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Note. Added to this from Version 1 are slides pertinent to Chapter 11 from Technology in Action by Evans, Martin Poatsy

Note. Added to this from Version 1 are slides pertinent to Chapter 11 from Technology in Action by Evans, Martin Poatsy

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Review. Version 2.0 Review. Version 2.0 Presentation Transcript

  • Computer Science 203 V 2.0 Review Slides For Final Exam
  • Notes to Students
    • These slides are meant to be a guide to studying Technology in Action, Chapters 3 to 11. Please review chapters 1 - 3 on your own.
    • Be advised that other material will be covered including topics covered in lectures and topics covered in labs including MS Office procedures.
    • Good luck and it was good working with you.
  • Instant Messaging
    • Real-time text-based conversations
    • Set up a list of contacts
      • Buddy list
    • Contacts must be online
    • IM software detects presence
    • Example: AOL Instant Messenger
  • Voice over Internet Protocol
    • VoIP - The Internet as a means to place phone calls
    • Uses technology similar to e-mail to send voice data digitally
    • Requires
      • a microphone
      • an Internet connection
      • A VoIP provider
    • Services differ
      • Free services require an account on both ends
      • Paid services connect phone to computer
      • Cable and DSL providers offer phone through broadband
      • WiFi IP phones call through Internet hotspots and wireless networks
  • Weblogs (blogs)
    • Known as blogs
    • Available to the public
    • Simple to create, read, and manage
    • Entries listed on a single page
    • Most recent entry at the top
    Searchable Some are personal Many are focused on a topic
  • Podcasts
    • Video blog (vlog) – entries are video clips
    • Podcasts – compressed audio/video files distributed on the Internet
    • RSS (Really Simple Syndication) technology allows constant updates for subscribers
    • Podcasts are all over the Web
      • Requires “aggregator” software to gather podcasts
      • Requires media player software to play them
    • Simple to create and attach RSS files
  • Webcasts and Wikis
    • Webcasts broadcast audio/visual files but are not updated
      • use streaming media
    • A wiki is a Web site that allows anyone to change its content
    • Wikis provide an excellent source for collaborative writing
    • Unlike blogs, wikis can be edited for a “common” opinion
  • Social Networking
    • Social networking sites like Facebook.com
    • Members share common interests
    • Members communicate by voice, chat, instant message, video, and blogs
    • Members create personalized profiles
    • Growth has been explosive
    • Risks must be recognized and reduced
  • Web Entertainment
    • Multimedia:
      • Involves forms of media and text
        • Graphics
        • Audio
        • Video
      • Streaming audio and video
      • Plug-in
  • Conducting Business Over the Internet
    • E-Commerce:
      • Electronic commerce
      • Business-to-consumer (B2C)
      • Business-to-business (B2B)
      • Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
      • Secure transactions
    B2B E-commerce Manufacturer Suppliers Retailer
  • Online Annoyances
    • Spam – electronic junk mail
    • Pop-ups – intrusive advertising
    • Cookies – tracking user’s browsing habits
    • Spyware – programs that collect data from a user’s computer
    • Malware - software that has a malicious intent
    • Phishing and Hoaxes – Ruses to fool and maybe steal from users
  • Phishing and Hoaxes
    • Phishing is a phony communication
    • Attempts to scam someone into sending vital information
    • Hoaxes are attempts to scam people into sending money, or join a chain letter
    • Identity Theft
  • Navigating the Web: Web Browsers
    • Computer software
    • Graphical
    • Enables Web navigation
    • Popular browsers:
      • Internet Explorer
      • Netscape Navigator
      • Camino (Mac OSX)
  • Browser Toolbars
  • Hyperlinks
    • Provide access to other Web pages
    • Specially coded text or graphics
    • Cursor becomes a hand with finger pointing upward
  • Favorites and Bookmarks
    • List created of favorite Web pages
    • Easy method of returning to Web pages
    • Internet Explorer uses Favorites
    • Netscape uses Bookmarks
    • Live Bookmarks use RSS
  • Tabbed Browsing
    • Found on Firefox and Safari browsers
      • Not available on Internet Explorer
    • Multiple pages in same browser window
  • Search Engines
    • User keys word or phrase in search box
    • “ Spider” or “Robot” or “Crawler” program scans Web pages
    • Results are indexed and sent to the client
  • Evaluating Web Sites
    • Who is the author of the article or Web site sponsor?
