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Module in essay

  1. 1. One of the skills being developed and product performance in teaching essay in all grade level writing which students must apply and understand from the school and to the real word situation. Writing reflects how they will deal with everyday life situation and help them to enjoy writing. Students will be able to come up to their mind that writing is not a hard task to do in their studies. Making of the simplest instructional materials in essay writing makes the students more active and enjoy the process of writing especially in their performance because of the step by step procedure and simple and enjoyable approach and techniques of giving exercises in essay writing. In this module, the students will explore the power of writing in the form of essay. They will learn the simplest way of writing needed to form an effective piece of writing, cognizant of its purpose structure and impact. The students will begin to master and discover their own skills and interest in writing as they plan, organize, write, evaluate and revise on writing exercises and samples from sources within the school and outside the classroom. They will also be an effective writer as they analyze, evaluate and reflect on their technical and creative skills. The students will naturally come up to understand and appreciate the importance of writing in real world contexts and able to apply the enhanced skills when scenarios arise. List of Simple Activities I. STRUCTURE OF ESSAY II. KINDS OF ESSAY III. THESIS STATEMENTS IV. TOPIC SENTENCE V. HOOK VI.INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH VII. PARAPHRASING VIII. BODY IX. CONCLUSION X. OUTLINE XI. REVISION XII. SUPRHERO PROJECT XIII. ONE MINUTE PERSUASIVE SPEECH XV. ADDITIONAL SUGGESTION FOR THE CLASSROOM XVI. TEST SAMPLE
  2. 2. a. b. c. d. e. Every piece of writing has a purpose and is organized according to that purpose. Effective writing skills provide a greater impact on readers. Writing skills that is exercised in everyday lives and developing it can create many opportunities. Planning lets every activity have more positive outcome. Evaluating others work develops personal understanding and development of learning from others. f. Self-reflection is necessary in deepening one’s knowledge/skills for improvement. g. Organizing your ideas leads to an effective impact to readers. h. Revising your ideas leads to play in words for effective and correct language for a certain piece of writing. i. Writing has a practical application to student lives inside and outside the classroom. Students Will Know: 1. General organization of an essay. 2. Key terms associated with essay writing. 3. Different kinds of essay and their purpose. 4. Effective writing techniques. 5. Importance of essay writing in real word context. 6. Concepts of expository essay. 7. Concepts of editorial writing. 8. Concepts of narrative essay. 9. Concepts of descriptive essay. 10. Concepts of compare and contrast essay. 11. Concepts of cause and effect relationships. 12. Transitional signals or devices 13. Phrase 14. Simple past tense 15. Simple present tense 16. Subject verb agreement Students will be able to: Identify and define the parts of an essay. Recognize and create different kinds of essay. Write well developed introduction, body and conclusion paragraph. Differentiate between formal and informal essay Differentiate between effective and ineffective essay. Demonstrate research skills. Create visuals to enhance essay writing. Read various essays with fluency and understanding. Analyze, interpret, and compare a variety of essay for purpose, structure, content, detail and effect. Use revision and proofreading techniques to edit pieces of writing. Evaluate written work for its effectiveness and make recommendations for improvement. Apply listening skills n practical settings.
  3. 3. Apply grammar rules to writing practice. Translate essay writing techniques into creating and delivering a speech. ASSESSMENT: -performance task/project -write and deliver a speech -superpower project -Quizzes/test -other evidence -pre writing and post writing samples -group discussions, Socratic seminar -reaction paper -peer evaluation -self-assessments LEARNING PLAN Specific to general General to specific Composition writing Step by step process IBC techniques Pre-test: All notes and activities listed below provide the skeleton for your learning plan should be adopted to meet your needs to be effective in writing essay. This provides you the information using the most appropriate strategies and to create and participative in writing activities. I. STRUCTURE OF ESSAY Notes: a. Parts of essay: IBC Essay-is a short piece of writing on one subject written from author’s point of view. Introductory paragraph- overview of topic and presents argument being made in essay Body- evidence and arguments in favor of thesis First body paragraph- includes strongest argument or point of view in thesis Second body paragraph- includes the second strongest argument or point of view in thesis Third body paragraph- includes the weakest argument or point of view in the thesis Conclusion- short paragraph that summarizes essay Read the example of essay and identify the following.
