Page 1
IFPRI Conference
Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security
Addis Ababa, 15 - 17 May 2014
Petra Jacobi, GI...
Page 2Landscape approach16/05/2014
Page 3
Territorial development
Landscape approach16/05/2014
 Territory: as spatially cohesive area.
 Boundaries can be d...
Page 4
Territorial development – Landscape approach
Landscape approach16/05/2014
Territorial
approaches
Economic
delimitat...
Page 5
Case Study 1:
20 years of watershed management in Niger
Landscape approach16/05/2014
Page 6
Case Study 1:
Niger`s challenges for agricultural development
Landscape approach16/05/2014
 Agriculture and pastor...
Page 7
Case Study 1:
20 years of watershed management in Niger
Landscape approach16/05/2014
 Several programmes funded by...
Page 8
Work approach Niger
Landscape approach16/05/2014
 Programme support only after active request and approval.
 Roll...
Page 9
Techniques (Niger)
Landscape approach16/05/2014
 Water
spreading
weirs
600–1,500 €/ha
 Stonebunds
 Planting pits...
Page 10Landscape approach16/05/2014
Page 11Landscape approach16/05/2014
Nardi trenches
Water spreading weirs
Page 12
Niger: Impact so far
Landscape approach16/05/2014
Plateaus (Nardi-trenches):
 Yields of herbaceous biomass increa...
Page 13
Case Study 2:
Ethiopia`s Challenges for Agricultural Development
Landscape approach16/05/2014
Page 14
Case Study 2:
Ethiopia`s Challenges for Agricultural Development
Landscape approach16/05/2014
 Agriculture and pa...
Page 15
Case Study 2:
Ethiopia`s Challenges for Agricultural Development
Landscape approach16/05/2014
 Loss of natural re...
Page 16
Case Study 2: Ethiopia`s Responses to the
Challenges
Landscape approach16/05/2014
Agricultural
Growth (AGP)
Sustai...
Page 17
Case Study 2:
The SLM Watershed Management Approach
Landscape approach16/05/2014
Three phases of the watershed app...
Page 18
Case Study 2:
The SLM Watershed Management Approach
Landscape approach16/05/2014
Identifying micro-watersheds, mob...
Page 19
Case Study 2: The SLM Watershed Management
Approach
Landscape approach16/05/2014
Implementating soil and
water con...
Page 20
Case Study 2:
The SLM Watershed Management Approach
Landscape approach16/05/2014
Implementating climate smart inco...
Page 21Landscape approach16/05/2014
Case Study 2: The SLM Watershed Management
Approach
Page 22Landscape approach16/05/2014
Case Study 2: The SLM Watershed Management
Approach
Page 23
Case Study 2: SLMP impacts so far
Landscape approach16/05/2014
 Around 180,000 ha of degraded land rehabilitated ...
Page 24
Landscape approaches and the right mix
of interventions offer multiple benefits:
Conclusions
Landscape approach16/...
Page 25
Conclusions
Landscape approach16/05/2014
Landscape approaches
 improve governance in rural areas by implying all ...
Page 26Landscape approach16/05/2014
►Please download a full copy of these documents from our web site:
http://star-www.giz...
Page 27Landscape approach16/05/2014
Thank you very much !
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Soil and water conservation through a climate-smart landscape approach

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May 15 in Side Event "Improving Resilience by Strengthening Capacities for Integrated Water Resource Management in Landscapes". Presented by GIZ.

