Working
together
THE LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS
Why do we need an immune
system?
Yes, we do.

But: they are non-specific defenses.
Innate and acquired
immunity
Review of Key Terms


Antigen



Antibody



Primary Reaction



Secondary Reaction



Macrophage
We need Specific
Defenses too.
B cells and T cells accomplish this.
B cells are important for antibody induced immunity
in...
First let’s Review NonSpecific Defenses:


Integumentary system



Phagocytes in blood and tissues



Complement



Fe...
3 Cell Types of the
Immune System
Lymphocytes

“The militia”
Phagocytes

“The janitors”
NK cells

“The ninjas”
Phagocytes
First line of defense, often attack and remove
microorganisms before lymphocytes (T cells and B
cells) detect t...
Specific Defense Cell 1: T cells
Thymus dependent cells, recognize antigens when bound to special
proteins in a cell membr...
Specific Defense Cell 2: B cells
2 types of B cells
B cells - Bone marrow derived cells, each carries its own
specific ant...
T cell activation
When a macrophage (“think pac-man”)

engulfs a pathogen with an antigen on it, the
antigens are presente...
B cell activation
On their surface B cells have specific antibodies that
bind with specific antigens.



B cells engulf t...
Remember the difference!
Secondary Response

Primary Response
-

Antibodies do not peak
until 1-2 weeks after
exposure

-
...
Types of Antibodies


IgA – Found in secretions of the body.



IgD – Found on the cell membrane of B cells.



IgE – F...
How Antibodies Attack
Antigens
Phagocyte recognition and destruction
Antigens clump together and are targeted by
macrophag...
So, how does the lymphatic system
fit into all of this?
It’s primary function is the production,
maintenance, and distribu...
Organs of the Lymphatic
System
The organs of the Lymphatic System include:
Lymph

Lymphatic Vessels
Lymphoid Tissues
Lymph...
How does the Lymphatic
system work?


More fluid is delivered to tissues than can be
carried away.



The Lymphatic Syst...
Formation of Lymphocytes


Two different types are produced in the bone
marrow



One type stays there, the other migrat...
Lymphoid Organs
All lymphoid organs are separated from the
surrounding tissues by a fibrous connective tissue
capsule.
Lym...
What is lymph?
A thin, watery fluid originating in organs and tissues
of the body.
It circulates through the lymphatic ves...
Flow of Lymph
Lymphatic capillaries
Small Lymphatic Vessels

Superficial and Deep Lymphatics
Lymph Nodes
Major Lymph Colle...
The Filtering Process


Lymph nodes – Purify lymph before it returns to the
venous circulation. 99% of the antigens are
r...
Other organs of the
Lymphatic System


Thymus – the thymus provides a place for
lymphocytes to mature, separated from the...
Other Organs of the
Lymphatic System


Spleen – Has the largest collection of lymphoid
tissue in the body and does for bl...
Diseases of Immunity

HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Pathology of HIV
Depletes Helper T cells
Circulating antibodies also decrease, and cell
mediated immunity is reduced. (As ...
Stages of HIV
Acute Infection

Clinical Latency

AIDS

Large amounts of the virus
are being reproduced in the
body.

HIV r...
Surprising HIV Facts


Virus enters the body under clever camouflage,
cloaked in sugar molecules.



There are different...
Credits to:


