1 | P a g ePHYSICAL SCIENCE GRADE: 10CONTENT: MATTER AND METERIALFOCUS CONTENT: ATOMStudent Prerequisite Skills/Understandings1. Atoms are the basic building block of matter.2. Basic computer skills (click and drag).OverviewThe lesson begins with the teacher carefully smashing a cell phone. This serves as anintroduction of objects are composed of smaller things. Next, the students are handedelement cards where they are introduced to the idea of atomic numbers. The students thenmove to a computer simulation (see http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atom).Each pair of students is given a set of element cards that resemble the boxes on the periodictable for each element. The students are also given an activity sheet where they use thesimulation and their element card to identify the distinguishing parts of each element (name ofelement, atomic number, mass number, net charge of the atom, number of protons, neutrons,and electrons). Students are introduced to the charges associated with protons, neutrons,and electrons. In addition, students are introduced to a Bohr Model of an atom and becomeable to draw specific elements.Content Focus: Matter, for example a cell phone, is composed of atoms.To demonstrate that items can be made of smaller parts, the teacher performs a demo bysmashing a cell phone into component parts. The teacher then asks students what sort ofelements a cell phone might contain. Just as a cell phone has parts, so does an element,which is what will be explored in this lesson.Computer simulation: I willUse it for introduction to concepts, learning new concepts,reinforcement of concepts, as visual aids for interactive demonstrationsWith the help of options to hide the readouts in the play area (e.g., Show Element Name) so Iwill ask prediction questions during class discussion
2 | P a g eResources, materials and supplies needed for each classA cell phoneHammerSmashing set-up (plastic sheet and cardboard)Goggles for teacherGloves for teacherComputers with internet access (1 per student is ideal, but no more than 2 students shouldshare a computer)aDry erase board &MarkersIndex CardsI will allow for 5 minutes of open play, encourage students to try all features and determine whateach feature does. Have students share what they have discovered. Pass out an element card.
3 | P a g eI will provide them with the element card activity
5 | P a g eI will provide Authentic learningactivities byTeaching Physics using PhET SimulationsThe following(FIVE-E ORGANIZATION) describe the activities exactly as I will would do if I wasactually teaching a class the next dayFIVE-E ORGANIZATIONENGAGEMENT Time: 7 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsHave a cell phone smashingstation set up. Use cautionand wear safety goggles!Scientists are always trying tofigure out how things work.One way to do this is to breakthings apart and look at whatis inside of them.Don’t try this at home! Smashcell phone. Be careful!Now that I’ve smashed thiscell phone into small pieces,let’s talk about what is inside.1. How many of you haveever wondered what isin a cell phone? Whatdo you think is in a cellphone?2 Why does breakingthings into smallerpieces help a scientistfigure out how thingswork?3 What observations canyou make about thesepieces? Walk aroundwith pieces sostudents can see.4 What elements do youthink are inside of acell phone?5 How many cell phonesdo you think it wouldtake to get one gramof gold?1. Me! Lots of tinyparts…technology!2 So they can see whatis inside and makepredictions aboutwhat the parts do.3 There are lots of wiresand shiny parts.4 Metals, plastic (MC:plastic is not anelement!)5 One, fifteen,hundreds.
6 | P a g eENGAGEMENT Time: 7 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsThose are all greatobservations! Cell phoneshave many parts. A fewelements inside of a cell phoneinclude aluminum, gold,silicon and copper.Yes! Gold is inside cell phones,but there is such a smallamount that it would takehundreds of cell phones to getone gram of gold!What we’ve just seen is thatobjects are composed ofsmaller things. Today, we’ll bestudying atoms anddiscovering that they are alsocomposed of smaller particles,too!EXPLORATION Time: 25 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsShow students the elementcards.Today, we are going to be1. What do you see onthese cards?2. What do you think thatthey mean?1. Letter(s) andnumbers.2. They identifysomething. Theymake it different from
7 | P a g eEXPLORATION Time: 25 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential Misconceptionsexploring atoms. Each of thesecards has information for aspecific element that describeswhat the atom of that elementwill look like.Pass around a couple periodictables to the students.As you look at the periodictable, notice how manyelements there are.Today, we will be using asimulator to explore atoms.Instruct students on how toget to the simulator. (Look atadvanced preparations.)Play with the sim for fiveminutes.Walk around the room andmake sure students are nothaving problems opening andexploring the simulator.Now that you’ve had a fewminutes to explore, let’s sharewith each other what we havediscovered about thesimulation.3. Where have you seenthese types of cardsbefore?4. How are theyarranged?5. What does thatnumber mean?other cards.3. Some students maysay that they haveseen them on theperiodic table.4. By number.5. Some may sayprotons or atomicmass.