  4. 4. Plot- the events in a story Characterization- method to develop character (including appearance, attitude and behavior) Setting-time and location which story takes place Point of view-perspective of the writer Pattern-the way the essay is organized Symbols-written word that represents something else (example: flag-hope) Images- sensory details to enrich writing (uses 5 senses) Suggested activities: a. Word search puzzle E S D F G H J K L O P E R I O P A E R C S E A G F E R T U I O E T R T Y U I O E O S A E R I O S P O I T O B E T Y U O A G D A S F G W A S D F G H J O L J K L A R G Y U I O P R E P O T Y U D O I P G S E C O N D B O Y F R T Y U I O Y A D N A V S F I L H I N E M B A E R B W E T B O G H I O M O N I N O G H O M F A E D A S R E O P G E T H I T O D U C T I O N G E D O I N T R O D U C T I O N A I N O T I O H N O A S F T E A D I O H N M K L E R T Y U I O P V A S D F G H N B A A D A C O N C L U S I O N A S D F G H G G J W E R T G N B M E W E R T Y U I O E P G W A E R T Y P U W G Y U I O P J K S L N A W E R T L U I O P A S D F G H J K F I R S T B O D Y P A R A G R A P H E O H J K L O P T A S D F G H J K L O P E T H I R D B O D Y P A R A G R A P H A D S I P O A N M I O T D E S E O I D F I E
  5. 5. b. Create word puzzle with the parts of the essay and key words. II. KINDS OF ESSAY Notes: 1. Descriptive essay 2. Narrative essay 3. Persuasive essay 4. Expository essay
  6. 6. 5. Cause and effect essay 6. Compare and contrast essay 7. Editorial (Explain the basics of each essay and make sure students can differentiate) Suggested Activities: A. Hit or Miss! Give the definition and Hit (yes answer or correct) Miss (incorrect answer or misunderstood). B. Read the examples of thesis statement and identify which kind of essay each belong to: 1. Guinzadan is a beautiful place with many fields for livelihood, nice scenery, and friendly people. Answer: 2. Which is to be blame on National Achievement Test of GNHS decrease? Answer: 3. Cooking Pancit is one hobby of Filipinos, and want to know how to cook pancit? Answer: 4. Climate change will result in rising sea level, food shortage and greater inequality between rich and poor nations. Answer: 5. Even though some people believe its right to carry guns, guns should be illegal because it’s easy for criminals to get guns and too many people are dying from accident shootings. Answer: 6. While city and rural people share the same Filipino people spirit, there are clear differences in their lifestyle. Answer: Real World Brainstorm: Have students form small groups and brainstorm ways in which they would use each kind of essay in their lives outside the classroom and share. Opportunity to return to Essential Question and explore ways to kind of essays can be applied to the real world. III. THESIS STATEMENTS Notes: Thesis statement=topic +opinion One sentence at the end of the introductory paragraph Road map-informs reader where the essay is going Clearly addresses the given prompt or question Presents argument/makes a point Contains the opinion that is arguable Most use the three-part model containing the three main ideas of essay (Model the information of a thesis statement using three part model) Suggested Activities: Thesis DO’S and DONT’S
  7. 7. Choose the best option for thesis statement and explain why. Prompt: Hero Option A: one person I admire is Rizal, who lived from 1861 to 1896. Option B: one person I admire is Rizal, the greatest National Hero of all times. Answer: option B. option A is a fact, while option B contain an opinion. Prompt: Physical features of Philippines Option A: The Cordillera Mountains, thousands of tropical islands and surrounding seas are the three most significant physical features in the Philippines. Option B: Three physical features found in the Philippines are the Cordillera Mountains, thousands of tropical islands, and surrounding seas. Answer: option A; option B is just a fact, while option A is opinion. Prompt: Positive and negative effects of development Option A: Development in the Philippines has offered solutions to poverty for same and created more for others. Option B: Development in the Philippines has meant new jobs for the middle class living in cities. Answer: option A. Option B does not fully address the prompt because it only states the positive effect. Option A: presents both positive and negative. Forming Thesis Statements: Directions: Expand each sentence into a working thesis statement using the words in parentheses. Use the three part model. 1. Sharing your faith is possible through different ways. (like) Example answer: Sharing your faith is possible through different ways like creating bible study groups, going to church, and spreading the word of God. 2. Consumers should be careful about buying products over the Internet. (if,then) Example answer: If consumers buy products over Internet then there may be potential problems such as the product arriving, the product being wrong size, or the seller being fake. 3. Teachers and farmers have many similarities and differences. (while) Example answer: While teachers and farmers both have very difficult jobs, teachers work indoors and farmers work outdoors. (Check that the thesis statements all follow the 3 part model and contain topic +opinion.) IV. TOPIC SENTENCE Notes: Topic Sentence A sentence that states your mind idea The subject of paragraph