    • What audience is the site geared toward?
    • Is the site biased?
    • Is the information current?
    • Are links available?
  • The Internet: The Basics
    • Origin of the Internet
    • The Internet vs. the Web
    • Clients and servers
    • Connecting to the Internet
  • Comparing Internet Connection Options 500 Kbps 100 Kbps Satellite 4 Mbps 500 Kbps Cable 1.5 Mbps 1.5 Mbps DSL (SDSL) 1 Mbps 300 Kbps DSL (ADSL) 56 Kbps 56 Kbps Dial-Up Maximum Download Data Transfer Rate (approximate) Maximum Upload Data Transfer Rate (approximate) Connection Option
  • The Origin of the Internet
    • ARPANET:
      • Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
      • Funded by the U.S. government in the 1960s
      • Allowed computers at leading universities and research organizations to communicate with each other over great distances
  • The Web
    • The Web is a part of the Internet distinguished by:
      • common communication protocols TCP/IP and HTML
      • special links (called hyperlinks )
    • Web invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee
    • 1993, National Center for Supercomputing Applications releases the Mosaic browser
    • Developers of Mosaic release Netscape (1994)
    • Netscape is beginning of Web’s major growth
  • The Internet vs. The Web
    • Internet – part of the system that is primarily hardware infrastructure (telecommunications, routers, servers, disk drives, etcetera)
    • Web – part of the system that contains intellectual property in many multimedia formats (test files, graphic files, sound files, video files, etc.)
    INTERNET WWW
  • Future of the Internet
    • Large Scale Networking (LSN):
      • Research and development of cutting-edge networking and wireless technologies
    • Internet2:
      • Project sponsored by universities, government, and industry to develop new Internet technologies
      • Internet2 backbone supports transmission speeds of 9.6 Gbps
  • Software
    • A set of instructions that tells the computer what to do
    • Two main types of software
      • System software
      • Application software
    System Software Application Software
  • System Software vs. Application Software
    • System Software
    • Coordinates instructions between software and hardware
    • Includes
      • Operating system
      • Utility programs
    • Application Software
    • Programs used to complete tasks
    • Includes
      • Productivity software
      • Specialty software
      • Entertainment software
      • Educational and reference Software
      • Personal software
  • Productivity Software
      • Word processing programs
      • Spreadsheet programs
      • Presentation programs
      • Database programs
      • Personal information manager programs
    • Programs that enable you to perform tasks required in home, school, and business
    • Used to create and edit written documents
    • Features include
      • Quick and easy editing
      • Variety of formatting options
      • Graphics
      • Templates
    • Examples
      • Corel WordPerfect
      • Microsoft Word
    Word Processing Software Sammy the WonderDog Word Processor Features Click to view Insert Graphics Create Tables Insert Excel Spreadsheets Use Templates
  • Spreadsheet Software
    • Used to perform calculations and numerical analyses
    • Features include
      • Worksheets with cells
      • Values, formulas, and functions
      • Automatic recalculation
    • Examples
      • Lotus 1-2-3
      • Microsoft Excel
    Spreadsheet Features Click to view Charts Formulas Functions Labels Values Columns Rows Cell Range of cells Worksheet
  • Presentation Software
    • Used to create slide shows
    • Features include
      • Templates and layouts
      • Different views
    • Examples
      • Corel Presentations
      • Microsoft PowerPoint
    Presentation Software Features Click to view Slide Show View Background Bulleted Text Graphics Slide Title Speaker Notes Work Area Task Pane Slide/Outline View
  • Database Software
    • Used as a complex electronic filing system
    • Features include
      • Ability to group, sort, and retrieve data and generate reports
