- f Mathematics Reading mation in the elderly (9) 80% • ncreased efficiency and decreased Age-related i deterioration of cognitive information Process- Median percentile rank on Iowa Tests of Basic Skills 60% ing as measured by event-related Brain Poten- 40% tials (14) • increased Blood flow to the Brain (103) 20% • increased eeG coherence—integration of Brain 0 functioning (104–105) Before After Before After • orrelations found in Subjects Practicing the c Transcendental Meditation Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Pro- Within one school year, elementary school students who grams: practiced the Transcendental Meditation program showed — etween high eeG coherence, higher States B significant gains on a national standardized test of basic of consciousness, and high Levels of creativity skills. Reference: Education 107: 49–54, 1986. (32) Increased Creativity — etween high eeG coherence, neurological B efficiency, and flexibility of concept Learning • enhanced creativity (2, 5, 21) (8) • increased innovation (2) • increased cognitive flexibility (9) Faster Reaction Time Higher Levels of Brain Functioning through the Transcendental Meditation program • obilization of the hidden reserves of the Brain: m 15 Wider distribution of the Brain’s response to 10 Sensory input (22) choice reaction time (ms) 5 • ncreased neurological efficiency: i Faster speed of 0 — ncreased efficiency of information transfer in i Transcendental the Brain (14, 23–28) -5 Meditation -10 Improved Post-Graduate -15 Controls Academic Performance University students who were practicing the Tran- through the Transcendental Meditation program scendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs showed significantly faster choice reaction time, in contrast to 100% TM group higher than controls control students. Reference: Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105–1116, 1991. Percentage of tests with 80% 60% 40% 20% — etween high eeG coherence, high Levels B 0 of Principled Moral Reasoning, and a Unified Before After cosmic Perspective on Life (33) Transcendental Meditation Improved Mind-Body Coordination Master degree engineering students who learned the Transcendental Meditation program showed improved • faster reactions (34–36) performance on their standard examinations after six • increased Psychomotor Speed (37) months, compared with randomly assigned controls. Reference: British Journal of Educational Psychology 55: 164–166, 1985. Increased Organizational Ability and Efficiency
  5. 5. Scientific reSeArch findinGS: deVeLoPment of ALL ASPectS of Life 5 • ncreased time competence: increased Ability to i think and Act efficiently in the Present (38–40) Increased Strength • increased efficiency and Productivity (41–42) of Self-Concept • increased employee effectiveness (42) through the Transcendental Meditation program • reater Physiological calmness during task Per- G 10 formance (42) 8 Repertory Grid Test • ecreased tendency to Procrastinate (43) d Change score on 6 Increased Energy and Dynamism 4 2 • increased energy and enthusiasm (2, 42, 44) • ncreased Physical and mental Well-Being (9, i 0 Transcendental 45–47) -2 Controls Meditation • decreased fatigue (42) After one month of practice of the Transcendental Meditation program, individuals developed a more Improved Health strongly defined sense of self-concept, in comparison to matched controls. They also reported that their “actual” • ower health insurance utilization rates: Signifi- L self was closer to their “ideal” self. Reference: British cantly fewer hospital inpatient days and outpa- Journal of Psychology 73: 57–68, 1982. Decreased Advanced Participants in the Transcendental Meditation Program (50) Health Care Expenditures • rientation towards Positive Values: Better recall o through the Transcendental Meditation program for Positive than negative Words; Lower recogni- 15% tion thresholds for Positive Words than negative expenditures for physicians’ services 10% After Words; more Positive Appraisal of others (16) Annual per cent change in 5% Transcendental • ncreased inner-directedness: Greater indepen- i Meditation 0 dence and Self-Supportiveness (38–40) Before • increased Autonomy and independence (2, 40, -5% Transcendental -10% Meditation 50) -15% • Less Sensitivity to criticism (51) -20% • enhanced Self-concept (52) A study of 1418 people in the province of Québec, • nhanced Self-regard and Self-esteem (2, 51, e Canada who learned the Transcendental Meditation 53– 54) program found that after learning the program, in contrast to matched controls, government payments for • enhanced inner Well-Being (9) physicians’ services declined significantly, by 13.8% • increased emotional Stability (43, 55–56) per year. Reference: American Journal of Health Promo- • increased emotional maturity (44) tion 14: 284–291, 2000. • decreased Behavioral rigidity (9) • mproved mental health (9, 38–40, 42–46, 51–52, i tient Visits in All Age categories; fewer inpatient 54–55, 57–64) Admissions for All major categories of disease (47) Reduction in Negative • ongitudinal reduction in health care costs Personality Characteristics L (48) • ecreased Anxiety (2, 42, 44, 54–55, 57–58, 60, d • mproved Self-health rating (9, 42, 45–46, 49) i 62, 65) • decreased tension (42–43, 58) Increased Integration of Personality • decreased neuroticism (43, 45, 51, 59, 62) • ncreased Self-Actualization: increased inte- • decreased depression (43, 51, 55) i gration, Unity, and Wholeness of Personality • decreased irritability (60) (38–40) • decreased hostility (60, 71) • niquely effective means of increasing Self- • decreased impulsiveness (44–45) u Actualization (40) • decreased use of cigarettes (42, 66–70) • niquely high Scores on Self-development in • decreased use of Alcohol (42, 55, 61, 66–69, 72) u