  8. 8. The topic of the paragraph It is being talk about in paragraph Suggested activities: A. (Matching Type) Match the following topic to the type or kinds of essay. 1. What is a true Friend? Descriptive essay 2. How does the climate in your region affect you and the other people who live there? Cause/effect 3. Effect or modern technology. Expository essay 4. The importance of having high school diploma. Persuasive essay 5. Some people believe it is harmful for both parents of a pre- school child to work outside the home, others do not feel this way. Compare and contrast B. Identifying topic sentence 1. Scientists are expert observers. They make careful notes about their observations. Answer: Scientists are experts observers. 2. One of the best new inventions was a special helmet for divers. Man began to invent new ways for people to stay underwater. Answer: one of the best new inventions was a special helmet for divers. 3. For centuries, scientists have spent much of their working lives designing and making instruments to help them pick up messages. One of these instruments is the telescope, which was invented by Galileo Galilei. Answer: For centuries, scientists have spent much of their working lives designing and making to help them pick up messages. 4. Noise is a continuous threat to the quality of environment, health, and daily life. It causes permanent damage to the hearing system, so that some people become partly deaf. Answer: Noise is a continuous threat to the environment, health, and daily life. (Go back to the essential question and let them write a topic sentence.) V. HOOK Notes; Hook: a. Grab the reader’s attention in the first sentence! b. Makes the reader want to continue reading the rest of the essay. c. Can be serious or humorous depending on essay topic. Kinds: 1. Shocking statement 2. Question (open-ended) 3. Emotional appeal 4. Quotation Suggested activities: 1. Ask the class: Raise your hands if you have ever heard of or watched the TV show SpongebobSquarepants? 2. Share the example hooks below and have students identify which kind each is. Prompt: Favorite TV show-Choosen Topic: SpongebobSquarepants
  9. 9. 1. Over one million adults and children worldwide tune in to watch the TV show, Spongebob Squarepants. 2. Where can you find delicious Krabby Patty to eat, and drive an underwater boat? Spongebob Squarepants? 3. Noooo! Don’t touch that TV. I am watching my favorite TV show, SpongebobSquarepants. 4. “Do you smell that? That smell-it’s the smell of a smelly that smells smelly,” said Spongebob. GO FISH! a. Have the class make a list of their favorite TV shows on the board. b. Each student creates an exciting hook for their favorite TV show or small strip of paper. They can choose which kind of hook they want to use. c. Then students fold their papers in half and put in a board. d. Tell the students they are going to Go Fishing! Relate a hook to a fisherman using a hook to catch a fish just like a writer uses it to catch a reader! e. Two students will come forward and each draws a slip of paper from bowl. Students take turns reading the selected hooks (anonymously) and the rest of the class decides which hook is more exciting! Which of the two options caught the audience’s attention? Discuss why the hooks were successfully or not. f. Go through the hooks allowing new students to come forward and Go Fishing! VI.INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH Notes: Introduction: The first paragraph of the essay Presents overview of the topic and arguments/points being made in essay 4 to 5 sentences Format: 1. Hook 2. Background information-pretend readers have no previous knowledge on the topic 3. Thesis statement Suggested Activities: Kind of essay: Personal essay Opinion: Need healthier options “ The students of Guinzadan National High School will lose all of their teeth if they continue to eat this way”! said the dentist who recently did check-ups at the school. Right now, the canteen sells mostly junk food for snacks. All of the snack options contain lots of sugar and fats. The canteen should start to sell healthier snacks like fruit because the students health would improve, their teeth would get stronger and everyone would enjoy a greater variety of snacks to choose from!