      • Organized into fields, records, and tables
    • Examples
      • Corel Paradox
      • Microsoft Access
    • Productivity Software Tools
    • Wizards
      • Step-by-step guides to help you complete a task
  • Productivity Software Tools
    • Templates
      • redesigned forms included with software
  • Graphics and Multimedia Software
    • Used to create and design documents, images, illustrations, Web pages, and more
  • Image-Editing Software
    • Used to edit photographs and other images
    • Also called photo-editing software
    • Features include
      • Tools for basic modifications to digital images
      • Painting tools that allow you to create images
    • Example: Adobe Photoshop
    • Photo Collection software
      • Google “Picasa”
      • Microsoft “Photo Story”
  • Digital Audio Software
    • MP3: Audio compression format
    • Software allows you to record, rip, and burn files
    • Also allows you to perform format conversion
  • Video-Editing Software
    • Used to edit digital videos
    • Features include
      • Special effects
      • Transitions
      • Narration/voiceover
      • Overlays
    • Examples
      • Adobe Premiere
      • Microsoft Movie Maker
  • Entertainment Software
    • Designed to provide users with entertainment
    • Categories include
      • Action and Adventure
      • Driving
      • Puzzles and strategy
      • Role-playing
      • Card-playing
      • Simulation
      • Virtual reality
  • Educational and Reference Software
    • Educational Software
    • Provides instruction or training
    • Types include
      • K-12 education
      • Skills
      • Test preparation
      • Course management
    • Reference Software
    • Sources of reference
    • Types include
      • Atlases, dictionaries, thesauri, encyclopedias
      • Medical and legal references
  • Drawing Software
    • Used to create and edit
      • Two-dimensional drawings
      • Technical diagrams
      • Animations
      • Geometric shapes
    • Also referred to as illustration software
    • Examples
      • Adobe Illustrator
      • Microsoft Visio
    • Bit-mapped programs
      • MS-Paint
  • Desktop Publishing Software
    • Used to arrange text and graphics for publications
    • Features include
      • Text formatting
      • File importing
      • Graphics tools
      • Web publishing
    • Example:
      • QuarkXPress
  • Web Page Authoring Software
    • Used to design Web pages: knowing HTML is not necessary
    • Features include
      • Wizards and templates
      • Reference materials
    • Example
      • Macromedia Dreamweaver
    • Office Applications
      • HTML authoring capabilities
  • System Software
    • Operating systems
    • Control computer functions:
      • Hardware
      • Memory
      • Application programs
      • System maintenance
    • Provide user interface
    • System utilities
    • Programs that perform computer housekeeping tasks:
      • Manage system resources
      • Improve efficiency
      • Virus prevention
  • Single-User Operating Systems
    • Single-task systems
    • Perform one task at a time
    • PDAs:
      • Pocket PC
      • Palm OS
      • Windows Mobile
    • MS-DOS
    • Multitask systems
    • Perform simultaneous tasks
    • Windows
    • MAC OS
    • Linux
  • Multiuser Operating Systems
    • Known as network operating systems
    • Allow access to the computer system by more than one user
    • Manage user requests
    • Systems include:
      • UNIX
      • Novell Netware
      • Windows Server 2003
  • Desktop Operating Systems
    • Operating system combined with the processor is known as a platform
      • Microsoft Windows / Intel
      • Apple Macintosh / Motorola
    • Desktop operating systems include:
      • Microsoft Windows
      • MAC OS
      • UNIX
      • Linux
  • What the Operating System Does
    • Provides user interface
    • Manages the CPU
    • Manages memory
    • Manages hardware
    • Coordinates application software with the CPU
  • The User Interface
    • Enables you to interact with the computer
    • Types of interfaces:
      • Command-driven interface
      • Menu-driven interface
