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  • 21. History of Tibet
  • 22. How did the history of Tibet impact its culture? Tibetan Buddhism formed the most significant part of Tibetan culture. There were three important periods of Tibet history that formulated Tibet’s religion based culture.
  • 23. 1.Initial introduction of Buddhism
    • According to Great Chinese (2002):
    • In the 7 th century:
    • Tubo King Songtsan Gambo used marriage with
    • neighboring countries to build up peaceful relationships
    • in order to strengthen his own rule in Tibet.
    Tubo King
  • 24.
    • He married two princesses:
    • Princess Khridzun from Nepal and
    • Princess Wencheng from Dang Dynasty (China)
    •  These political marriages brought significant changes to
    • Tibet. This is because Buddhism was initially spread form
    • the princesses to Tibet.
    1.Initial introduction of Buddhism
  • 25.  The initial introduction of Buddhism shaped the core of Tibet culture which was its religion. 1.Initial introduction of Buddhism
  • 26. Buddhist statues ,texts ,temples were all spread to Tibet. The famous Jokhang Monastery( Da Zhao Si ) was built by Princess Wencheng Da Zhao Si Princess Wencheng 1.Initial introduction of Buddhism
  • 27. Buddhism initially was the religion of the King Songtsan Gambo and his wives. It was passed to his later successors and gradually grew form a royal religion to a state religion. Buddhism originated form 7th century continued its development with local characteristics and became today’s Tibetan Buddhism. (Thrangu Vajrayana Buddhist Centre, 2006) 1.Initial introduction of Buddhism
  • 28. 2.Combination of religion and politics According to China Association for Preservation and Development of Tibetan Culture (2008), Started from Ming dynasty (1445), Dalai Lama became a prestigious title. The one who gained this title was regarded as “living Buddhist” and was the most influential spiritual leader in the Tibet religion.
  • 29. In Qing dynasty, Dalai Lama the 7th started to gain political power form the central government of Qing. Dalai Lama then became a position to help the central government to rule Tibet. Combination of religion and politics was then formed. Dalai Lama used his existing religious influence to rule Tibet and secure stability and peace there. 2.Combination of religion and politics
  • 30. This was very successful because nearly all Tibetan believed in Tibetan Buddhism. Therefore It was very easy to make all Tibetan to comply with Dalai Lama’s rule. 2.Combination of religion and politics
  • 31. This form of political rule became a significant part of Tibetan culture.  It further strengthened the position of Tibetan Buddhism as the core of Tibetan culture. Dalai Lama 7th Potala Palace: Center of administration 2.Combination of religion and politics
  • 32. 3. The PRC conquest of Tibet  Since 1950s, The People’s of Republic China(PRC) conquered Tibet, and the polices of PRC shifted its culture 1.Negative approaches by PRC to weaken Tibetan culture Concerns of the PRC: (Hui ,2008) a)Combination of religion and politics was the main sector in Tibetan culture in which Dalai Lama enjoyed great political power in Tibet.
  • 33. The PRC adopts different negative approaches to attack Dalai Lama and Tibetan religion in order to maintain stable control over Tibet and check its independence. b) Tibetan culture is much different from the one of the main ethnic (Han) in China. 3. The PRC conquest of Tibet
  • 34. For instance: -Forcing the monks to insult and criticize their leader (Dalai Lama) (Ming Pao, 2009) -continued condemnation of Dalai Lama for disturbing peace, creating riots in Tibet (Wen wei pao,2008) -Stationing working teams in the temples to monitor the monks (Ming Pao, 2009) Tibetan religion was challenged by the attacks from the PRC. The culture was facing serious crush form the central government 3. The PRC conquest of Tibet
  • 35. 2. Beneficial polices from PRC In order to strengthen its rule in Tibet, PRC adopted different beneficial polices to provide material assistance to Tibet. (Hui ,2008) For the passing 50 years, 100 billions RMB have been invested in Tibet. (Ming Pao, 2009) - improve the economy of Tibet by allowing foreign investment, opening various shops ,and boosting tourism industries in Tibet.
  • 36. The original religious based culture which is seeking spiritual fulfillment in Tibet started to shift to a culture which emphasized material interests. 2. Beneficial polices from PRC
  • 37. Cultural Specific Items
  • 38. Cultural Specific Items-Religion
    • Marriage
    • -Under the consultation with a lama
    • -A woman will marry the eldest son and also
    • the younger one of the same family
    • -Aim at easing the inheritance of family
    • property
  • 39.
