Chapter 3 4th recorrected ready prof phago final final 20120905
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Chapter 3 4th recorrected ready prof phago final final 20120905 Chapter 3 4th recorrected ready prof phago final final 20120905 Document Transcript

  • Chapter 3LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK THAT UNDERPINSIMPLEMENTATION OF BATHO PELE PRINCIPLES3.1. INTRODUCTIONThe literature review in Chapter Two has led to the belief that the implementation ofBatho Pele principles is underpinned by legislative and regulatory framework. Thereare various Acts and Statutory guidelines which guide the implementation of BathoPele Principles in the public service to speed up service delivery to the communities.The legislative framework underpinning Batho Pele Principles in the realization ofservice delivery is discussed below in detail.3.2. LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR BATHO PELEPRINCIPLESThe South African public institutions are responsible for ensuring the service deliveryto all citizens. In order for public institutions to deliver these services economically,effectively and efficiently, government departments and public entities likemunicipalities Greater Tzaneen Local municipality included should strive for soundprinciples for service delivery in order for all public service to be of a certain agreedupon standard and quality. In the next paragraph legislative and regulatoryframework for the Batho Pele principles have been used in this chapter as arrangedbelow neither in order of chronology nor importance will be discussed hereafter theSupreme Law.3.2.1. CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA (Act 106 Of 1996)BILL OF RIGHTSThe Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1996:s17) contains the Bill ofRights in chapter 2 and sections relevant to this study has been selected and isparaphrased and described within the context of the study as follows: 1
  • • Freedom of expressionPeople are free to receive or convey information. In this study this right refersspecifically to the freedom to complain.Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1996: s 32) refers to access toinformation and it prescribes the right of everyone to have access to any informationheld by the state as follows: Section 33 (2) deals with administrative action. It states that everyone whose rights have been adversely affected by administrative action has the right to be given written reason. This is related to the principle of redress. Section 41 (1) delineates the principle of cooperative government and intergovernmental relations. It stipulates that all spheres of government and organs of state within each sphere must provide effective, transparent, accountable and coherent government for the Republic as a whole. Section 195 (1) provides that public administration must be governed by the democratic values and principles enshrined in the Constitution.3.2.3. LOCAL GOVERNMENT: MUNICIPAL SYSTEMS ACT (Act 32 Of 2000) ANDMUNICIPAL STRUCTURES ACT (Act 17 Of 1998)The Municipal Systems Act (2000:2) and Municipal Structures Act (1998:42) notesthat a requirement for community participation are to be taken further. In terms ofchapter 4 of the Act, a municipality must adopt or promote community participationand must also provide for the following: Notification and public comment procedures.Phrases like see you within 10 minutes of any appointment the employees havemade at the entity office. The participation of the citizenry to have a say in decisionmaking processes about programmes of actions that affect their livelihood. 2
  • Receipts, processing and consideration of petitions and complaints lodged by members of the community.All the efforts must be made by made by the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality foranswering letters and will publish its performance against this target. A need toanswer letters quickly and clearly and that each department and agency will have toset a target. Provide clear and straightforward information about its services and atleast one number for telephone enquiries to help you or to put you in touch withsomeone else. Public meetings and hearings by the council.A need to have at least one complaints procedure for the services the GreaterTzaneen Local municipality provides, and send you information about a procedure ifyou ask. Participation of citizenry in the entities will revitalise the way these entitiesprovide service delivery. Consultative sessions with community organisations.The Greater Tzaneen Local municipality must consult its users and interest groupsregularly about the services it provides and report on the results and shouldcommunicate to citizenry how their inputs were, or were not utilised. Frequent and consistent report-back sessions are vital.It is crucial that the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality must do everything that isreasonably possible to make its services available to everyone, including people withspecial needs.Raga and Taylor (2005:20) asserts that local communities like in the GreaterTzaneen Local municipality must be encouraged to participate in, inter alia, matterssuch as the following: The preparation of their municipality’s budget. 3