      • Graphical user interface
    Command-driven Menu-driven Graphical
  • Starting the Computer
    • The Boot Process
    • Step 1: The basic input/output system (BIOS) is activated
    • Step 2: A Power-on self-test (POST) checks attached hardware
    • Step 3: The operating system loads into memory
    • Step 4: Configuration and customization settings are checked
    1 2 3 4
  • Handling Errors in the Boot Process
    • Non-system disk or disk error
      • Remove the floppy from the drive and press any key
    • POST errors
      • Single beep: Everything is loading properly
      • Series of beeps: Hardware problem
    • Safe mode
      • Windows does not boot properly
      • Uninstall any new devices or software
  • File Management
    • The operating system provides an organizational structure to the computer’s contents
    • Hierarchical structure of directories:
      • Drives
        • Folders
          • Subfolders
            • Files
  • Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders
    • Windows Explorer
      • Tiles View
  • Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders
    • Windows Explorer
      • Icon view
  • Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders
    • Windows Explorer
      • List View
  • Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders
    • Windows Explorer
      • Detail View
      • Sorted and grouped
  • Naming Files
    • Filename:
      • Name assigned plus filename extension
    • only characters not legal in filenames are:   ⁄   :   *   ?   &quot;   <   >   ¦
    • all others are allowed
    Bioreport .doc or Bio report .doc
  • Filename Extensions
    • Filename extensions:
      • Used by programs
    Application Type of Document Extension Hypertext Markup Language Web page .htm or .html Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format .pdf WinZip Compressed file .zip Windows Bitmap image .bmp Microsoft Access Database .mdb Microsoft PowerPoint PowerPoint presentation .ppt Microsoft Excel Workbook .xls Microsoft Word; Corel WordPerfect Word processing document .doc
  • File path
    • File path
      • Location of the file
    C: Tech in ActionTIA Pics My Documents dotmatrix.gif Drive Primary folder Secondary folders Filename
  • Add or Remove Programs
    • Installation wizard
    • Uninstall wizard:
      • Do not delete programs
  • File Compression Programs
    • Reduce the size of a file:
      • Removes redundancies
  • Evaluating the CPU
    • How does the CPU work?
      • Control unit
      • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
      • Machine cycle:
        • Instruction Cycle
          • Fetch
          • Decode
        • Execution Cycle
          • Execute
          • Store
      • Speed:
        • MHz
        • GHz
  • How Much Ram is Needed?
    • RAM for System Software
    • RAM for Productivity Software
    • RAM for Entertainment
    • RAM for Graphics Programs
    128 MB MS Picture It! Graphics 64 MB Windows Media Player Entertainment Software 128 MB MS Office Pro Productivity Software 128 MB Windows XP System Software
  • Evaluating Storage
    • Types of storage devices:
      • Hard drive
      • Floppy drive
      • Zip disk drive
      • CD/DVD
      • Flash memory
    • Nonvolatile storage
  • The Hard Disk Drive
    • Storage capacity up to 500 GB
    • Access time is measured in milliseconds
    • Data transfer rate is measured in megabits or megabytes per second
    • Spindle speed is measured in revolutions per minute (rpm)
  • How a Hard Disk Works
    • Composed of several coated platters stacked on a spindle
    • Data saved to the disk: pattern of magnetized spots – Spots = 1 – Spaces = 0
    • Between platters are read/write heads that read and write magnetized data
    • Spots are translated into data
    Platters Read/write head Access arms
  • Portable Storage
    • Gives us the ability to move data from one computer to another
    • Types of portable storage devices:
      • Floppy disk:
        • Capacity 1.44 MB
      • Zip disk:
        • Capacity 100 MB to 750 MB
      • CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW:
        • Capacity 700 MB to 9.4 GB