8 | P a g eEXPLORATION Time: 25 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsHave students “share out”what they have discoveredabout the simulation. Makesure that a student mentionsthat there is the “symbol”function in the simulation.Today, you will figure out whateach number and letter onyour element card means.Label each part of the card asshown in my example. Hold upthe example card showingstudents how to label parts ofthe symbol.Pass out an element card andan Element Card Activity half-sheet to each student.A class before you has madeall of these cards for you. Yourjob is to solve the cards forthem and then make cards foranother class to solve afteryou.You may now begin labelingthe element card.Once you finish labeling yourelement card, fill out theElement Card Activity half-sheet.Questions to ask studentswhile walking around theroom:1. What component ofthe atom determinesthe identity of theatom?1. Protons
9 | P a g eEXPLORATION Time: 25 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsExplanation: Atoms canbecome unstable when thereare too many protons and notenough neutrons. Positiveprotons repel each other justlike positive ends of twomagnets. However, somecombinations of protons andneutrons experience lessrepulsion and are stable.2. Which atom do youhave?3. How many protonsdoes your atom have?4. What type of chargedoes a proton have?5. An electron?6. A neutron?7. What is the overallcharge of your atom?8. How did you knowhow many protons toadd?9. What happens whenyou add only protonsand too few neutrons?Why?2. Various answers.(Verify their answer.)3. Various answers.(Verify their answer.)4. Positive5. Negative6. No charge; it doesn’tsay [MC: neutrons arenegative. Becausethey both start with“n”]7. Various answers.(Verify their answer.)8. I added protons untilthe name was correct;or I added thenumber of protons atthe bottom left of thecard.9. The atom becomesunstable. [MC: It isunstable because it isnot an atom.]
10 | P a g eEXPLORATION Time: 25 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential Misconceptions10. How did you knowhow many neutrons toadd?11. How did you knowhow many electronsto add?12. Is your atom neutralor does it have acharge?13. What is an atom witha charge called?14. Why do ions have acharge? (What makesit have a charge?)15. If there are moreprotons thanelectrons, will the ionhave a positive or anegative charge?16. If there are moreelectrons thanprotons, will the ionhave a positive or anegative charge?10. I added neutrons untilthe mass numbermatched the numberon the card.11. I added electrons untilthe charge wascorrect.12. Various answers.(Verify their answer.)13. An ion.14. The protons andelectrons are notequal. MC: neutronschange the charge.15. Positive.16. Negative.EXPLANATION Time: 10 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsMatching:On the board, write:
11 | P a g eEXPLANATION Time: 10 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsI need a volunteer to matchthe atomic particle to itscorrect charge.Read over the results with theclass.Protons are positive, neutronsare neutral (or have nocharge), and electrons arenegative.Drawing:Draw this picture on theboard:1. Who disagrees withthis answer?2. What happens whenthe number of protonsand electrons are notequal?3. What charge would anion have if it has 3protons and 2electrons?4. If there are moreprotons than electrons,will the ion have apositive or a negativecharge?5. If there are moreelectrons than protons,will the ion have apositive or a negativecharge?1. If anyone disagrees,ask why and whatshould be changed.Ask if anyone in theclass agrees ordisagrees with thechange.2. An ion is formed.3. +14. Positive5. Negative
12 | P a g eEXPLANATION Time: 10 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsThe pluses represent positiveprotons, the negativesrepresent negative electrons,and the n’s represent neutral(or no charge) neutrons.Did you notice the sizes of theparticles in the simulation?The protons and neutronswere about the same size. Theelectrons were smaller.Electrons are so small andlightweight compared to theprotons and neutrons that themass of the atom onlydepends on the number ofprotons and neutrons.6. What atom is this?7. What determines whatthe identity of theatom is?8. What is the massnumber of an atom?9. What is the massnumber of this Lithiumatom?10. Where are the protonsand neutrons locatedin an atom?6. Lithium.7. The number ofprotons it has.8. The number ofprotons and neutronsthe atom has.9. 610. In the middle; in thenucleus
13 | P a g eEXPLANATION Time: 10 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsSymbols:Draw the symbol on theboard.Then, write:Protons = _____Neutrons = _____Electrons = _____Here is an element symbol.Like we discussed earlier,these are found on theperiodic table.Fill in the correct number ofprotons, neutrons, andelectrons as students answerthe following questions.11. Where are theelectrons located?12. How many electronscan fit in the first ring?13. How many electronscan fit in the secondring?14. Can you put electronsin the outer ring first?15. What element is this?11. Around the nucleus;in orbitals; in electronclouds12. Only 213. Up to 814. No. They have to fillup the first ringbefore they can go inthe second.15. Lithium