  6. 6. 6 SummAry of Scientific reSeArch on conSciouSneSS-BASed educAtion Increased Tolerance • increased tolerance (2, 44) • rowth of a more Sympathetic, helpful, and car- G in Secondary School Students ing nature (44) through the Transcendental Meditation program • increased Sensitivity to the feelings of others Jackson Personality Inventory 2.0 (44) Change in scale score • mproved interpersonal Behavior of Juvenile i 1.5 offenders (54) 1.0 Benefits in Special Education 0.5 and Remedial Education 0 Controls Transcendental • mprovements in Personality relevant to Learning i Meditation disorders in economically deprived Adolescents Secondary students who learned the Transcendental with Learning Problems: Meditation program showed increased tolerance after 14 — ncreased independence and Self-Supportive- i weeks, in contrast to control students. The same students ness (53) also showed increased creativity, intelligence, innovation, energy level, self-esteem, decreased conformity, and —improved Self-regard (53) decreased anxiety. Reference: Dissertation Abstracts • ecreased dropout rate from School in eco- d International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, 1978. nomically deprived Adolescents with Learning Problems (53) • decreased drug Abuse (43, 66–69, 73) • mprovements among children from Low-income i families: Growth of Ideal Social Behavior —increased intelligence (74) • increased Social maturity (3) —improved Self-concept (74) • increased Sociability (44) • improvements in Autism: decreased echolalic • ncreased capacity for Warm interpersonal rela- i Behavior (75) tionships (39, 43–44) • Benefits for Mentally Retarded Subjects: • increased friendliness (43) —improved Social Behavior (76) • improved Work and Personal relationships (42) —improved cognitive functioning (76–77) • ncreased Ability to Be objective, fair-minded, i —increased intelligence (76–77) and reasonable (44) —improved Physical health (76) • increased Good humor (43) — ormalization of neurotransmitter metabolite n • increased trust (51) and Plasma cortisol Levels (77) • decreased Stuttering (78–79) 2. desCrIptIon of seleCted studIes The following sample studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program and its applicability to a wide variety of educational settings. • Development of intelligence—Increased IQ random-assignment study of students learning the among university students. University students Transcendental Meditation program in four Cana- practicing the Transcendental Meditation program dian high schools showed significant improvement increased significantly in intelligence compared in intelligence, creativity, tolerance, self-esteem, to control subjects from another nearby univer- and five other personality factors, in comparison sity (7). this finding corroborates other studies to randomly assigned controls (2). showing increased iQ and faster choice reaction • Improved academic achievement, cognitive through the practice of the Transcendental Medita- abilities, creativity, and self-esteem. Research tion technique. has shown that the practice of the Transcendental • Increased intelligence and reduced anxiety Meditation program by elementary and secondary among high school students. A longitudinal students significantly improved academic achieve-
  7. 7. BenefitS for teAcherS And AdminiStrAtorS 7 Increased Intelligence Increased Field Independence in Secondary School Students Broader Comprehension and Greater Ability to Focus through the Transcendental Meditation program through the Transcendental Meditation program 3 40% Per cent improvement on Ravens Progressive Matrices Rod-and-Frame Test 30% 2 Change score on 20% 1 10% 0 0 Controls Transcendental Controls Transcendental -10% Meditation -1 Meditation Individuals randomly assigned to learn the Transcendental Secondary school students who learned the Transcendental Meditation program displayed a significant increase after Meditation program showed increased intelligence after three months, in comparison to controls, on measures of 14 weeks, in contrast to control students. Reference: field independence, indicating broader comprehension Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, with increasing ability to focus. Reference: Perceptual and 1978. Motor Skills 39: 1031–1034, 1974. ment on national standardized tests (17–18); gram showed not only lower blood pressure, but improved cognitive abilities (12); and improved also reduced number of school-related negative field independence, indicating broader compre- behavioral incidents and suspensions, reduced hension with the ability to focus sharply (13). absenteeism, and reduced tardiness (102). Post-secondary students showed increased intel- • Reduced substance abuse. Studies with stu- lectual ability, creativity, field independence, aca- dents and adults show reduced substance abuse demic achievement, and self-esteem (3–4, 7, 15, 19–21); improved self development to uniquely and antisocial behavior through the Transcenden- high levels (50); and increased self-actualization tal meditation program. An issue of the journal (38–40) through the transcendental meditation Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly (80) is devoted program. entirely to the effects of this program in reduc- • Improved student behavior at school. African ing substance abuse. findings show reduced use American adolescents at risk for hypertension of all classes of illegal drugs, and reduced use of who learned the Transcendental Meditation pro- alcohol, cigarettes, and prescribed drugs. 