      • Flash drive:
        • Capacity 32 MB to 1 GB
      • Flash memory Card:
        • Up to 4 GB
  • Optical Storage
    • Optical media:
      • CD-ROM
      • CD-R
      • CD-RW
      • DVD-ROM
      • DVD-R
      • DVD-RW
    • Laser
      • Pits scatter laser light
      • equaling a 1
      • Nonpitted area reflects laser light equaling a 0
  • Video Cards
    • Process binary data into images
    • Contain memory known as video RAM (VRAM)
    • Control the number of colors a monitor can display (bit depth)
      • Standard VGA
        • 4 bits
        • 16 colors
      • True color (SVGA)
        • 24 bits
        • 16 million colors
  • Monitors
    • Things to consider:
      • Types:
        • CRT or LCD
      • Size:
      • 15, 17, 19, or 21 inch
      • Resolution:
        • Increasing resolution allows more to be displayed
      • Dot pitch:
        • .31mm or less
      • Refresh rate:
        • 75 Hz or higher
  • Evaluating Ports
    • Ports are used to connect peripheral devices to the computer
    • Things to consider:
      • Devices you want to use
      • Ports needed for the devices
  • Types of Ports
    • Serial Port
      • Transfers data one bit at a time; 56Kbps
    PS/2 Port COM 1 Port PS/2 Connectors Serial Connector
  • Types of Ports
    • Parallel
      • Transfers eight bits of data simultaneously; 12 Mbps
    LPT 1 Port Printer Cable Connector
  • Types of Ports
    • Universal serial bus
      • Transfer speed up to 480 Mbps; hot swapping
    USB Port USB Connector
  • Types of Ports
    • FireWire
      • Transfer rate of 400 Mbps; Digital cameras
      • Newer FireWire 800 is fastest
        • Available only on the Apple Mac
    FireWire Port FireWire Connector
  • Types of Ports
    • Ethernet
      • Transfer rate of 100 Mbps; connects computers to networks
    Ethernet Port Ethernet jack
  • Types of Ports
    • IrDA
      • Transfer rate of 4 Mbps; Uses infrared light waves
    IrDA
  • Types of Ports
    • Bluetooth
      • Transfer rate of 1 Mbps; radio waves send data over short distances
    Bluetooth
  • Mobile Computing Devices
    • Pagers
    • Cellular phones
    • Portable media players
    • Personal digital assistants
    • Tablet PCs
    • Laptop computers
  • Cell Phone Hardware
    • Microprocessor (CPU):
      • Coordinates data between components
      • Runs the operating system
    • Memory:
      • ROM stores the operating system
      • Internal memory chips store:
        • Contact data
        • Ring tones
        • Images
        • Small application programs
    Microprocessor Memory
  • Cell Phone Hardware
    • Input devices:
      • Microphone
      • Keypad
      • Graffiti pad
      • Touch-screen
      • Digital camera
    • Output devices:
      • Speaker
      • LCD display
    Microphone Keypad LCD display Speaker
  • Cell Phone Internet Connectivity
    • Wireless Internet service provider
    • Maximum speeds of 200 to 300 Kbps
    • Micro-browser software
      • EDGE and EVDO standards
    • Difficult to display Web pages on small screen
    • Checking e-mail is a popular feature
    • Special “push” technology delivers e-mail to a cell phone
  • Portable Media Players
    • MP3:
      • Format for storing music
    • Portable media player (PMP):
      • A small device that stores and plays music
    • Storage space determines the number of songs stored:
      • Memory chips 64 MB to 256 MB
      • Hard drive up to 40 GB
      • Sampling rate also affects
      • number of songs stored
  • PMP Ethical Issues
    • Is it illegal to download MP3 files?
      • MP3.com:
        • Song files are on a public server
        • Permission is given by the artist or recording company to place the files on the server
        • A fee is paid to download a file.
      • Napster:
        • A file exchange site
        • Song files were borrowed from users’ computers (peer-to-peer [P2P] sharing)
        • Sued for copyright infringement
  • Podcasting
    • Distributing nonmusic MP3 files over the Internet
    • Podcasts can be information, books on tape audio plays, etc.
    • People can listen when they wish
    • iPod synchronization transfers new content.