    • Prayer Wheel
    • -A cylindrical “wheel” with a spindle made by
    • metal usually.
    Cultural Specific Items-Religion
  • 40. Cultural Specific Items-Religion
    • -According to the Tibetan Buddhist
    • tradition, spinning such a wheel
    • will have same effect as orally
    • reciting the prayers.
    • -The wheel should be turned
    • clockwise.
  • 41. Cultural Specific Items -Religion
    • Prayer Flag
    • -prayer flags come in sets of five, one in each of five
    • colors.
    • -The five colors represent the elements,and the Five
    • Pure Lights and are arranged from left to right in a
    • specific order.
    • Blue (symbolizing sky/space)
    • White (symbolizing air/wind)
    • Red (symbolizing fire)
    • Green (symbolizing water)
    • Yellow (symbolizing earth)
  • 42. Cultural Specific Items-Religion
    • -Tibetan believe the prayers and mantras
    • will be blown by the wind to spread the
    • good will and compassion into all
    • pervading space
  • 43. Cultural Specific Items-Religion
    • Sky Burial
    • -Do not traditional buried their dead
    • -Dead bodies disposed by sky burial
    • -Death is seen as a powerful agent of transformation and spiritual progress.
  • 44.
    • Procedures
    • -Three days after the death the body is
    • blessed, folded up and carried on the back
    • of a close friend to the burial site.
  • 45.
    Special body-breakers will chop up the body and feed it to the vultures
  • 46. Cultural Specific Items-Clothings
    • Traditional Dress- Chuba
    • -A long sleeved sheepskin
    • cloak, tied around the
    • waist with a sash.
    • -The chuba originating in
    • the cold climate of Tibet.
  • 47. Cultural Specific Items-Dinning
    • Proposing a Toast and Tea
    • -When you come to a Tibetan family, the
    • host will propose a toast, usually barley
    • wine.
    • -Guests should sip three times and then
    • drink up.
  • 48. Cultural Specific Items-Dinning
    • -Do not eat dog, donkey and horse in Tibet.
    • -Noise should not be produced when you
    • are eating.
    • -Do not have mouth-full of food.
  • 49. Cultural Specific Items-Art
    • -Tibetan art refers to the art of Tibet and other present
    • and former Himalayan kingdoms.
    • -Reflect the over-riding influence of Tibetan Buddhism
    • on these cultures.
    • -Commonly depict deities or different
    • Buddhas in various forms from bronze
    • Buddhist statues to painting.
    A thangka painting Painting about Wheel of Life
  • 50. Cultural Specific Items-Music
    • -The music of Tibet reflects the cultural heritage of the
    • trans-Himalayan region.
    • -Tibetan music is mainly religious music.
    • -Reflecting the profound influence of Tibetan Buddhism on
    • the culture of Tibet.
    Musician in Tibet
  • 51. Cultural Impact on Individuals
  • 52. Impact on Individuals 1.Values and attitude: Combination of religion and politics: 1.Highly compliable to spiritual leaders (Dalai Lama)  compliable manner, seldom have any conflicts or disagreement
  • 53. Religion: 2. respect lives 3.Harmonious coexistence with the nature (believed the nature connects to the Buddhists) Impact on Individuals
  • 54. Impact on Individuals
    • 2.Living Habits:
    • 1. Sky Burial as the way to treat death
    • 2. Eating habit
    • Religion:
    • Tibetan seldom eat fish, chicken and duck.
    •  They treat each animal as an individual life so they prefer
    • eating beef as a cow can feed more people.
    •  mostly they just have toast and butter tea as food.
  • 55.
    • -Dai Lai Bai
    • A form of worship to the
    • Buddhist
    •  the whole body will fall
    • forward the ground to
    • present the respect
    • towards the Buddhist
    • (at least 100,000 times in their lives!)
    Impact on Individuals 3.Religious rituals (dominating part of their lives) (Yau,2006)
  • 56.
    • -Prayer Wheel
    • Used the prayer wheel to pray, and surround the
    • temples or mountain at the same time to show their
    • faith
    Impact on Individuals -Tibetan families have Buddha statues in their home and worship the Buddha everyday.
  • 57.
    • 3.Intellectual impacts
    •  Subjugation
    • E.g. Karma
    • Religion:
    • -They will be good and follow the
    • Buddhism rules in order to get a better next life.