3. BenefIts for teaChers and admInIstrators Research on the Transcendental Meditation program indicates that the benefits for the individual are com- prehensive. Findings especially relevant to faculty and administrator development include improved health and reduction of stress; greater inner stability and resistance to stress; and increased creativity, personal satisfaction, and self-actualization. • Improved health and decreased teacher stress. especially promising for reducing health care Research on the Transcendental Meditation pro- costs in schools and universities are the results gram has found long-term reductions on bio- of a field study of insurance statistics of 2000 chemical and general physiological indicators of Transcendental Meditation program participants stress (77, 81) and aging (9, 82). in addition, two over a five-year period (47). the group practicing well-controlled studies demonstrating reductions the Transcendental Meditation program showed in hypertension among the elderly (9, 83) sub- a 50% reduction in both inpatient and outpatient stantiate the findings of fourteen earlier studies on medical care utilization, as compared to matched hypertension, a major risk factor in heart disease. controls, as well as lower sickness rates in 17
  8. 8. 8 SummAry of Scientific reSeArch on conSciouSneSS-BASed educAtion • Increasing teacher creativity, personal satis- Decreased Need for Medical Care: faction, and self-actualization. Reduced Hospitalization educa ional research has found that in schools t through the Transcendental Meditation program perceived as effective the teachers are satisfied Medical Surgical with their careers and teaching circumstances Per cent decrease of inpatient days 20% 0 Treatment Treatment (84). other research indicates that a major factor compared to average contributing to teacher dissatisfaction is the sense -20% of stagnation which occurs after the strategies that -40% the teacher has learned in the past begin to become -60% obstacles to growth and personal progress. -80% An analysis of research studies found the transcen- -100% dental Meditation program to be uniquely effec- A study of approximately 2000 participants in the tive in promoting self-actualization (40). other Transcendental Meditation program analyzing five years research shows longitudinal increases in figural of medical insurance data found that they required significantly less hospitalization, for both medical and and verbal creativity (2, 21) and physiological, surgical procedures, in comparison to the average of all cognitive and behavioral flexibility (9–10, 14, 27). other insured persons. Reference: Psychosomatic Medicine The growth of these qualities supports the ability 49: 493–507, 1987. to avoid stagnation in the teaching profession, to continue to develop new and more effective teach- categories of disease, including 87% less hospi- ing strategies, and to enjoy increasing fulfillment in talization for heart disease; 87% less for nervous teaching on the basis of expanding creativity. system disorders; 73% less for nose, throat and lung disorders; and 55% less for tumors. • Results relating to effective administration and organization. The Transcendental Medita- Longitudinal research in canada demonstrated an tion program has been adopted in hundreds of average reduction of 13.8% per year in health care businesses. it is viewed by managers as a means costs among those who learned the Transcendental of developing the human resources of business, Meditation technique, in comparison to matched and also as a means of increasing the efficiency controls and controlling for inflation (48). and productivity of the company. Many of these benefits apply equally to administration of an • Developing inner stability and resistance to educational institution. stress. Teachers need to be able to maintain focus on their objectives, while adapting to continually changing demands in the classroom. Research on Increased Creativity the Transcendental Meditation program indicat- through the Transcendental Meditation program ing increased physiological stability and field 30 Torrance Test of Creative Thinking independence is thus highly relevant to effective teaching. 20 post-test scores Studies examining galvanic skin responses, which measure physiological excitation, found that the 10 Transcendental Meditation technique enables more rapid mobilization of one’s physiological resources, 0 while at the same time facilitating quicker recovery Controls Transcendental Meditation to baseline levels of functioning (81). Individuals who learned the Transcendental Meditation Similarly, studies of field independence, a mea- program showed increased creativity in comparison to sure of the ability to maintain internal stability in controls as measured by a higher level of pictorial origi- nality after five months of practice. They also showed a distracting environment, have found significant increased creativity as measured by higher levels of improvements among those who learn the Tran- pictorial flexibility and verbal fluency (not charted). Reference: The Journal of Creative Behavior 13: 169–180, scendental meditation program (15). 1979.