    • Small devices that store digital information
    • Known as palm computers or handhelds
    • PDA hardware includes:
      • CPU
      • Operating system
      • Storage capabilities
      • Input/output devices
      • Ports
    Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
  • PDA Input and Output Devices
    • Input devices
    • Touch-screen with stylus
    • Keyboards:
      • On-screen
      • Integrated
      • Folding
    • Digital cameras
    • Output devices
    • LCD displays:
      • Grayscale
      • Color
  • Notebook Ports
    • A full set of ports:
      • Parallel
      • Monitor
      • USB
      • Modem
      • Ethernet
      • Audio jacks
      • FireWire
      • PCI type I/II card slots
      • DVI
      • IrDA
  • Binary Language
    • Computers work in binary language
    • Consists of two numbers: 0 and 1
    • Everything a computer does is broken down into a series of 0s and 1s
    • Switches: Devices inside the computer that can be flipped between these two states: 1 or 0, on or off
  • Switches
    • Nonmechanical devices in computers that open and close circuits
    • Types of electrical switches:
      • Vacuum tubes
      • Transistors:
        • Semiconductors
      • Integrated circuits
    Vacuum Tube Transistors Integrated Circuits
    • The on/off state of a switch represents one bit of data
    • Bit (binary digit)
      • On = 1
      • Off = 0
    Switches Representing Data 0 1 OR = 1 bit OFF 0 ON 1
  • The Binary Number System
    • Describes a number as powers of 2
    • Also referred to as base 2 numbering system
    • Used to represent every piece of data stored in a computer: all of the numbers, letters, and instructions
  • The Binary Number System
    • Number systems are organized ways to represent numbers
    • Each number in one system has a corresponding number in another.
    01011001 = 89 Binary Base 10 89 1 = 0 + 0 + 8 + 16 + 0 + 64 + 0 + Base 10 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 Binary 1 2 2x1 4 2x2 8 2x4 16 2x8 32 2x16 64 2x32 128 2x64
  • Representing Letters and Symbols
    • American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
      • 8 bits = 1 byte = alphanumeric character or symbol
      • 256 different combinations
    • Unicode
      • 16 bits equal 1 byte
      • 65,000 different combinations, used for all languages
    01100001 = a 01000001 = A 00100011 = # 01101101 = m ASCII
  • The CPU: Processing Digital Information
    • The CPU is the brains of the computer
    • Different types of CPUs
      • Intel and AMD chips: Used in most Windows-based PCs
      • Apple systems use different CPU design
    • Differentiating CPUs
      • Processing power
      • Clock speed and cache
  • The System Clock
    • Located on the motherboard
    • Controls the CPU’s processing cycles
    • Clock cycle
      • Pulse or tick
    • Clock speed
      • Number of pulses per second
      • Measured in hertz (Hz)
  • The Control Unit
    • Manages the switches inside the CPU
    • Is programmed by CPU designers to remember the sequence of processing stages for that CPU
    • Moves each switch to its correct setting (on or off)
    • Then performs the work of that stage
  • The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
    • Part of the CPU designed to perform mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.)
    • Also performs logical OR, AND, and NOT operations
    • Is fed data from the CPU registers
      • Word size: Number of bits a computer can work with at a time
  • Cache Memory
    • Small amount of memory located on the CPU chip or near it
    • Stores recent or frequently used instructions and data
    • Used for quick access by the CPU
    • Different levels of cache
  • RAM: The Next Level of Temporary Storage
    • Volatile: When you turn off your computer, the data is erased
    • Several kinds of RAM exist
    • Each type of RAM has a different design
      • Some types work at much faster speeds
      • Some transfer data more quickly
    • Bus
      • Electrical pathway used to move data between components
      • Local bus: Connects the CPU with the memory
      • Expansion bus: Connects the CPU with peripheral devices
    Buses: The CPU’s Data Highway 01100010 01110011 01001000 00100111
  • Bus Performance
    • Bus clock speed
      • Rate of speed data moves from one location to another
      • Measured in MHz (millions of clock cycles per second)
    • Bus width
      • The number of bits of data moved on a bus at any one time
      • Measured in bits
        • 16 bits
        • 32 bits
  • Moore’s Law
    • Number of transistors on a CPU will double every 18 months
    • First chip had 29,000 transistors
    • Pentium chip 169,000,000 transistors
    • Moore’s Law has been accurate for more than 40 years
    • Law has remained accurate into the 21st century
  • Making Computers Faster
    • Dual processing
      • Two CPUs on the same system
      • Each processor shares the workload
    • Parallel processing
      • Network of computers
      • Each computer works on a portion of the problem simultaneously