  10. 10. Guided Discussion: What hook is used? Is it effective? Why or why not? Where is the background information? Is it sufficient information for a stranger to GNHS to understand current situation? What are the three arguments presented in the thesis statement? Does this example follow the proper format? Do you agree or disagree? Why? To Dance or not to Dance? Break students into small groups. They will write their own introduction paragraphs following the same format as given example. New prompt : should Guinzadan National High School add a FS (Freshmen-Sophomore) in Prom? They will answer the question with a persuasive introduction paragraph. When groups have finished, instruct them to exchange work with another group. The students will evaluate their classmates’ work and answer the following questions on the bottom of the paper: 1. Did they include all the components of an introductory paragraph? 2. Was their hook exciting? Did it grab your attention? 3. Did the background information give the reader necessary information about the topic? 4. Did the thesis clearly answer the prompt question? 5. Did thesis contain three specific arguments? 6. General comments about their work. 7. Have groups return papers, review their classmates’ comments, and make any necessary revisions. VII. PARAPHRASING Notes: Paraphrasing-rewriting other people’s ideas in your own words. How? 1. Read carefully and understand passage. 2. Identify main points and key words. 3. Rewrite in your own words. 4. Reread and make sure all main points are included. 5. Put information into your own words. Techniques: a. Use synonyms/word changes b. Change the sentence structure (break up one long sentence into two or combine two short sentences into one) c. Change order of ideas d. Start sentences differently. e. Change positive to negative or vice versa. Examples: Original: The dinosaurs’ become instinct. Paraphrase: All the dinosaurs’ died. Question: what techniques were used? (Synonyms start sentence differently) Original: Until recently, criminologists could not analyze DNA evidence for all homicide cases. Paraphrase: Crime labs can now use DNA for all murder cases.
  11. 11. Question: What techniques were used? (synonyms, word changes, negative to positive) (Opportunity to return to essential question. Discuss the importance of paraphrasing when it comes to research process for essay-writing.) Original sentence: Many employers say that the most important skills for any employee are the basic skills-reading, writing and math. Paraphrase: An employee should be able to read, write and do math. Question: What techniques were used? Suggested Activities: Paraphrase the following sentences. 1. One of the biggest mistakes people make on a job interview is acting as if they need the job rather than acting as if the company could use them. Answer: on an interview, act as if the company could use you, not as if you really need the job. 2. Dressing appropriately for an interview will make your full confident when you speak. Answer: properly dressed during interview will make you feel confident. 3. Sending a thank you right after an interview shows proper manners and good job-search sense. Answer: Expressing gratitude after an interview shows manner and good job search. 4. Much of your success in the business world will depend on the image you project through the way you look and speak. Answer: the success on business will depend on the image you project through your look and words. VIII. BODY Notes: Body: Middle of essay Three paragraphs The MEAT of the hamburger Thesis Idea no. 1-Paragraph 1 Thesis Idea no.2- Paragraph 2 Thesis Idea no.3- Paragraph 3 Format of body paragraph Topic Sentence- states the main idea in the first sentence. Supporting details- Explain the idea with examples, facts, stories etc. Suggested Activities: Topic: Valentine’s Day
  12. 12. Thesis: Valentine’s Day is my favorite holiday because we can show love to others, we can eat delicious treaty, and we can have a special day with our boyfriends/girlfriends. Topic sentence 1: On Valentines’ Day, everyone in the world can show love to their friends and family. (supporting details) Topic sentence 2: It is a time when we eat chocolates and other desserts. (supporting details) Topic sentence 3: Valentines’ Day is a romantic day for boyfriends/girlfriends to celebrate their love for each other. (supporting details) As you can read through the examples explain that the supporting details for each body paragraph will follow the topic sentence. Each paragraph will follow the topic sentence. Also show them that the ideas in the thesis coordinate with the three ideas of the body. Each idea is paraphrased in different words and each sentence starts differently. Students will add supporting details for each topic sentence. Ideal Boyfriend/Girlfriend As the class write down the most important traits of a boyfriend/girlfriend. Give students time to stand up and write a list of traits on the board. If students re shy, write down a few ideas then open it up to everyone for addition. Then have the students review list and share the trait that they find most important. Hold a