  9. 9. BenefitS for Society 9 A three-month study in two occupational settings, Improved Work which compared managers and employees who and Personal Relationships learned the Transcendental Meditation program through the Transcendental Meditation program to demographically similar controls, found that 0.8 participants in the Transcendental Meditation questionnaire subscale 0.6 program showed significant decreases, as com- Change on pared to controls, in trait anxiety, state anxiety, 0.4 job worry, and cigarette and alcohol use. They 0.2 also showed increased job satisfaction, improved 0 general health, greater efficiency and productivity, Controls Transcendental and better work and personal relationships (42). Meditation A large-scale study by researchers at the national A study of executives and workers in the automotive industry found that after three months of regular practice institute of industrial health of the Japanese min- of the Transcendental Meditation program, employees istry of Labor found that workers at Sumitomo showed improved work and personal relationships, in comparison to controls from the same work sites. Refer- heavy industries showed improved physical and ence: Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal mental health after learning the Transcendental 6: 245–262, 1993. Meditation program, in comparison to matched controls (45–46). one study in a business setting, utilizing both self- in addition to the increases in employee satisfac- report questionnaires and evaluations of co-work- ers and supervisors, found significantly improved tion, the cost savings due to reduced illness and job satisfaction, enhanced job performance, and health care utilization by people practicing the better relations with peers and supervisors, as Transcendental Meditation program, as described well as decreased turnover potential among people above, are sufficient to warrant the inclusion of practicing the Transcendental Meditation program, this technology in any administrator or teacher as compared to non-meditating controls (41). development program. 4. BenefIts for soCIety n early fifty research studies verify that when large groups of individuals practice Decreased Crime the Transcendental Meditation technique in National Capital Districts or participate together in the group practice of the through TM-Sidhi Yogic Flying advanced TM-Sidhi program, including Yogic Metro Manila, Delhi, India Philippines flying, then an influence of coherence and har- 0 Per cent change in crime totals mony is radiated from the group to the whole society. This increased coherence and harmony -5 in society is measured by such trends as reduced crime (85–89), reduced accidents (90), improved -10 overall quality of life (87–88, 91–93), improved economic trends (88, 94–95), and reduced conflict -15 and violence (87, 96–97, 101). When all students During periods in which large groups of participants in the and faculty at a large school or university learn the Transcendental Meditation Sidhi program were established, TM-Sidhi program, their group practice creates a crime totals decreased significantly in the Union Territory of Delhi, India, and in Metro Manila, Philippines. Reference: beneficial influence for the whole city, and if the The Journal of Mind and Behavior 8: 67–104, 1987. group is large enough, for the state and nation.