  • Bland and Rubin (1997:34) expounds that budget process is an integral part of a wellfunctioning budget system. A budget cycle must be viewed as an ongoing cycle,rather than a linear series of event s that starts at one date and ends at another. Thebudget process shapes decision making throughout the budget cycle. Decisions on the provision of municipal services.Golembiewski and Rabbin (1997:192) point out that the budget process describesnot only who has power over budget decisions, but also how those decisions areactually made, how much information is provided, what kinds of decision rules areused, how much comparison there is between proposed expenditures. This ispossible if continuous monitoring and review of the performance of the GreaterTzaneen Local municipality. Monitoring and review of their municipalitys performance.Golembiewski and Rabin (1997:254) expounds that budgeting has been undertakenconsistently to plan and monitor expenditures to ensure compliance in the strictauditing sense, but budgeting reforms in recent years have emphasized broaderissues of macro- economic management and the efficiency and effectiveness ofresource use to achieve program objectives. It is therefore imperative thatmunicipalities not only adhere to these prescripts for only compliance reasons but asa means and an approach to improved financial management. This cannot be donein isolation of the public service reports of which the Greater Tzaneen Localmunicipality can learn the best practice from.3.2.4. PUBLIC SERVICE REPORT (2007)Public Service Report (2007:i) indicates the following 9 Constitutional Values andPrinciples that entities like Greater Tzaneen Local Municipality must adapt a highstandard of professional ethics must be promoted and maintained for theemployees. They are as follows : Professional Ethics. 4
  • Heynes (1986:01), in his opinion states that ethics has to do with the actions of man.Consequently, it requires adjustments in the actions and attitudes of the publicmanagers in relation to the colleagues and the public as well as in relation tothemselves. De Villiers (1989:162) expounds the basis of the evaluation of humanbehaviour is to be found in a system of values. Ethical values and integrity as a basicvalue as well as the rule of law, are key elements of every democratic society. Publicofficials in their daily execution of their functions and management of public funding,dispose of discretionary competencies. These values must not only protect thecitizens against arbitrary use of this public power, but also the public authority itselfagainst any improper use of this power by its public officials. Efficient, economic andeffective use of resources must be promoted at all times. Efficiency, Effectiveness and Economy.This requires the Public Service and entities to have the capacity for sound financialmanagement. Furthermore, departments need to have the ability to understand thepolicies and programmes of government and to have the ability to determine successand failures in the course of implementing these. The inability to do all this very oftencosts service delivery dearly and often result in protest marches by citizenry.Essential for achieving this is the capacity to manage performance in the PublicService and to monitor and evaluate it. Public administration must be developmentoriented even in the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality. Development Orientation.A requirement by government departments to have the ability to design andimplement effective poverty reduction interventions to create a better life for itsprimary stakeholders, the citizenry through the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality.The capacity to do this must also include the ability to integrate development needsand poverty reduction into all the work of the Public Service. Such services must beprovided impartially, fairly, equitably and without bias to all residents in thismunicipality. Impartial, Fair and Equitable Service Delivery. 5
  • In interfacing with and offering services to the public, the Public Service needs tohave the ability to demonstrate an understanding of what kinds of actions andconduct would constitute impartiality and bias, and how these should be prevented.People’s needs must be responded to and the public must be encouraged toparticipate in policy-making in the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality. Public Participation.A requirement of the Public Service to have the capacity to promote and sustainpublic participation in its activities to serve the people. Without the capacity to createand sustain appropriate platforms and channels of engaging with the public, thePublic Service cannot be fully certain that it addresses the real needs ofcommunities. Public entities like the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality must beaccountable. Accountability.This requires the Public Service to have the capacity to hold itself up to scrutiny andbe answerable for its conduct and activities. Vital for this principle is the capacity toimplement sound performance management systems and to provide comprehensivereports as required. Such systems and reports should not merely be compliance-driven but should instead serve as credible mechanisms of accountability. The publicofficials are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public and must submitthemselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office. Transparency must befostered by providing the public with timely, accessible and accurate information bythis entity. Transparency.Essential for the Public Service here is the capacity to open its activities and conductto the public in order to empower it to exercise its rights fully. The absence of timelyand accurate information can severely handicap the ability of the public to benefitfrom the services provided by the public Service. Departments therefore require thecapacity to provide such information and thus empower citizens to make informedchoices. Public officers should be as open as possible about all the decisions and 6