class vote, tally the total points for each trait, and select the top three traits voted on by the students. Question: if writing an essay about the three most important traits of a boyfriend/girlfriend, what would be our thesis? Have students form a thesis using the selected traits as a class with your guidance. Example: The three most important traits of a boyfriend/girlfriend for me are that they are honest, caring, and hard working. Each student will write about a body paragraph, topic sentence and supporting details, for one of the traits. Number the traits 1, 2 and 3. Then count off the students 1, 2 and 3. Those students who are 1 will write a paragraph for the first trait in the thesis, the number 2 students will write a paragraph for the second in the thesis, and so on. When they are finished, ask for volunteers or choose one student representing each trait to come to the front of the class and share their paragraph. Have the three students stand in a line and explain that they represent the body of a single essay. Change for quick review: How many paragraph in a body? Three How many paragraphs in an essay? If the students represent an essay what is missing? Introduction or conclusion IX. CONCLUSION Notes: Conclusion: Last paragraph of an essay
  13. 13. Most important part of essay because it is the last thing readers will read. Wrap up in 3 to 5 sentences. Short and concise Format: Summarize the main points of essay – Don’t Repeat, you must paraphrase 1to2 sentences. Thoughtful comment about the main essay topic, one to two sentences End with BANG-leave readers’ with a memorable statement or quote (1 sentence) Suggestion: Draw a circle for students on board. Show that the conclusion ends where the Introduction begins, the rest of the circle is the Body, so, the essay comes full circle. Suggested activities: Conclusion example Walk students through an example based on previous days exercise. Ask students to remember the three traits chosen for an ideal boyfriend/girlfriend. Then give them example of a good conclusion to that essay. Example: In the future when picking my husband, I will make sure that he never tells lies, always shows me love, and puts 100% effort into everything he does. If I find a husband with all of these qualities, I will be very happy lady. If only everyone could be so lucky. I often hear that” Love conquers all”, but I believe that love is only one piece of the puzzle for a lasting relationship. Have students identify the summary, the thoughtful comment, and the Body ending. Facilitate discussion about whether the example is an effective conclusion or not? Offer them a bad example for contrast and discuss the differences. Finally, have students write their own conclusion. Story Creation: Have students push desks to side of classroom and stand in one big circle. Pass around a hat or other item for the speaker to hold. Tell the students they will make up a love story. The students holding the object will come to the center of the circle, make up one sentence, and then pass the hat to another student to continue. Remind them that the story should be exciting and creative. Have everyone return to their seats. When everyone is seated, choose one students to make up a title for the love story and write it on the board. Based on the love story the students just created; have the students write a concluding paragraph. They must summarize the story in one to two sentences. Then add a thoughtful comment. And end the paragraph with a Bang relevant to the subject. Stress the fact that they must choose only the most important ideas of the love story and summarize in only one or two sentences. Your students will probably try to retell the story using many details and many sentences. They must remember that it is a conclusion…..short and concise. Suggestion: Provide them models X. OUTLINE
  14. 14. Notes: Outline: A general plan A systematic summary Indicating on the most important matters Types of Outlines 1. Alphanumeric Outline This is the most common type of outline and usually instantly recognizable to most people. The formatting follows these characters in this order. a. Roman numerals b. Capitalized letter c. Arabic numeral d. Lowercase letters Example Outline Tornadoes are nature’s most violent storms. I. Tornadoes form when two masses of air meet and battle in the sky. A. B. C. D. Warm, moist air and cold, dry air collide and form updrafts. A large rotating thunderhead called a super cell forms. A vortex (funnel) takes shape inside the super cell and reaches for the ground. Once the funnel touches the ground, it is a tornado. II. Tornadoes cause damage with high winds, low pressure, and hail storms. A. Winds of more than 250 mph hurl debris as missiles. B. Low pressure rips roofs off buildings. C. Pea-size to grapefruit-size hail smashes cars and buildings. III. A few simple precautions can help people stay safe during a tornado. A. Create and agree upon a plan to follow in case of a tornado. B. Find a place without windows, preferably a room in a basement or a closet in the middle of the house. C. Alphanumerical outline template Title I. A. B. 1. 2. II. A. 1. a. (1.)
