JEWELRY <ul><li>Jewelry, personal adornments worn for ornaments or utility, to show rank or </li></ul><ul><li>wealth, or to follow superstitious custom or fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>The most universal forms of jewelry are the necklace, bracelet, ring, pin, and </li></ul><ul><li>earring. It is used antedates clothing, and it has been made f a variety of </li></ul><ul><li>materials including berries, nuts, seeds, perforated stones, feathers, hair, teeth, </li></ul><ul><li>bone, shells, ivory, and metals. Although bronze and silver have been used by </li></ul><ul><li>primitive peoples and in modern hand wrought jewelry, gold has usually been </li></ul><ul><li>the preferred metal. Jewelry has been decorated by engraving, embossing, </li></ul><ul><li>etching, and filigree, and by application of enamel, mosaic, gems, semiprecious </li></ul><ul><li>stones, and glass </li></ul>
FORM AND FUNCTION <ul><li>Jewellery has been used for a number of reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Currency , wealth display and storage, </li></ul><ul><li>Functional use (such as clasps, pins and buckles) </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism (to show membership or status) </li></ul><ul><li>Protection (in the form of amulets and magical wards), [ </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic display </li></ul>
<ul><li>In creating jewelry, gemstones , coins , or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Other commonly used materials include glass , such as fused-glass or enamel ; wood , often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory ; natural clay ; polymer clay ; and even plastics . </li></ul><ul><li>The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond , part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found (1905), at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g). </li></ul><ul><li>Now popular in engagement rings , this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477. </li></ul><ul><li>Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewelry. Among them are: </li></ul><ul><li>Amber - an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Amethyst - Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. </li></ul><ul><li>Emeralds - are one of the three main precious gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires) and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. </li></ul><ul><li>Rubies are known for their intense red colour, and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones. </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. </li></ul><ul><li>Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world’s largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. </li></ul>USED MATERIALS
IMPACT ON SOCIETY <ul><li>Jewelry has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, for instance, only certain ranks could wear rings; cultural dictates have also played a significant role; for example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered "effeminate" in the 19th and early 20th centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion has also played a role: Islam, for instance, considers the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo, and many religions have edicts against excessive display. </li></ul><ul><li>In Christianity, the New Testament gives injunctions against the wearing of gold, in the writings of the apostles Paul and Peter. In Revelation 17, "the great whore" or false religious system, is depicted as being "decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand." </li></ul>
HISTORY <ul><li>The history of jewelry is a long one, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked. </li></ul>
BODY MODIFICATION Jewelry used in body modification is usually plain; the use of simple silver studs, rings and earrings predominates. Common jewelry pieces such as earrings, are themselves a form of body modification, as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the ear.
JEWELRY MARKET <ul><li>According to a recent KPMG study the largest jewelry market is the United States with a market share of 30.8%, Japan, India and China and the Middle East each with 8 - 9% and Italy with 5%. The authors of the study predict a dramatic change in market shares by 2015, where the market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%, and China and India will increase theirs to over 13%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%, whereas Europe's and Japan's market share will be halved and become less than 4% for </li></ul>