14 | P a g eEXPLANATION Time: 10 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential Misconceptions16. What is the atomicnumber of this Lithiumatom?17. What does the atomicnumber represent?18. So how many protonswill this Lithium atomhave?19. What is the massnumber of this Lithiumatom?20. What does the massnumber represent?21. How many protons didwe have?22. So how many neutronswill this Lithium atomhave?23. What is the overallcharge of this Lithiumatom?24. How many electronswill this Lithium atomhave?25. How do you know?16. 317. The number ofprotons.18. 319. 620. The number ofprotons and neutronsin the nucleus21. 322. 323. 024. 325. Because the charge is0, so protons =electrons. If there are3 protons, there hasto be 3 electrons also.ELABORATION Time: 15 minutes
15 | P a g eWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsPass out challenge cards.Now you have a challenge. Onthis card, I am giving you thenumbers of protons, neutrons,and electrons of an atom.From this, draw the atom inthe designated space, give meinformation about the atom,and then draw the symbolthat would be found on theperiodic table. Also, tellwhether the atom has acharge (is an ion) or not.Allow students about 10minutes to work on this taskin pairs. Circulate around theroom to make sure studentsare on task and are clearabout the directions. Ifstudents have trouble, usethe same probing questionsfrom the Exploration to helpthem.One person from each groupwill now stand up and handyour index card to someonewho is not your partner and issitting down. Together withyour original partner, youhave 5 minutes to check theother team’s index card. Handit back to them when you arefinished. Raise your hand ifyou have any questions.EVALUATION Time: 5 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential Misconceptions
16 | P a g eEVALUATION Time: 5 minutesWhat the Teacher Will Do Probing Questions Student ResponsesPotential MisconceptionsNow it is your turn to makeelement cards for the nextclass.Pass out an index card toeach student.Draw the chemical symboland give the correct atomicnumber for that symbol. Put amass number in the correctplace, and then choose acharge for the atom. You mayuse a periodic table to helpyou with this task. Turn yourcards in before you leave forthe day!Name: _____________________Show off what you know!1. Electrons do not contribute to the mass number of an atom. Why is this?a) The mass number only counts particles which have a charge. Electrons have no charge.b) The mass number only counts particles with no net charge. Electrons have a charge.c) The mass number is an approximation of the mass of the atom and electrons have verylittle mass.d) The mass number only represents the mass of the other particles because electrons haveno mass.2. The name of an atom is determined by the number of which particle?a) Protonb) Electronc) Bosond) Neutron3. Car batteries produce hydrogen ions in the process of releasing chemical energy as electricity.The single electron in some neutral hydrogen atoms is pulled away as a result of the highcurrent electricity. What is the charge on these hydrogen ions? a) -1b) +1c) +2d) 04. Which of the following atom cards best represents the atom drawn below?TOTAL
18 | P a g eShow off what you know!KEY1) c2) a3) b4) LiThe following are the characteristic of AUTHENTIC ACTIVITIES that will be covered in thislesson using simulation to enhance their understanding1.Authentic activities have real-world relevanceThe student will gain Investigation Skills which can be used in real life: Use models torepresent aspects of the natural world such as a model of Earths layers.Reasoning Skills: Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidencefrom simulation. Communicate conclusions supported by the data gathered in thesimulation.2. Authentic activities provide the opportunity for students to examine the task fromdifferent perspectives, using a variety of resourcesinterpret the arrangement of the Periodic Table, including groups and periods, to explainhow properties are used to classify elements4. Authentic activities comprise complex tasks to be investigated by students over asustained period of time.This activity will help them to understand as to how atom a formed and also how elementare arrange in the periodic table5. Authentic activities provide the opportunity to reflect.After having done the activity student will be able to describe the structure of atoms,including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in thenucleus and electrons in the electron cloud and Identify that protons determine anelements identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, includingreactivity; using what they have learnt from the simulation or using evidence fromsimulation7. Authentic activities can be integrated and applied across different subject areas andlead beyond domain-specific outcomes.
19 | P a g e8. Authentic activities are seamlessly integrated with assessment.Allow the open play with the simulation, encourage students to try all features anddetermine what each feature does. Have students share what they have discovered. Passout an element card. Present the task of solving and labeling the cards. Once finished, havestudents complete the “Element Card Activity” half-sheet. That are shown on page numberfour (4) the Questions to guide students’ learning and thinking Questions to gatherinformation10. Authentic activities allow competing solutions and diversity of outcomeThis activity provides diversityof outcomes as by using it we able interpret the arrangement of thePeriodic Table, including groups and periods, to explain how properties are used to classify elementsand how atoms are formed