  15. 15. B. 1. 2. a. III. A. B. C. 1. 2. 2. Full sentence outline: The full sentence outline is essentially the same as the alphanumeric outline. The main difference is that sentence is required at each level of the outline. This outline is most often used when preparing a traditional essay. Full Sentence Outline Template Title: 1. A. 1. II. A. B. 1. 2. III. A. 1. 2. 3. B. 1. 2. C. 1. 2. 3. Decimal Outline The decimal outline is similar in format to the alphanumeric outline. The added benefit is a system of decimal notation that clearly shows how every level of the outline relates to the larger whole.
  16. 16. Decimal outline template I. A. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 Suggested activities: Let students read an essay and use the different types of outline answering the guide questions. 1. What is the assignment? 2. What is the purpose of the essay? 3. What is the essay’s thesis statement? 4. Who are the intended audience of the essay? 5. What are the informations presented in the essay? XI. REVISION Notes: Write four sentences on the board. 1. There is a boy. 2. The boy is small. 3. There is a pond. 4. The boy fell. Ask your students to make one sentence out of these four as quickly as possible and select a few students to share. Someone will probably say: The small boy fell into the pond. Or There is a small boy who fell into the pond. Explain how they used the tools of revision listed below and have students take notes: Combining Rearranging Subtracting Expanding They combined four sentences into one. They rearrange words, putting small before pond. They subtracted unnecessary words. They expanded, adding into or who. Writer’s Vocabulary Checklist Questions for Revision Combining 1. Do I repeat the same dull openings, e.g. I, the, and then. 2. Which sentences can I combine to make them more interesting for my audience? Rearranging 1. Which sentences can I rearrange to avoid repeating the same dull sentence beginning?
  17. 17. 2. Am I emphasizing key ideas by placing them in a position of importance-beginning or end of a sentence? If not, how can I rearrange the sentence? Subtracting 1. Where did I put my sentences by adding empty or dead words to fill up space? 2. Did I get off the topic? Where should I subtract unnecessary words or ideas? Expanding 1. Where do I need to expand with journalistic question-Who? What? When? Where? How? To support my main ideas? 2. Did I skip information my audience needs to know? Where should I expand? This checklist will be used students will be used by students when they revise their first draft used by students when they revise their first draft in the superhero project. (Suggestions, review, proofreading symbols as well. Provide students with proofreading/revising practice of their own outputs, peer outputs, and teacher-created outputs.) XII. SUPRHERO PROJECT Watch the film “The Incredible” “Panday” “Darna” Pedro Penduko”. Create an essay and drama in response to the movie. Essay Output Essay prompt: if you were part of the superhero family, what would your superpower be and why? (Rules: you can only have one power and you must have a different power than any character in the movie). Students start with an outline following the format below; Intro: Topic: Hook: Thesis: Body: Main idea 1: Supporting detail 1 Supporting detail 2 Supporting detail 3 Main idea 2: Supporting detail 1 Supporting detail 2 Supporting detail 3 Main idea 3; Supporting detail 1 Supporting detail 2 Supporting detail 3 Conclusion: Summary: Thoughtful comments:
  18. 18. Final bang: Then the students use outline in writing their first rough draft essay. Emphasize it is a rough draft, so no need to be perfect. Use revision and proofreading techniques for peer and self- editing. Students may exchange papers with partner, edit and review suggested changes with each other. Students should also go through proofreading/revision process on their own paper tomake improvements. Students write a final copy of essay with a cover page including title illustration. (Evaluation Tip: make sure to collect all outputs in writing process, from outline to final paper. The grade should reflect the amount of work put into process, rather than solely final output. Opportunity for Student Self-Assessment: Let the students read through and compare their pre-writing sample (written at the beginning of the unit) with their final essay output. Ask them to complete the following self-assessment: 1. Did my writing improve? 2. How did my writing improve/ how was the final essay better than the pre-writing sample? If the same or worse, why do you think this happened? 3. Give yourself a score from 1-10. (1=no improvement, 10=the most improve possible) Drama output: Students will create script in small groups to perform for the class. The group members will use their superpowers to collectively solve a problem. Encourage creativity. XIII. ONE MINUTE PERSUASIVE SPEECH Students will create an outline for one minute persuasive speech which they will present to the class. The speech should follow a basic essay format; 1. Start with an exciting hook. 2. Present a thesis statement with the Topic + your Opinion. 3. Give Three Main Arguments with supporting details. 4. End with a strong Conclusion. Encourage the use of quotes, real life stories, statistics, humor etc. to strengthen the speech topic. Prompt # 1: You are running for class president for the 2012-2013 school years. Persuade your class members to vote for you and explain why you are best candidate. Prompt # 2: Pretend your class gets to invite any celebrity in the whole world to come to GNHS for a day. Persuade your class members to what celebrity to invite and why they would be the best choice! Prompt # 3: create their own topic if they want. Persuade your class to think or do something. Evaluation Tip: Grade the students based on format and confidence as speakers. Have students do written evaluation of each other during speech presentation. Was the speaker persuasive? Why or why not? Score from 1 to 15 points.