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Soil and water conservation through a climate-smart landscape approach

  1. 1. Page 1 IFPRI Conference Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security Addis Ababa, 15 - 17 May 2014 Petra Jacobi, GIZ Georg Deichert, GIZ Soil and water conservation through a climate-smart landscape approach - Experiences from the Sahel and East Africa
  2. 2. Page 2Landscape approach16/05/2014
  3. 3. Page 3 Territorial development Landscape approach16/05/2014  Territory: as spatially cohesive area.  Boundaries can be defined in different ways. National Policies Climate change Global economy Natural Resources Institutio- nal Setting Economic activities Social Setting
  4. 4. Page 4 Territorial development – Landscape approach Landscape approach16/05/2014 Territorial approaches Economic delimitation - Development corridors - Protected designation of origin (champagne) Administrative delimitation Development of: - Villages - Municipalities - Provinces Ethical/ cultural delimitation - Indigenous territories - Tribal areas Eco- geographical delimitation - Watershed - Transfrontier conservation areas - Eco-system based adaptation - Landscape approaches
  5. 5. Page 5 Case Study 1: 20 years of watershed management in Niger Landscape approach16/05/2014
  6. 6. Page 6 Case Study 1: Niger`s challenges for agricultural development Landscape approach16/05/2014  Agriculture and pastoralism are key sectors in the rural economy, but periodic droughts, increasing desertification and environmental degradation are huge challenges  80% of the population live in rural areas, combined with high population growth (more than 3.5%) pressure on natural resources, e.g. land, water and vegetation is high  Only 15% of the land is arable, but 53% of the population are engaged in crop production, mostly subsistence
  7. 7. Page 7 Case Study 1: 20 years of watershed management in Niger Landscape approach16/05/2014  Several programmes funded by BMZ, implemented by GIZ / KfW / Government since early 1990ies till date.  Over 400,000 ha treated with Soil and Water Conservation at a rhythm of 20.000 ha/year.  More than 200 water-spreading weirs with > 10.000 ha with flood irrigation (last 13 years)  700 villages, around 0.5 million people reached
  8. 8. Page 8 Work approach Niger Landscape approach16/05/2014  Programme support only after active request and approval.  Rolling approach to work with about 100 villages in parallel.  Population provides: free labour, local materials and maintenance.  Programme provides: training, basic tools and material, trucks and tractors. Year 1: organizing population, training, pilot activities. Years 2 to 5: Intensive implementation. Years 5 and 6: Progressive shift of responsibilities to the communities. End of support autonomy.
  9. 9. Page 9 Techniques (Niger) Landscape approach16/05/2014  Water spreading weirs 600–1,500 €/ha  Stonebunds  Planting pits 30 – 45 €/ha 40-90% contrib.  Trenches  Dykes  Stonebunds  Nardi trenches  (Half-moons) 130 €/ha 55 % contribution
  10. 10. Page 10Landscape approach16/05/2014
  11. 11. Page 11Landscape approach16/05/2014 Nardi trenches Water spreading weirs
  12. 12. Page 12 Niger: Impact so far Landscape approach16/05/2014 Plateaus (Nardi-trenches):  Yields of herbaceous biomass increases (from ~ 0 to 600/700 kg/ha*yr).  Slow production of wood (generally around 1 stere/ha*yr).  Improved biodiversity and protection of lower areas. Fields (stone bunds):  Increased / more stable yields (millet > x 2 or around 200 kg/ha*yr more).  Straw increased by x 1.6 (520 kg/ha*yr more). Valleys:  Increase of millet yields x 2 and increase of production x 5.8  Strong increase in vegetable production, employment and income  Heightening of groundwater levels
  13. 13. Page 13 Case Study 2: Ethiopia`s Challenges for Agricultural Development Landscape approach16/05/2014
  14. 14. Page 14 Case Study 2: Ethiopia`s Challenges for Agricultural Development Landscape approach16/05/2014  Agriculture and pastoralism are key sectors for economic growth and long-term food security in Ethiopia  44 % share in GDP (Industry: 13.7%)  84.4 % share in total exports  85 % share in employement  High population growth rate (2.7%) resulting in high population pressure on natural resources, eg land, water and vegetation
  15. 15. Page 15 Case Study 2: Ethiopia`s Challenges for Agricultural Development Landscape approach16/05/2014  Loss of natural resources as result of deforestation and overgrazing  Expansion of cultivation into un-terraced steep slopes (>30%)  Soil loss due to rain and wind induced degradation  Reduction of soil fertility due to inadequate land management practices  Low agricultural productivity (50% of Kenia / Morocco)  Lowland: overgrazing of marginal areas
  16. 16. Page 16 Case Study 2: Ethiopia`s Responses to the Challenges Landscape approach16/05/2014 Agricultural Growth (AGP) Sustainable Land Management (SLMP) Drought Resilience Productivity Safety Net (PSNP)The Ministry of Agriculture addresses the challenges with 4 topical areas and these programs have synergies and complement each other.