  10. 10. 10 SummAry of Scientific reSeArch on conSciouSneSS-BASed educAtion 5. desCrIptIon of the TranscendenTal MediTaTion teChnIque o ver the last four decades, the Transcenden- such meta-analyses on the effects of the Transcen- tal Meditation program has been learned dental Meditation program in comparison to other by more than five million people world- techniques are described below. wide, of all ages, nationalities, and religions. The (1) Physiological rest. A meta-analysis published Transcendental Meditation technique is a simple, in American Psychologist reviewed 31 studies, and natural, effortless technique that settles the mind found that the Transcendental Meditation technique to increasingly silent and orderly levels of aware- produces more than twice the degree of physiologi- ness, allowing one to naturally experience the most cal rest produced by simply sitting with eyes closed silent, expanded state of one’s own consciousness, (98). Transcendental Consciousness, the full creative potential of the mind. (2) Reduced trait anxiety. A meta-analysis pub- lished in the Journal of Clinical Psychology reviewed As the mind becomes more settled and wide awake over 100 research findings, and found the Transcen- during this technique, the body corresponding- dental Meditation technique to produce more than ly gains a unique physiological state of restful twice the reduction in trait anxiety (i.e., chronic stress) produced by any other technique (65). Decreased Anxiety (3) Increased self-actualization. A meta-analysis through the Transcendental Meditation program published in the Journal of Social Behavior and Personality showed the Transcendental Meditation Concentration Other Transcendental technique to increase self-actualization by three or Contemplation Techniques Meditation 0 times as large an effect as that of other techniques (standard deviations) -.2 (40). Effect size -.4 -.6 (4) Reduced substance abuse. Another meta-anal- -.8 ysis, published in Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, showed the practice of the Transcendental Medita- A statistical meta-analysis of 146 independent study results tion technique to result in a greater degree of reduc- found that the Transcendental Meditation program is tion and more lasting reduction in consumption of more than twice as effective in reducing trait anxiety than procedures of concentration or contemplation, or other alcohol, drugs, and cigarettes than other techniques techniques. Reference: Journal of Clinical Psychology 45: or preventive education programs (69). 957–974, 1989. Increased alertness, which releases accumulated stress and Self-Actualization increases the stability and flexibility of the nervous through the Transcendental Meditation program system (98). Adjusted mean effect size (standard deviations) 0.8 This unique state of restful alertness produces a broad range of benefits as one continues to practice 0.6 the technique. These benefits are reflected in the 0.4 increasing ability of individuals to express their full 0.2 creative potential, and to achieve success in what- 0 ever they undertake without damaging the interests Concentration or Other Transcendental Contemplation Techniques Meditation of others. Statistical meta-analysis of all available research (42 Unique effectiveness of the Transcendental independent study results) indicated that practice of the Transcendental Meditation program increased self- Meditation program: Results of meta-analyses actualization by about three times as much as procedures The most powerful and rigorous method for drawing of contemplation or concentration, or other techniques. Reference: Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: conclusions from a large body of scientific research 189–248, 1991. is the statistical procedure of meta-analysis. four
  11. 11. AchieVementS of conSciouSneSS-BASed educAtionAL inStitutionS 11 6. aChIevements of eduCatIonal InstItutIons ImplementIng consciousness-Based eduCatIon— United States and United Kingdom T he research findings described above • Highest national and state rankings. despite are reflected in the achievements of the the fact that the school has no academic admission students of schools worldwide that apply tests, the secondary students in Maharishi School consciousness-Based education. decades of consistently score in the top 1% the nation and in experience have shown that any school or uni- iowa on standardized tests of academic develop- versity whose teachers and students regularly ment (ited). Almost 100% of the graduates are practice the Transcendental Meditation technique accepted at four-year colleges and universities, enjoys the same beneficial results: the flowering resulting in the iowa department of education of its students’ potential, increasingly creative and awarding the school with special accreditation effective teaching, improved quality of student status as a college preparatory school. Maharishi life, and a harmonious and positive atmosphere. School was recognized by the main newspaper in Below are reports on research studies and educa- iowa, the des moines register, as one of the top tional outcomes at the primary and secondary level five in the state for the performance of their gradu- of education from the Maharishi Schools of the ates as freshmen at iowa public universities. Age of enlightenment in fairfield, iowa, u.S.A. • Outstanding Creative Achievements. The and in Lancashire, england; and at the university outstanding creativity of the Maharishi School level from Maharishi University of Management, students can be seen in their success in creative fairfield, iowa, u.S.A. problem-solving competitions, such as “odyssey A similar level of success is seen in mahari- of the mind” and “destination imagination,” shi Schools in other locations in europe, South where student groups from the School have won America, Asia, and Australia. more state championships than any other school in india, the system of maharishi Vidya mandir in the state and have gone on to win the world schools is the largest private educational system championships four times, also gaining more top- in the country, offering the central Board of ten finishes than any other school in the world. Secondary education curriculum together with the approach of consciousness-Based education. in the fine arts, maharishi School students have There are currently more than 150 schools in 16 been awarded the “congressional Art Award” states of india, enrolling over 100,000 students. grand prize four times, the grand prize in the These schools display outstanding academic international Photo imaging education Associa- achievements year after year. tion competition, and have gained more “Critics choice” awards in the iowa high School Large Group Speech competition than any school since Maharishi School in the competition began almost 40 years ago. Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A. Founded in 1974 • Sports achievements. in sports, the school’s • Academic Awards. in the past decade, students girls and boys basketball teams have won the dis- at Maharishi School have won well over 100 trict championship a combined total of five times; international, national, and state titles in the areas the School has won the state championship in of science, mathematics, speech, drama, writing, boys’ golf for both team and individual; and boys poetry, spelling, art, photography, history, chess, and girls tennis players from Maharishi School tennis, golf, track, and international problem- have won a combined total of 17 state champion- solving competitions. ships over the past 20 years.