  • actions that they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrictinformation only when the wider public interest demands it. Good human resourcemanagement and career development practices must be cultivated to maximisehuman potential in the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality at all times. Human Resource Management and Development.For this the capacity to maximise human resource potential and its utilisation throughsound policies and management practices and systems is absolutely essential.Weak capacity to manage human resources implies that this core asset of the PublicService that can profoundly influence service delivery is not leveraged appropriately.This can compromise effective service delivery significantly. The holders of publicoffice should promote and support these principles by leadership and example. Abroadly representative of the Greater Tzaneen Local municipalitys demographics,with employment and personnel management practices based on ability, objectivity,fairness and the need to redress the imbalances of the past to achieve broadrepresentation. Representivity.Departments need to have the capacity to recruit and retain a representativeworkforce. Without this, there is a real risk of it being alienated from the citizenryand being perceived to be less serious about social transformation and promotingunity through diversity as required by the Constitution. Constitution (1996:s40)explicates that government is constituted as national, provincial and local spheres,which are distinctive, interdependent and interrelated. This establishes localauthorities as a distinctive sphere, with a mandate to govern, to provide services andto promote social and economic development. A collective societal transformation isthe way to remove barriers to the implementation of the Batho Pele Principles in theGreater Tzaneen Local municipality. Another proponent of the Batho Pele Principleshas this comment .Khoza (2002:34) believes that the success of Batho Pele will be determined by theprogress made in efforts to transform the public service as well as transformationoccurring in society in general. While there is scope for success, the limitations are 7
  • more likely to be in the form of inherent qualities of the public service such as thebureaucracy and extensive legal regulations.3.2.5. THE WHITE PAPER ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE PUBLICSERVICE (NOTICE 1459 OF 1997)The White Paper (1995:5) highlights transformation priorities of the government, oneof which is transforming service delivery to meet the basic needs and redress pastimbalances. Regarding consultation and participation of the community, it stressesthe creation of government-community partnership for effective use of public fundsand community resources. The formulation, implementation and monitoring ofservice delivery plans should be carried out in close consultation with unions andstaff, and especially with service users. This cannot be done in isolation of theMinister for Public Service and Administrations contribution.It also states that the Ministry for Public Service and Administration placesconsiderable emphasis on the need for effective consultation, both within the publicservice and with the South African society. This means that communities should beafforded an opportunity to participate in the decision making process on issuesaffecting their welfare and should also be encouraged to contribute to the delivery ofservices through community based initiatives in the Greater Tzaneen Localmunicipality and exercising the communitys right to fairness, reasonableness andtransparency.3.2.6. THE PROMOTION OF ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE ACT (Act 3 Of 2000)In South Africa, administrative decision making is through Promotion OfAdministrative Justice Act (hereafter referred to as PAJA) as part of generaladministrative law. PAJA sets out the general rules that govern how administratorsmust make decision, reasonably, justify and procedurally fairly. Reasonablenessmeans that administrators should be able to comprehend the context of anapplication for a government service before making a decision. Justifiableness refersto administration having the power to make the decision. Procedural fairness meansthat administration must ensure that if a person is likely to receive a negativedecision, the potentially affected individual must be given, adequate notice of the 8
  • nature and purpose of the proposed negative decision, a reasonable opportunity tonotice of any right of review or internal appeal where applicable and adequate noticeof the right to request reasons. It prescribes that in order to give more effect to theright to procedurally fair administrative action, the public should be consulted. It alsoemphasizes the citizens’ rights to redress and requires that reasons be given for anyadministration action. It also promotes transparency in public administrativedecisions and related actions. Greater Tzaneen Local municipality must be seen tobe a proponent of promotion of access to information at all times.3.2.7. THE PROMOTION OF ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT (Act 2 Of 2000)The Promotion Of Access To Information Act (hereafter referred to as PAIA) giveslegislative expression to the Constitutional rights