    • -The Buddhists are the only one to give peace,
    • honor and reduce their sins.
    Impact on Individuals
  • 58. Cultural Impact on Society
  • 59. Impact on Society
    • Religious based culture impact society
    • 1.Tibetan Buddhism is the state religion
    • -Over 90% of Tibetan believe in Tibetan Buddhism.
    •  The whole society was following the beliefs of Tibetan Buddhism
  • 60. -concern Pilgrimage as the ultimate goal -Religious Celibacy to concentrate on pursuing spiritual fulfillment and reduce desire (His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet,2008)  Tibetan Buddhism was the mainstream of Tibet, determining the values of whole society Impact on Society
  • 61. 2.Social stratification: -Dalai Lama is the spiritual as well as the most influential leader of Tibet -Lama enjoyed the superior position in Tibet High power distance: -Very difficult to reach the position of Dalai Lama (decided not by personal achievement, but fate) Impact on Society
  • 62. 3.Masculinity -Female’s status in Tibet is far lower than men According to His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet(2008): -They are not allowed to become Lama, which enjoy higher position -Women rights are neglected -Women are not considered to have the ability to pursue higher level understanding of Tibetan Buddhism Impact on Society
  • 63. Impact on Hospitality and Tourism Industry
  • 64. Impact on Hospitality and Tourism Industry
    • 1.unique culture promote tourism
    • -Mysteriousness and the novelty of Tibet
    • e.g. Temples, Buddha statues
    • -Unique customs and habits that cannot be found anywhere else
    • e.g. Sky burial is a unique way of funeral in Tibet.
    •  Tour operator can capture the unique culture of Tibet, promote this special destination image to tourists.
    • Eg. Access Tibet Tour
    • Travel Himalayas
    • Tibet Travel & Tour (P) LTD.
  • 65. 2.Provide service to Tibetan Eg. Pilgrimage -Tibetan make Pilgrimages at least once in their lives. They will leave their home town to Lhasa for worshipping. This activity will last for a month. -Hospitality industry have chances providing accommodation ,food services to them. Tibetans on a pilgrimage to Lhasa. They are kow-towing every few steps of the way. A Tibetan woman in Lhasa. Impact on Hospitality and Tourism Industry
  • 66.
    • 3.Enhance tourists experience
    • Tourists may like to experience Pilgrimage or other events in Tibet.
    • So tour-operators can provide tailor-made tours to interested visitors.
    • These sectors will be benefited:
    • -Transportation sectors
    • “ The Qinghai–Tibet railway opened in July 2006 and boosted Tibetan tourism markedly due to the increased accessibility and affordability of travel to Tibet.” ( Su and Wall, 2009,p.652)
    Qingzang railway Impact on Hospitality and Tourism Industry
  • 67. Food Service: Restaurants providing Tibetan food for tourists are not uncommon to see. Event sectors: Locals arrange special events for tourists. Eg. Tibetan dance Sho dun (Shotun) festival Tibetan dance food Impact on Hospitality and Tourism Industry
  • 68.
    • 4.Acculturation in hospitality
    • Accommodation sector:
    • -Tibetan cultural influence the design of Inns
    • and hotels in Tibet.
    • -The colours used are mainly gold, red and
    • white.
    • -Pictures about Buddhism can be found
    • everywhere in the place of accommodation.
    The Lhasa Hotel A hotel room in Lhasa hotel The common room is full of Buddhism decoration Impact on Hospitality and Tourism Industry
  • 69. Hospitality and Tourism Industry impact on Tibetan culture
  • 70.
    • Benefits:
    • 1.Create job opportunities for Tibetan.
    • They join this industry by :
    • -providing accommodation
    • - food services
    • - being tour guides.
    • -Even Lama are learning English
    • to welcome tourists!
    Hospitality and Tourism Industry impact on Tibetan culture
  • 71. 2. Tibetan’s lifestyle modernized from grazing (primary) to trading (tertiary) providing. 3. Foreign currency exchange increases. E.g. Tibet earned 1.1 billion and it has increased 36.27% compared to the national holiday week in 2008. ( Ming Pao, 2009) Hospitality and Tourism Industry impact on Tibetan culture
  • 72.