  17. 17. Page 17 Case Study 2: The SLM Watershed Management Approach Landscape approach16/05/2014 Three phases of the watershed approach Identifying micro-watersheds, mobilizing and organizing communities and planning Implementating soil and water conservation measures Implementating climate smart income generating activities (IGA) 1 2 3
  18. 18. Page 18 Case Study 2: The SLM Watershed Management Approach Landscape approach16/05/2014 Identifying micro-watersheds, mobilizing and organizing communities and planning  Creating awareness for soil degradation in the community and the local administration  Setting up local committees and user groups  Preparing watershed management plans with strong community participation  Get approval and secure funding for plan implementation 31 2
  19. 19. Page 19 Case Study 2: The SLM Watershed Management Approach Landscape approach16/05/2014 Implementating soil and water conservation measures  Watershed management starts from top of watershed  First priority: reduce energy of run-off water and increase water infiltration into soil  Situation specific SWC measures (type of terraces, type of trenches, gully structures, etc.)  Combined Physical and bilogical SWC measures, e.g. forage planting on bunds  Combination of various SWC measures to improve water retention, soil fertility and reducing soil degradation, stocking rate, deforestation  Utilization of water at foot hill / in valley 1 32
  20. 20. Page 20 Case Study 2: The SLM Watershed Management Approach Landscape approach16/05/2014 Implementating climate smart income generating activities (IGA) • Identifying income generating and climate smart crop, livestock and forest production activities • Screening and rating of climate smartness with regard to adaptation, mitigation and income generating potentials • Promotion of regular compost making, intercropping, mulching, etc. • Integrate forage production with SWC measures • Improve post-harvest measures and fodder conservation 31 2
  21. 21. Page 21Landscape approach16/05/2014 Case Study 2: The SLM Watershed Management Approach
  22. 22. Page 22Landscape approach16/05/2014 Case Study 2: The SLM Watershed Management Approach
  23. 23. Page 23 Case Study 2: SLMP impacts so far Landscape approach16/05/2014  Around 180,000 ha of degraded land rehabilitated through SLM measures benefiting around 194,000 households in total.  Since 2008 the irrigated area increased to 1,800 ha and is utilized by small farmers for increasing productivity and income generation.  Planning and implementation capacities of governmental structures are improved. So far 678 watershed management plans were developed and implemented with active community participation.  Institutional capacities on commune level and self-responsibility of the communities are significantly improved. Around 60,000 farmers and producers, who are organized in 500 user groups manage watersheds with SLM measures.
  24. 24. Page 24 Landscape approaches and the right mix of interventions offer multiple benefits: Conclusions Landscape approach16/05/2014  powerful concept to improve food security and incomes;  positive environmental effects i.e. on biodiversity and water cycle;  Very suitable to mainstream CC adaptation and mitigation;  large scale impact potential;  also low-cost technologies are available
  25. 25. Page 25 Conclusions Landscape approach16/05/2014 Landscape approaches  improve governance in rural areas by implying all stakeholders and integrate know-how across sectors;  .mobilise and strengthen the local population;  But: sufficient time for implementation is required.
  26. 26. Page 26Landscape approach16/05/2014 ►Please download a full copy of these documents from our web site: http://star-www.giz.de/starweb/giz/pub/servlet.starweb
  27. 27. Page 27Landscape approach16/05/2014 Thank you very much !
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