  19. 19. XIV. TEAM BUILDING ACTIVITIES Add team building activities from time to time to foster a cooperative learning environment and help improve efficiency and effectiveness in group work. Activities: Human Knot Form groups of about 10 people each. Have each group standing, facing towards each other, in a circle. Each person should be standing shoulder to shoulder. First, instruct everyone to lift their left hand and reach across to take the hand of someone standing across the circle. Yet, have everyone lift their right and reach across to take the hand of another person standing across the circle. Make sure that no one is holding hands with someone standing directly beside the person. To play, the groups must communicate and figure out how to untangle the knot (forming a circle of people) without ever letting go of any hands. If you wish, this ice breaker can be played competitively, in which the facilitator says “Read set go!” and have all the groups race to become the first group to finish. If any group member lets go of a hand (breaks the chain), then the group must start from the beginning. Process with students afterwards: What made the winning team successful? What was needed in order to achieve the goal of untying the knot? Was there a leader that naturally stepped up? How did you feel when you accomplished this activity? How does this feel when you accomplished this activity? How does this relate to group work we do in class? SURVIVAL ON THE MOON Students will form small groups and respond to the scenario below to the best of their ability: Scenario: You are a member of a space crew originally scheduled to rendezvous with a mother ship on the lighted surface of the moon. However, due to mechanical difficulties your ship was forced to land at a spot some 200 miles from the rendezvous point. During reentry and landing much of the equipment aboard was damage and, since survival depends on reaching the mother ship, the most critical items available must be chosen for the 200 mile trip. Below are listed 15 items left intact and undamaged after landing. Your task is to rank order them in terms of their importance for your crew in allowing them to reach the important, and so on through number 15 for the least important. Ranking ______Box of matches ______Food concentrate ______50 feet of nylon rope ______Parachute silk ______Portable heating unit ______Two. 45 caliber pistol ______One case of dehydrated milk ______Two 100 lb. tanks of oxygen NASA Ranking 15 4 6 8 13 11 12 1
  20. 20. ______Stellar map ______Self inflating life raft ______Magnetic compass ______20 liters of water ______Signal flares ______First aid kit ______Solar-powered FM receiver + transmitter 3 9 14 2 10 7 5 XV. ADDITIONAL SUGGESTION FOR THE CLASSROOM Question Box- Use a question box where students will anonymously ask questions concerning the unit subject and lessons presented. You can use as an “exit slip” for students, required at the end of each lesson for students to leave for the day. The, go through the questions and select a few to answer at the beginning of the next day’s lesson. Eventually try to encourage more questions to be ask during class time. World Wall- Put up a Word Wall poster on classroom wall. Throughout the unit students will write down any words that they don’t know the meaning of. From time to time, check in with the word wall and use various vocabulary-building strategies to learn the words. Gallery- Have a space on classroom wall to display students’ work. Choose excellent output from students assignments each week to appreciate on the wall. Challenge your students to get their work displayed at least once. Visual aids- Remember to use visual aids to enhance the learning of your students and make, the most of classroom time throughout the unit. Grammar- You may insert grammar lessons easily into any part of the unit as its major focus in writing standards. Students Portfolio- have your students keep already recorded assignments in their own folder. This will allow them to reflect from time to time on their improvement and be reminded of their accomplishments; at the end of the unit, you can give them a chance to chance with the class. You can even use this portfolio to share with parents. Keeping their work, instead of throwing it away, will give them a sense of purpose behind the work they are doing and instill a higher sense of responsibility , motivation in their overall work ethics. XVI. TEST SAMPLE Direction: Read the following essay and answer questions that follow: “A dog is man’s best friend.” That common saying may contain some truth, but dogs are not the only animal friend whose companionship people enjoy. For many people, a cat is their best friend.