and adopts the right to knowapproach. It aims to create a framework to: Allow people to access the information held by government and private bodies.It is vital for the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality to make services easilyaccessible to everyone who needs them including using technology to the full,offering choice wherever possible. Set out how people will be able to access these records.A need to be open, and communicate clearly and effectively in plain language to helppeople using public services; and provide full information about services, their costand how well they perform is necessary. Obviously it is vital that the GreaterTzaneen Local municipality must able to take the citizenry through advocacy on whatinformation can and cannot be divulged to them. Determine the grounds on which access to information can be refused.State of The Public Service Report (2006:48) contrasts to the secrecy andopaqueness of Apartheid governance which was necessary for the suppression ofthe will of the people, fundamentally transparency is necessary for giving content to 9
  • the ideals of our democratic Constitution. Indeed the ability of the citizenry includingthose that are residing in the Greater Tzaneen to exercise the rights embodied in itdepends upon this. Therefore as the primary arm of our government, the PublicService must have the capacity to open itself to public scrutiny. Though some secretinformation, for example that are sensitive to an extent that upon divulged can putthe country into a high risky cannot be divulged to public and individuals except forthose that are employees within such a directorate and/or department. Set out how citizens could lodge an appeal against any decision to deny access to information.State of The Public Service Report (2006:35) states that PAJA ensures procedurallyfair administrative action and gives citizens the right to enforce fair action. All thecitizens including those of Greater Tzaneen Local municipality have the right torequest reasons for actions, and also the right to have such actions reviewed incourt. It is therefore not surprising that studies have assessed compliance with thisAct as the performance indicator for impartiality, fairness and a lack of bias. Eventhough classified information that which can put the countrys safety at risk from itsenemies can only be accessed by classified relevant people. A proponent of publicservice has this to say.Sangweni (2007:2) reckons that PAIA enables the public to scrutinise governmentdecision-making and hold government accountable for actions and decisions thataffect their lives and rights. The framework created in terms of the PAIA enables thepublic to access information and ensures that the Public Service participates inpromoting a culture of human rights and just public administration. Without reliableand relevant information, citizens do not know what government is doing and cannothold it accountable. The PAIA is one of the legislative foundations for ensuring thetransformation of the Public Service. The capacity and ability of the Public Service tocomply with the provisions of the PAIA directly reflects the extent to which thistransformation has taken place. The ability to implement the PAIA does not onlyrelate to putting the required systems and procedures in place, but relates tochanging the culture of secrecy in the Public Service and using the PAIA as apowerful tool in this regard. The Greater Tzaneen Local municipality is not immuneto the promotion of access to information that is in its possessions. 10
  • Sangweni (2007:2) further elaborates the impact of ongoing monitoring should notonly be to ensure more effective systems and procedures, but should enable citizensto participate fully in government processes by having accurate and timelyinformation and using their right to access to information to obtain such information.The Act obliges departments and entities to be more transparent in their dealingswith the public. It provides prescriptions regarding the publication of various types ofreports, including contact details of responsible officials. It highlights the public’s rightof access to information from the public and private bodies. It will be naïve of thisresearch study not to unpack the Reconstruction And Development Programme(hereafter referred to as RDP) amongst all other programmes, namely: AcceleratedState Growth In South Africa (known as AsGISA), Growth Employment AndRedistribution(known as GEAR) and Joint Initiative On Priority Skills Acquisition(alsoknown as JIPSA). The researchers focus is on the former programme only.3.2.8. THE WHITE PAPER ON RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT(NOTICE NO 1954 OF 1994)The notice identifies the meeting of the basic needs of all citizens through moreeffective service delivery as one of the five key programmes of the RDP. The basicneeds of the people range from job creation, land, agrarian reform, housing, to waterand sanitation. It advocates the formulation of a communication strategy that shouldeffectively communicate the objectives of, and progress with, implementing RDP toallow the public to be fully informed and participate (consultation and information).It further stipulates other principles related to the principles of Batho Pele that shouldinform Public Service delivery i.e. by responding to what the people of the GreaterTzaneen Local municipality need. People’s needs must be responded to,Sangweni (2006:39) asserts that meeting the needs of the citizenry in a responsivemanner and involving the public in policy making is critical for the stability of ourdemocracy. The capacity for this in the Public Service is sporadic and rudimentary.The Public Service needs to put in place and implement systems and processes that 11