Innocent Kingsely Asogwa



Bruno Thadeus



Analin Empaynado



Jefferey C. Pommerville
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  1. 1. Working together THE LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS
  2. 2. Why do we need an immune system? Yes, we do. But: they are non-specific defenses.
  3. 3. Innate and acquired immunity
  4. 4. Review of Key Terms  Antigen  Antibody  Primary Reaction  Secondary Reaction  Macrophage
  5. 5. We need Specific Defenses too. B cells and T cells accomplish this. B cells are important for antibody induced immunity in body fluids T cells are important for cell based immunity. (Think abnormal cells and pathogens in cells)
  6. 6. First let’s Review NonSpecific Defenses:  Integumentary system  Phagocytes in blood and tissues  Complement  Fever and Inflammation But it is not enough!
  7. 7. 3 Cell Types of the Immune System Lymphocytes “The militia” Phagocytes “The janitors” NK cells “The ninjas”
  8. 8. Phagocytes First line of defense, often attack and remove microorganisms before lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) detect them. 2 Types Microphages – patrol blood Macrophages – patrol peripheral tissue
  9. 9. Specific Defense Cell 1: T cells Thymus dependent cells, recognize antigens when bound to special proteins in a cell membrane, called MHC proteins. 4 Types of T cells  Cytotoxic- highly mobile, seek out and destroy abnormal or infected cells “think detective”  Helper- activate B cells so they are able to produce antibodies “think keys”  Suppressor- Keep the immune system from overreacting “think bouncer”  Memory- on 2nd exposure automatically transform to cytotoxic T cells.
  10. 10. Specific Defense Cell 2: B cells 2 types of B cells B cells - Bone marrow derived cells, each carries its own specific antibody molecule that fits a corresponding antigen. Needs the Helper T cells to activate and stimulate their division. They will eventually divide into plasma cells and Memory B cells. B memory cells – on second exposure they divide into plasma cells that secrete antibodies in massive quantities*. *How massive? -When stimulated by cytokines from a T cell, plasma cells can secrete up to 100 million antibody molecules an HOUR
  11. 11. T cell activation When a macrophage (“think pac-man”) engulfs a pathogen with an antigen on it, the antigens are presented to the T-cell by placing them on its cell membrane at the MHC. The T-cell then is able to recognize and bind to the antigen there and begin dividing.
  12. 12. B cell activation On their surface B cells have specific antibodies that bind with specific antigens.  B cells engulf the antigen and present it on their cell membrane to be recognized by an activated Helper T cell, which gives the B cell the “go ahead”.   The T-cell attaches to the part of the B cell membrane where the antigen is and begins to secrete cytokines to activate the B cell.  The B cell can now divide, accelerate plasma cell formation, and enhance antibody production.
  13. 13. Remember the difference! Secondary Response Primary Response - Antibodies do not peak until 1-2 weeks after exposure - Even low antigen concentrations will immediately trigger memory B cell response. - IgM are first to appear, but do not create memory cells. Immediate, but limited defense - Antibodies increase rapidly and reach much higher concentrations than with the primary response - Invading organism is often destroyed before symptoms appear. - IgG rises more slowly and creates memory cells. Takes over response.
  14. 14. Types of Antibodies  IgA – Found in secretions of the body.  IgD – Found on the cell membrane of B cells.  IgE – Found wherever IgA is. Thought to be involved in triggering allergic reactions.  IgG – Primarily recognizes bacteria, viruses, and toxins.  IgM – a very large antibody that binds to food and incompatible blood cells.
  15. 15. How Antibodies Attack Antigens Phagocyte recognition and destruction Antigens clump together and are targeted by macrophages The toxic portion of the antigen is covered Activate complement proteins that form holes in antigen
  16. 16. So, how does the lymphatic system fit into all of this? It’s primary function is the production, maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes! Remember, those are the T cells and B cells essential for specific immunity.
  17. 17. Organs of the Lymphatic System The organs of the Lymphatic System include: Lymph Lymphatic Vessels Lymphoid Tissues Lymphoid Organs Lymphocytes
  18. 18. How does the Lymphatic system work?  More fluid is delivered to tissues than can be carried away.  The Lymphatic System’s circulatory network returns this fluid to the blood stream.  On the way to the major collecting ducts, pathogens are filtered at stops such as the spleen and lymph nodes  Lymphocytes, produced in the organs of the lymphatic system, freely flow through this circuit and patrol.
  19. 19. Formation of Lymphocytes  Two different types are produced in the bone marrow  One type stays there, the other migrates to the thymus to mature, separated from the blood.  When they have completed maturing they return to the bone marrow and lymphoid tissues and organs, such as the spleen.
  20. 20. Lymphoid Organs All lymphoid organs are separated from the surrounding tissues by a fibrous connective tissue capsule. Lymph Nodes Thymus Spleen
  21. 21. What is lymph? A thin, watery fluid originating in organs and tissues of the body. It circulates through the lymphatic vessels and is filtered by the lymph nodes. It enters the blood stream at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins.
  22. 22. Flow of Lymph Lymphatic capillaries Small Lymphatic Vessels Superficial and Deep Lymphatics Lymph Nodes Major Lymph Collecting Ducts
  23. 23. The Filtering Process  Lymph nodes – Purify lymph before it returns to the venous circulation. 99% of the antigens are removed. A T cell may spend 20 hours in a lymph node. A B cell may spend 30 hours in a lymph node.
  24. 24. Other organs of the Lymphatic System  Thymus – the thymus provides a place for lymphocytes to mature, separated from the systemic circulation.  The thymus also produces several hormones that are important to the development and maintenance of a normal immune system.
  25. 25. Other Organs of the Lymphatic System  Spleen – Has the largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body and does for blood what lymph nodes do for lymph. -removal of abnormal blood cells and components -storage of iron from recycled red blood cells -initiation of immune response by B and T in response to circulating antigens. cells
  26. 26. Diseases of Immunity HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  27. 27. Pathology of HIV Depletes Helper T cells Circulating antibodies also decrease, and cell mediated immunity is reduced. (As a result pathogens that are usually harmless create opportunistic infections.) The surplus in suppressor T cells as Helper T cells die turns off the normal immune response. Immune surveillance is also decreased, increasing cancer risk.
  28. 28. Stages of HIV Acute Infection Clinical Latency AIDS Large amounts of the virus are being reproduced in the body. HIV reproduces at low levels, but is still active Helper T cell count falls to dangerously low levels Usually occurs within 2-4 weeks of infection It is still possible to transmit the virus After rapid Helper T cell destruction, immune system kicks in and body returns to a viral set point. This period may last 8 years or longer. At this stage the immune system is badly damaged and opportunistic infections are likely. Survival is typically 3 years with AIDS. It is only 1 year with an opportunistic infection.
  29. 29. Surprising HIV Facts  Virus enters the body under clever camouflage, cloaked in sugar molecules.  There are different strains of the virus, some more deadly than others.  34 million people are living with HIV today.  Transmission to a fetus from the mother is now considered entirely avoidable with medication.  A quarter of AIDS deaths are from TB
  30. 30. Credits to:  Innocent Kingsely Asogwa  Bruno Thadeus  Analin Empaynado  Jefferey C. Pommerville

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