    Dual processors
  • Databases
    • Electronic collections of related data
    • Help us organize data
    • Turn data into information
  • Advantages of Using Databases
    • Store and retrieve large quantities of information
    • Enable information sharing
    • Provide data centralization
    • Promote data integrity
    • Allow for flexible use of data
  • Database Terminology
    • Field
      • Category of information displayed in columns
      • Each field has a field name
    Field Name
  • Database Terminology
    • Data types
      • Text
      • Numeric
      • Computational
      • Date
      • Memo
      • Object
      • Hyperlink
  • Database Terminology
    • Record
      • A group of related fields
    Record
  • Database Terminology
    • Table
      • A group of related records
    Table
  • Database Terminology
    • Primary key
      • A field value unique to a record
    Primary Key
  • Database Types
    • Relational databases
      • Organize data in a table
      • Link tables to each other through their primary keys
    • Object-oriented databases
      • Stores data in objects
      • Handles unstructured data
    • Multidimensional databases
      • Stores data in multiple dimensions
      • Can easily be customized
      • Process data much faster
  • Database Management Systems (DBMS)
    • Application software designed to capture and analyze data
    • Four main operations of a DBMS are:
      • Creating databases and entering data
      • Viewing and sorting data
      • Extracting data
      • Outputting data
  • 1. Creating Databases and Entering Data
    • Create field names:
      • Identify each type of data
      • Data dictionary
  • Creating Databases and Entering Data (cont)
    • Create individual records:
      • Key-in
      • Import
  • Data Validation
    • Validation
      • Process of ensuring data entered into the database is correct (or at least reasonable) and complete
    • Validation rules
      • Range check
      • Completeness check
      • Consistency check
      • Alphabetic/numeric checks
  • 2. Viewing and Sorting Data
    • Browse through records
    • Sort records by field name
    Before sort After sort
  • 3. Extracting or Querying Data
    • Query
      • A question or inquiry
      • Provides records based on criteria
      • Structured query language (SQL)
    SQL
  • 4. Outputting Data
    • Reports:
      • Printed
      • Summary data reports
    • Export data
  • Relational Database Operations
    • Relational databases organize data into tables based on logical groupings
    • Relationships are links between tables with related data
    • Common fields between tables need to exist
    • Normalization of data (recording data once) reduces data redundancy
  • Data Storage
    • Data warehouses
      • A large scale repository of data
      • Organizes all the data related to an organization
      • Data is organized by subject
    • Source data
      • Internal sources
        • Company databases, etc.
      • External sources
        • Suppliers, vendors, etc.
      • Customers or Web site visitors
        • Clickstream data
    Populating Data Warehouses
    • Data staging
      • Extract data from source
      • Reformat the data
      • Store the data
    • Software programs/procedures created to extract the data and to reformat it for storage
    Data Staging
    • Small slices of data
    • Data of a single department
    Data Marts
  • Data Warehouse
  • Managing Data: Information Systems
    • Information systems
      • Software-based solutions used to gather and analyze information
    • Functions performed by information systems include
      • Acquiring data
      • Processing data into information
      • Storing data
      • Providing output options
  • Information Systems Categories
    • Office support
    • Transaction processing
    • Management
    • Decision support
  • Office Support Systems (OSS)
    • Assist employees in day-to-day tasks
    • Improve communications
    • Microsoft Office
  • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
    • Keeps track of everyday business activities
    • Batch processing
    • Real-time processing
  • Management Information Systems (MIS)
    • Provides timely and accurate information for managers to make business decisions
    • Detail report:
      • Transactions that occur during a period of time
    • Summary report:
      • Consolidate detailed data
    • Exception report:
      • Show unusual conditions
  • Decision Support Systems (DSS)
    • Help managers develop solutions for specific problems
  • Data Mining
    • Process by which data are analyzed and investigated
    • Objective is to spot patterns or trends within the data
  • Data Mining Methods
    • Classification
      • Define data classes
    • Estimation
      • Assign a value to data
    • Affinity grouping or association rules
      • Determine which data goes together
    • Clustering
      • Organize data into subgroups
    • Description and visualization
      • Provides a clear picture of what is happening