  21. 21. Despite what dog lovers may believe, cats make excellent house pets because they are good companions, they are civilized members of the household, and they are easy to care for. In the first place, people enjoy the companionship of cats. Many cats are affectionate. They will snuggle up and ask to be petted, or scratched under the chin. Who can resist a purring cat? If they’re not feeling affectionate, cats are generally quite playful. They love to chase balls and feathers, or just about anything dangling from a string. Contrary to popular opinion, cats can be trained. Using rewards and punishments just like with a dog, a cat can be trained to avoid unwanted behavior or perform tricks. In the second place, cats are civilized members of the household. Unlike dogs, cats do not bark or make other loud noises. Most cats don’t even meow very often. They generally lead a quiet existence. Cats also don’t often have “accidents”. Mother cats train their kittens to urinate outdoors or in a litter box. Cats do have claws, but owners can solve this problem. A tall scratching post in a favorite cat area of the house will often keep the cat from scratching the furniture or cats can be declared. Lastly, one of the most attractive features of cats as house pets is their ease of care. Cats do not have to be walked. They get plenty of exercise in the house as they play. Cats also take care of their own grooming. Bathing a cat is almost never necessary because under ordinary circumstances cats clean themselves. Cats are more particular about personal cleanliness than people are. In addition cats can be left home alone for a few hours without fear. Unlike, some pets, most cats will not destroy the house when left alone. They are contented to go about their usual activities until their owners return. Cats are low-maintenance, civilized companions. People who have small houses or less time for pet care should appreciate these characteristics of cats. However, many people who have plenty of space and time still choose to have a cat because they love the cat personality. In many ways, cats are ideal house pet. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: 1. What kind of hook did the author use? a. Shocking statement b. quote c. joke d. emotional appeal 2. What kind of essay is this? a. Compare/contrast b. narrative c. persuasive d. cause/effect 3. The thesis statement begins with …. a. “A dog is man’s …….” b. “Despite what dog lovers may believe ….” c. “In the first place….” d. “ In many ways, cats …” 4. The topic sentences are: a. In Bold b. in Italics c. underlined d. all of the above 5. The main idea of the second body paragraph is; a. Cats are the excellent house pets. b. People enjoy the companionship of cats. c. Cats are civilized members of the household. d. The ease of care of cats is an attractive feature. 6. It can be concluded that the author believes; a. Dogs are better than cats.
  22. 22. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. b. All people should own a cat. c. A cat is a better friend than a person. d. Cats are very good pets. The third paragraph contains the sentence, “In the second place, cats are civilized members of the household”. What does civilized most closely mean? a. Educated b. well-behaved c. human-like d. dirty The most appropriate title for the essay would be a. The best house pet. B. Dogs vs. Cats c. Cats and Rats! D. Many people have pets. Please fill out the following outline according to the essay: (15 points) Hook: Thesis: Main Idea #1: Supporting details: Supporting details: Supporting details: Main Idea #2: Supporting details: Supporting details: Supporting details: Identify the transition signals used. Identify the similarities used. Identify the differences used. Write a personal essay.