    • 1.Conflicts between tourists and local community
    • 1.Tourists may break the taboos of Tibet due to
    • misunderstanding
    • e.g. -touching a kid’s head is an impolite behavior in Tibet
    • -touching religious text
    • -wearing inappropriate dress (shorts)
    • -smoking
    • (Die Ethnologic Tibets,2004)
    Drawbacks : Hospitality and Tourism Industry impact on Tibetan culture
  • 73. -Prayer Wheel are sold as a kind of souvenir and become a tool to make money than to pray to the god. -Tourists only regard the temples as place for sightseeing, but not for worshipping.  disrespecting 2. Tibetan is unpleasant with tourists disrespecting behavior to the Tibetan culture and religion. Hospitality and Tourism Industry impact on Tibetan culture
  • 74.
    • 2.commercialization
    • Hospitality commercialized the Tibet culture
    •  the original culture started to disappear
    E.g. More tourists rush to visit celestial burials and so there are less sky burials nowadays E.g. Tibet building are pulled down to build more commercial facilities, like cinema or karaoke to serve tourists. Hospitality and Tourism Industry impact on Tibetan culture
  • 75.
    • Cultural Specific Items are losing their meanings
    • Potala Palace “The Potala palace will become nothing more than a mere showpiece of tourism for Chinese package tours. For Tibetans it’s just another example of the death of their culture.” (Sofield & Li,1998,p 375 )
    A crowded place for trading, tourist sights, not a place for worshiping Buddha. Hospitality and Tourism Industry impact on Tibetan culture
  • 76. Nowadays Lhasa: tourists can no longer experience Lhasa as the centre of religion in Tibet.  only a commercialized Lhasa can be observed Hospitality and Tourism Industry impact on Tibetan culture
  • 77.
    • 1.Tourism industry brought prosperity to Tibet, the lifestyle of Tibetan has been changed.
    • E.g. they no longer ride on horse or live in tent.
    • 2.The traditional thing that tourists
    • saw in Tibet is mainly
    • performance.
    • 3.The changing culture of Tibet alter
    • the form of tourism from
    • ethnic tourism to cultural tourism.
    Mutual Impact: Hospitality and Tourism Industry impact on Tibetan culture
  • 78.
    • Tourists may not wish to visit Tibet as they cannot
    • experience the genuine Tibetan culture there, but
    • experience the “commercialized Tibetan culture”
    • Tourist arrivals may decrease sharply and affect all sectors
    • of tourism in Tibet.
     Vicious Cycle was resulted: Hospitality and Tourism Industry impact on Tibetan culture
  • 79. Conclusion
    • -The Tibetan culture impact the hospitality
    • and tourism industry in Tibet
    • - However, the rise of tourism without proper
    • planning destroy the culture.
    • -Therefore, we should take a balance
    • between conservation and development of
    • tourism in order to have a
    • sustainable tourism
    Conservation of culture in Tibet Hospitality and tourism industry
  • 80.
    • Reference
    • China Association for Preservation and Development of Tibetan Culture( 2008)Qing policies toward Tibet
    • http://big5.tibet.cn/g2b/www.tibetculture.net/zt2008/zzlsywh/lwjc/200809/t20080924_428347.htm
    • Chinese representation condemned Dalai Lama. (2008, June 7). Wen Wei Pao Yau, C. F. (2006). Listening Tibet. : Dharma Drum Publishing Corp
    • Die Ethnologic Tibets, Retrieved, from http://tibet.wordblog.de/2004/02/18/tibet-culture-and-custom-etiquette- taboo/
    • Great Chinese (2002). Retrieved, 2009 from http://www.greatchinese.com/emperors/empress/wenchenggongzhu.htm
    • His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet (2008). Retrieved, 2009 from http://www.dalailamaworld.com/topic.php?t=175
    • Hui, W. Y. (2008). From Tibet to sensible nationalism, and the issues of autonomous city . Retrieved, from http://www.fireofliberty.org/trad/article/8917.asp
    • Sofield, H. B. & Li, F. M. (1998). Tourism Development and cultural policies in China . Annals of Tourism Research, 25 (2), 362-392.
    • Su, M. M. & Wall, G., The Qinghai–Tibet railway and Tibetan tourism: Travelers’ perspectives . Tourism Management, 30 652.
    • The ethnical conflicts in China. (2009, September 28). Ming Pao
    • 30 thousand tourists visited Tibet during the Golden Week. (2009, October 10). Ming Po
    • Thrangu Vajrayana Buddhist Centre (200 6 ). Brief introduction to Tibetan Buddhism . Retrieved, from http://www.thranguhk.org/buddhism_history.html?keepThis=true&TB_iframe=true&height=550&width=760