  12. 12. 12 SummAry of Scientific reSeArch on conSciouSneSS-BASed educAtion • Outstanding achievements in poetry and cre- Higher ative writing. Maharishi School pupils continue Examination Scores to win prizes for poetry and creative writing in through the Transcendental Meditation program national competitions involving thousands of entries. So many poetry prizes have been won that Per cent students passing 100 the poems have been collected in an anthology and 75 published with an introduction by the Poet Laure- 50 ate of the nation, appointed by the Queen. 25 0 Maharishi University National Maharishi of Management Average School in Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A.— Each year from 1995 to 1997, 100 per cent of students at Founded in 1971 Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment in Maharishi University of Management, founded in Lancashire, U.K., passed the General Certificate of Secondary Education national examination in five or 1971, offers bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.d. degree more subjects at the top three grading levels, in contrast programs; it is accredited by the higher Learn- to a national percentage ranging from 43 per cent to 46 per cent during these three years. ing commission of the north central Association of Colleges and Schools, the largest and oldest educational accrediting organization in the United Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment States. Skelmersdale, Lancashire, U.K. Founded in 1986 • Holistic Development. Scientific research studies show that Maharishi University of Management • Academic achievements. Since 1990, when the students display unique and holistic development Maharishi School in Skelmersdale started enter- of their mental potential, health, and social ing pupils in the General certificate of Secondary behavior, as measured by increased intelligence education (GcSe) examinations, the following (3–4, 7); increased field independence (broader results are particularly noteworthy: comprehension with improved ability to focus) the percentage of GcSe passes at grades A or (4); improved learning ability (8); improvement A+ at the maharishi School since 1990 is 39%, in reaction time measures that are correlated with while nationally the figure is 14% over the same intelligence (7); increased neurological efficiency period. (30); reduced need for outpatient or inpatient medical the percentage at grades A to c from pupils at the maharishi School since 1990 is 87%; nationally Development of Intelligence the figure is 54%. Increased IQ in University Students Since 1990, the percentage of pupils at the mahari- through the Transcendental Meditation program shi School gaining 5 or more passes at grades A to Transcendental c is 89%, while the national figure is 44.6%. Meditation 121 (Cattell Culture-Fair in summary, pupils at the maharishi School pass Intelligence Test) Mean IQ Score examinations at grades A or A+ at almost 3 times the national rate. Passes at grades A to c are almost 116 Controls 60% higher than the national average; while the percentage of pupils passing 5 or more GcSe examinations at grades A+ to c is double the 1985 1987 national average rate. Maharishi University of Management students who were practicing the Transcendental Meditation and Pupils of the School continue to win top awards in TM-Sidhi programs displayed a significant increase in intelligence in contrast to control students. the annual U.K. Mathematics Challenge involving Reference: Personality and Individual Differences over 200,000 students. 12:1105-1116, 1991.