  • the public can utilize for this purpose. For this the appropriate capacity should bedeveloped to put in place functional systems, procedures and methods to enabledepartments to elicit and process inputs from the public. The needs of the peoplemust be responded to in a transparent manner at all times. Transparency must be fostered by providing the public with timely, accessible and accurate information; andSangweni (2006:47) concedes in contrast to the secrecy and opaqueness ofApartheid governance which was necessary for the suppression of the will of thepeople, fundamentally transparency is necessary for giving content to the ideals ofour democratic Constitution. Indeed the ability of the citizenry to exercise the rightsembodied in it depends upon this. As the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality a vitalprimary arm of our government, the Public Service must have the capacity to openitself to public scrutiny and accountability. Public administration must be accountable.An important characteristic of the developmental state is its commitment toaccountability. Public institutions and entities like Greater Tzaneen Local municipalityhave been delegated important management and regulatory powers and areexpected to exercise these powers within the context of accountability. Accountabilityimplies that public servants should be held answerable to government and the publicfor the achievement of service delivery objectives and the proper utilization ofresources. Essential for this is the capacity to account in the various ways set bylegislation and regulatory prescripts.3.2.9. THE WHITE PAPER ON TRANSFORMING PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY (No. 1459 of 1997)The White Paper On Transforming Public Service Delivery(hereafter referred to asWPTPS) lists the policy goals, namely, consultation; service standards; courtesy;information; openness and transparency; redress as well as value for money. ThisWPTPS is supported by a well versed scholar of public administration. Van derWaldt ( 2004:86) purports that it has as its principal aim the transformation of the 12
  • South African Public Service into a coherent, representative, competent anddemocratic instrument for executing government policies and meeting the needs ofthe people including those of Greater Tzaneen Local municipality. This implies thatits purpose was to advance one of the eight transformation priorities, namely,transforming service delivery. It provided a policy framework and practicalimplementation strategy for a more efficient, effective and equitable provision ofpublic services. The Batho Pele principles indicate that the public servants have tobe committed to the provision of high quality services to all South Africans in anunbiased and impartial manner, responsive to the needs of the public, accessible,informative, accountable and open to public scrutiny. Openness and transparency asa principle is important in public service delivery for purposes of building confidenceand trust between the government departments and the citizens they serve includingin the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality .Batho Pele requires provincial and national departments to do the following: Identify service standards, outputs, targets and performance indicators, benchmarked against comparable international standards;Now that we are part of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, we arecompelled to improve service standards, outputs, targets and performanceindicators, benchmarked against these and other countries in relation to theirstandards. The entities like Greater Tzaneen Local municipality must be flexible andlearn best practice from these countries. Monitor and evaluate mechanisms and structures designed to measure progress and introduce corrective action where appropriate.Of course there must be a paradigm shift in inculcating the culture of monitoring andevaluation of progress towards the desired destination and also taking intocognisance that these mechanisms must be reviewed and appropriate turnaroundstrategies are employed. Develop a culture of customer care and of approaches to service delivery sensitive to issues of race, gender and disability. 13
  • A need to develop a positive attitude of caring, valuing and recognising thecustomers of irrespective of race, creed, gender, religion and disability, the GreaterTzaneen Local municipality will have determined its altitude.The two primary functions of Batho Pele are, namely: The delivery of services to citizens who should be treated as customers, whereby it will be possible for those citizens to hold public officials individually accountable for the delivery and quality of public services; andIt is imperative to note that usually, once the citizenry is regarded as customers forthe entity, they in turn have a buy-in and develop a sense of ownership of the entity.Such that accountability will not be viewed as witch hunt by and to persons who areholding public office when questioned about service delivery. Channelling commitment of public officials to introduce customer focused ways of executing their functions and doing their work.A need for the employees of the Greater Tzaneen Local municipality to introducecustomer-oriented cadreship and stewardship when performing the daily activitiesthrough feedback in a form of complaints and compliments from the customers. Thistherefore leads to the discussion of these three Batho Pele Principles in detailhereunder.Although there are officially eight principles, some provinces have their ownadditional provincial principles. For example, KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo haveeleven Batho Pele principles including the usual eight, namely: Increasing responsiveness,The customers’ direct experience of your service is what matters here. Show howquickly and politely you respond to customers. A record and indication of policy andtraining materials; standards for responses to the letters, phone calls and personal 14