  13. 13. AchieVementS of conSciouSneSS-BASed educAtionAL inStitutionS 13 care and reduced health care costs among university staff (99); increased social maturity (3); and growth Increased to uniquely high levels of self-development (100). Self-Development • Educational excellence. the national Survey through the Transcendental Meditation program Transcendental of Student engagement, the most comprehensive 1.0 Meditation Loevinger’s ego development scale assessment of effective practices in higher educa- 0.8 Adjusted change scores, tion, found that Maharishi University of Manage- 0.6 ment is among the top U.S. bachelor and master 0.4 Control Control Control degree institutions in the survey’s “benchmarks of 0.2 University University University educational practice,” based on data from surveys 0.0 of 135,000 senior students at 613 colleges and -0.2 -0.4 universities between 2000 and 2002. Maharishi Maharishi University of Management students who University of Management was among the top 3% in were practicing the Transcendental Meditation and “active and collaborative learning,” among the top TM-Sidhi programs increased significantly in self-development (ego development) when measured 7% in “student-faculty interaction,” among the top after graduation, in contrast to control students at 4% in “enriching educational experiences,” among three other universities who were not participating in the top 8% in “supportive campus environment,” this program. Reference: Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 17: 93–121, 2005 and among the top 26% in “level of academic chal- lenge.” • Student Achievements. Graduates of maharishi Students also expressed significantly higher satisfac- University of Management have continued their tion with their education in contrast to the national education at over 130 graduate and professional reference group of 1000 colleges and universities, as schools, and are hired by leading corporations and evaluated by the American college testing Service. institutions. They are notably successful as business for example, among maharishi university of man- entrepreneurs, and have won major professional agement graduates, compared to norms, 39% more awards. student said they would definitely choose the uni- Maharishi University of Management graduate stu- versity again, 54% more said the university prepared dents have published research in academic journals them exceptionally well for their further education, and presented their research findings at state and 35% more said the university prepared them very national conferences. Students have also won major well for their present occupation, and 64% more said national and state awards, including national Sci- the university prepared them very much to care for ence foundation fellowships and student research their own physical and mental health. grants from the national institutes of health.
  14. 14. 14 SummAry of Scientific reSeArch on conSciouSneSS-BASed educAtion 7. ConClusIon T he achievements of the students at institu- increasingly harmonious and vital learning environ- tions using consciousness-Based education, ment. together with the results of the hundreds of educational leaders are invited to implement con- scientific research studies on the Transcendental Meditation program, and educational experience of sciousness-Based education through the addition almost five decades, indicate that any university or of one period per day to the existing curriculum school in any nation implementing this approach to of schools and universities, and thereby ensure the education will enjoy the progressive development development of ideal citizens, and a harmonious, of the students’ and teachers’ creative potential in an peaceful nation. 8. sCIentIfIC researCh referenCes CIted In text (1) joa, A. increased intelligence and reduced t Alexander, c.n. transcendental meditation neuroticism through the Transcendental Medi- and improved performance on intelligence- tation program. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psy- related measures: A longitudinal study. Per- chologie 3: 167–182, 1975. sonality and Individual Differences 12: 1105– (2) hecter, h.W. A psychological investigation S 1116, 1991. into the source of the effect of the Transcenden- (8) illbeck, m.c.; orme-Johnson, d.W.; and d tal Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts Wallace, r.K. frontal eeG coherence, h- International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, 1978. reflex recovery, concept learning, and the (3) ron, A.; orme-Johnson, d.; and Brubaker, P. A TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of The Transcendental Meditation program in the Neuroscience 15: 151–157, 1981. college curriculum: A 4-year longitudinal study (9) lexander, c.n.; Langer, e.; newman, r.i.; A of effects on cognitive and affective function- chandler, h.m.; and davies, J.L. transcen- ing. College Student Journal 15: 140–146, dental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity. 1981. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (4) illbeck, m.c.; Assimakis, P.d.; raimondi, d 57: 950–964, 1989. d.; orme-Johnson, d.W.; and rowe, r. Lon- (10) dillbeck, m.c. meditation and flexibility of gitudinal effects of the Transcendental Medita- visual perception and verbal problem-solving. tion and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive abil- Memory & Cognition 10: 207–215, 1982. ity and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor (11) ixon, c.A. consciousness and cognitive d Skills 62: 731–738, 1986. development: A six-month longitudinal study (5) edrczak, A.; Beresford, m.; and clements, G. J of four-year-olds practicing the children’s The TM-Sidhi programme, pure conscious- Transcendental Meditation technique. Disser- ness, creativity and intelligence. The Journal tation Abstracts International 50(3): 1518B, of Creative Behavior 19: 270–275, 1985. 1989. (6) Jedrczak, A.; toomey, m.; and clements, G. (12) arner, t.Q. transcendental meditation and W The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief developmental advancement: Mediating abili- test of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal ties and conservation performance. Disserta- intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology tion Abstracts International 47(8): 3558B, 42: 161–164, 1986. 1987. (7) ranson, r.W.; orme-Johnson, d.W.; Gack- c (13) elderloos, P.; Lockie, r.J.; and chuttoorgoon, G enbach, J.; dillbeck, m.c.; Jones, c.h.; and S. field independence of students at maha ishi r
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  16. 16. 16 SummAry of Scientific reSeArch on conSciouSneSS-BASed educAtion orme-Johnson, d.W.; and Wallace, r.K. Kohl- (43) Geisler, m. therapeutische Wirkungen der bergian cosmic perspective responses, eeG transzendentalen meditation auf den dro- coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation genkonsumenten. Zeitschrift für klinische and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Psychologie 7: 235–255, 1978. Education 12: 166–173, 1983. (44) arcus, S.V. the influence of the transcen- m (34) allois, P. modifications neurophysiolo iques G g dental Meditation program on the marital et respiratoires lors de la pratique des tech- dyad. Dissertation Abstracts International niques de relaxation. L’Encéphale 10: 139– 38(8): 3895B, 1978. 144, 1984. (45) aratani, t.; and hemmi, t. effects of tran- h (35) ppelle, S.; and oswald, L.e. Simple reac- A scendental meditation (tm) on the mental tion time as a function of alertness and prior health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal mental activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills of Industrial Health 32: 656, 1990. 38: 1263–1268, 1974. (46) aratani, t.; and hemmi, t. effects of tran- h (36) olt, W.r.; caruso, J.L.; and riley, J.B. tran- h scendental meditation (tm) on the health scendental Meditation vs. pseudo-meditation behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Jour- on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and nal of Public Health 37(10 Suppl.): 729, Motor Skills 46: 726, 1978. 1990. (37) edrczak, A.; toomey, m.; and clements, G. J (47) rme-Johnson, d.W. medical care utilization o The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief test and the Transcendental Meditation program. of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal intel- Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 493–507, 1987. ligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42: (48) herron, r.e.; and hillis, S.L. the impact of 161–164, 1986. the Transcendental Meditation program on (38) eeman, W.; nidich, S.; and Banta, t. influ- S government payments to physicians in Que- ence of Transcendental Meditation on a mea- bec: An update. American Journal of Health sure of self-actualization. Journal of Counsel- Promotion 14: 284–291, 2000. ing Psychology 19: 184–187, 1972. (49) farinelli, L. Possibilità di applicazioni della tec- (39) idich, S.; Seeman, W.; and dreskin, t. influ- n nologia della coscienza in aspetti di medicina ence of transcendental meditation: A replica- preventiva: una ricerca pilota. doctoral thesis, tion. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20: faculty of medicine and Surgery, university 565–566, 1973. of Padova at Verona, Verona, italy, 1981. (40) lexander, c.n.; rainforth, m.V.; and Gelder- A (50) lexander, c.n.; heaton, d.P.; and chan- A loos, P. Transcendental Meditation, self-actu- dler, h.m. Advanced human development in alization, and psychological health: A concep- the Vedic Psychology of Maharishi Mahesh tual overview and statistical meta-analysis. yogi: theory and research. in Transcendence Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: and Mature Thought in Adulthood, eds. m.e. 189–247, 1991. miller and S.r. cook-Greuter (Lanham, md: (41) rew, d.r. transcendental meditation and f rowman & Littlefield): 39–70, 1994. productivity. Academy of Management Jour- (51) erg, W.P. van den; and mulder, B. Psycho- B nal 17: 362–368, 1974. logical research on the effects of the Transcen- (42) lexander, c.n.; Swanson, G.c.; rainforth, A dental Meditation technique on a number of personality variables. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor m.V.; carlisle, t.W.; todd, c.c.; and oates, Psychologie 4: 206–218, 1976. r.m. effects of the transcendental medita- tion program on stress reduction, health, and (52) urnbull, m.J.; and norris, h. effects of tran- t employee development: A prospective study in scendental Meditation on self-identity indices two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and and personality. British Journal of Psychology Coping: An International Journal 6: 245–262, 73: 57–68, 1982. 1993. (53) ackson, y. Learning disorders and the tran- J
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