  • callers; contact logs (including e-mails); and comments from customers. An inclusionof the policy and practice on the wearing of name badges, giving names over thephone and displaying photo boards will go a long way. Encouraging innovation,This Batho Pele principle was an addition to the original list as a result of many of theparticipating departments innovative and creative ways of "doing things better."Innovation can be new ways of providing better service, cutting costs, improvingconditions, streamlining and generally making changes which tie in with the spirit ofBatho Pele. It is equally important to reward excellence of service delivery throughword of mouth and /or token of appreciation. Rewarding excellence.It is also about rewarding the staff who "go the extra mile" in making it all happen.Impact means looking at the benefits which we have provided for our customers bothinternal and external -its how the nine principles link together to show how we haveimproved our overall service delivery.3.2.10. MUNICIPAL FINANCE MANAGEMENT ACT (Act 56 Of 2003)The Act was promulgated in 2003 with the sole purpose of securing proper andlasting management of municipal financial affairs. Van der Walt (2004:323)postulates that the Act also ensures that officials entrusted with the management ofmunicipal finances and supply chains undertake their responsibilities in aresponsible, transparent, ethical and professional. Municipal Finance ManagementAct,2003 section 62 (1) provides that the Accounting Officer (Municipal Manager)must ensure that the finances and resources of the municipality are managedeffectively, efficiently and economically.3.3. CONCLUSIONThis Chapter discussed the Legislative and Regulatory Frameworks that underpinsimplementation of Batho Pele principles in public sector, in this instance in the 15
  • Greater Tzaneen Local municipality. It can summed up as the mere existence andmention of legislative and regulatory frameworks without concrete usage will notrealize what they initially promulgated for. The following chapter explains the designand methodological activities undertaken to authenticate the collected data.3.4. LIST OF REFERENCESBooksBland. L ,& Rubin, S. (1997). Budgeting – A guide for local governments.Washington D.C.De Villiers, D. (1989). Community Expectations Of Ethical Behaviour Of PublicOfficials. SAIPA. Vol. 24. No. 4.Golombiwiski, R., & Robin, J.( 1997). Public Budgeting and Finance. 4th Edition.Revised and Expanded. New York.Heyns, J. (1986). Theological ethics. Part 2/1. Social ethics. London: DRC BookTrade.Van der Waldt, G.(2004). Managing Performance In The Public Sector:Concepts, Considerations And Challenges. Lansdowne: Juta &Company.Published And / Or Unpublished Research Reports, Official Documents AndPapersKhoza, V. (2002). The Implementation Of The Batho Pele Principles FromPatients’ Experiences. University Of South Africa.Raga, K. and Taylor, D. (2005).Impact Of Accountability And Ethics On PublicService Delivery : A South African Perspective Nelson Mandela MetropolitanUniversity, Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa .Republic Of South Africa. (1997). Department of Public Service and Administration.White Paper of Transforming Public Service Delivery (Batho Pele White Paper)(No. 1459 of 1997). Pretoria: RSA Government Printer.Republic Of South Africa. (1995). White Paper On The Transformation Of ThePublic Service (1995). RSA Government Printer.Republic Of South Africa. (1996). The Constitution of the Republic of SouthAfrica (Act 108 of 1996). Pretoria: RSA Government Printer. 16
  • Republic Of South Africa. (2000). The Promotion Of Access To Information Act(Act 2 Of 2000). RSA Government Printer.Republic Of South Africa. (2000). Municipal Structures Act (Act 17 Of 2000). RSAGovernment Printer.Republic Of South Africa. (2000). Municipal Systems Act (Act 32 Of 2000). RSAGovernment Printer .Republic Of South Africa. (2000). The Promotion Of Administrative Justice Act(Act 3 Of 2000). RSA Government Printer.Republic Of South Africa. (2003). Batho Pele Handbook. Pretoria: RSAGovernment Printer.Republic Of South Africa. (2003). Municipal Finance Management Act (Act 56 Of2003). RSA Government Printer.Republic Of South Africa. (2005). State Of Public Service Report. RSAGovernment Printer.Republic Of South Africa. (2006).State Of The Public Service Report: Assessingthe Capacity of the State to Deliver. RSA Government Printer.Republic Of South Africa. (2007). State Of Public Service Report : Implementationof the Promotion of Access to Information Act, (Act 2 of 2000). RSA GovernmentPrinter.Republic Of South Africa.(2007). State Of Public Service Report: 9 ConstitutionalValues and Principles. RSA Government Printer.Republic Of South Africa. (1994).The White Paper On Reconstruction AndDevelopment (Notice No 1954 Of 1994). RSA Government Printer. 17