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  • A group is two or more interdependent individuals who interact to achieve particular objectives. A work group interacts primarily to share information and make decisions that will help group members to perform their on-the-job responsibilities. A work team generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. The figure above highlights the differences between work groups and work teams. In an effort to obtain synergy that can boost performance, many organizations have recently restructured work processes around teams. The use of teams creates the potential for an organization to generate greater outputs with no increase in inputs. But there is nothing “magical” in the creation of teams that assures the achievement of positive synergy. In addition, merely calling a group a team does not automatically increase its performance.
  • Problem-Solving Teams share ideas and suggest improvements to work processes and methods; however, such teams rarely have the authority to implement their suggestions. Self-Managed Work Teams are autonomous, select their own members, and implement and take responsibility for their suggestions. These teams consist of ten to fifteen people who assume the responsibilities of their former supervisors: such as, control over the pace of work, organization of breaks, determination of work assignments, choice of inspection procedures, and choosing and evaluating members. Virtual teams use computer technology to enable physically dispersed team members to achieve a common goal. Virtual teams do all the things that other teams do. Three primary factors differentiate virtual teams from face-to-face teams: (1) the absence of paraverbal and nonverbal cues, (2) limited social context, and (3) the ability to overcome time and space constraints. On cross-functional teams , equally ranked employees from different functional areas work together to accomplish a task. Two examples are task forces and committees composed of members from across departmental lines. These teams expedite the following: exchanging ideas from diverse areas within or between organizations, developing new ideas and solving problems, and coordinating complex projects.
  • Effective team members communicate openly and honestly, confront differences and resolve conflicts, and sublimate personal goals for the good of the team. Because an employee’s success is no longer determined by individual performance, some employees will resist working on teams. So, the challenge of creating team players will be greatest where (1) the national culture is highly individualistic and (2) teams are being introduced into an environment that has valued individual achievement in the past. While some workers will not be trainable, the following summarizes several methods for turning individuals into team players. • Selection. Ensure that individuals can fulfill their team roles as well as satisfy the technical requirements of the job. • Training. Even independent workers can be trained to become team players by helping them to improve their problem-solving, communication, negotiation, conflict management, and coaching skills. • Rewards. The reward system must encourage cooperation rather than competition. Promotions, raises, and other forms of recognition should be awarded for collaboration and team work. Furthermore, individual excellence should be balanced with selfless contributions to the team.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 團隊 (team) 的意義 <ul><li>一小群擁有專業技能的人,為執行共同目的、工作目標與方向而彼此相互依存。 </li></ul><ul><li>團體與團隊的區別 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>團隊的基礎是共同的承諾,有了共同承諾才能結合成追求團體成就的有力單位。 </li></ul></ul>
    • 2. Share information Neutral (may be negative) Individual Random and varied Goal Synergy Accountability Skills Collective performance Positive Individual and mutual Complementary Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams Work Groups Work Teams
    • 3. 團體  團隊 <ul><li>領導成為一種分擔 </li></ul><ul><li>責任從個人轉變為個人與團體共有 </li></ul><ul><li>團體擁有自己的目的與任務 </li></ul><ul><li>問題解決成為生活的方式而不僅是部分時間活動 </li></ul><ul><li>效率由團體共同成果與產物來衡量 </li></ul>
    • 4. Why Have Teams Become So Popular? <ul><li>Performance on complex tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization of employee talents </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility and responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational properties </li></ul>
    • 5. 有效團隊的特徵 1 <ul><li>清楚的目標━高效能團隊能夠對所欲達成的目標有清晰的了解,並且相信此一目標能夠體現有價值或是重要的結果。 </li></ul><ul><li>攸關的技能━有達成目標所需的既能與能力,以及與他人合作良好所應具備的人格特徵。 </li></ul><ul><li>互相信任━成員們應相信彼此的正直、人格以及能力。 </li></ul>
    • 6. <ul><li>一致的承諾━有效團隊的成員會顯露強烈的忠誠以及對團隊的奉獻精神,他們願意為了幫助團隊成功而作任何事情。 </li></ul><ul><li>良好的溝通━成員得以既定與清晰的形式彼此互相傳達訊息。 </li></ul><ul><li>合適領導━幫忙闡明目標,克服惰性,改變現狀,增加團隊同仁的自信心, 幫助同仁充分發揮潛能。 </li></ul><ul><li>外部和內部支持━內部而言,必須提供一個健全的結構 (infra-structure) ,適當的訓練、團隊成員得以衡量其整體績效的評估系統、 辨認及獎勵團隊行動的誘因方案、以及支持性的人力資源系統 。 </li></ul>有效團隊的特徵 2
    • 7. 問題 <ul><li>我們是個拼經濟的團隊… </li></ul><ul><li>某大學連續三位教授猝死… </li></ul>
    • 8. 工作團隊效率的判斷標準 <ul><li>工作表現 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>指組織內部或組織外部,對顧客的一切作為,被對方接受之程度。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>團隊的作為包括產品、服務、提供決策、或特殊表現…。 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>生命力 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>成員對團隊經驗的滿意度 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>繼續奉獻心力的意願 </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. 有效團隊的建立 一致承諾 有效領導 外在支持 明確目標 好的溝通 互信 攸關技巧 談判技巧 內部支持
    • 10. 增進團隊工作效率的方法 <ul><li>合作 </li></ul><ul><li>信任 </li></ul><ul><li>凝聚力 </li></ul>
    • 11. 合作 <ul><li>在提高成就感與生產力方面,合作比競爭或個人努力的效果更理想。 </li></ul>
    • 12. 信任 <ul><li>定義 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>對他人意圖與行為的彼此相信。 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>當我們見到他人對我們表現出信任行為時,我們也會相對地更信任他們,反之在對方不信任我們或做出背信的行為時,我們也就不再相信對方。 </li></ul>
    • 13. 建立信任感的方法 <ul><li>溝通 </li></ul><ul><li>支持 </li></ul><ul><li>尊重 </li></ul><ul><li>公平 </li></ul><ul><li>可預期性:對日常的業務應保持言行一致,及可預期性。 </li></ul><ul><li>工作才幹:表現個人的經營理念、技術能力與專業性以建立才幹方面的形象。 </li></ul>
    • 14. 團隊範例 <ul><li>品管圈 </li></ul><ul><li>不可能的任務 (Mission Impossible) </li></ul><ul><li>產品協同開發 </li></ul>
    • 15. 跨功能 團隊 自我管理 團隊 問題解決 團隊 虛擬團隊 團隊的類型
    • 16. 問題解決的團隊 (problem-solving teams) <ul><li>由五至十二個同部門的員工組成,討論如何改善工作程序及方法的過程中,分享創意或者提供建議。但很少能有權力單方面去施行他們所提出的建議行動。 </li></ul>
    • 17. 自我管理的工作團隊 (self-managed work teams) <ul><li>不僅能夠解決問題,也能夠施行該團隊所提出 的建議方案,而且也會對於實行結果負起全責。其責任包含控制工作進度、決定工作的分配及監督程序之選擇等,而且績效由團員自己互相評估。 </li></ul>
    • 18. 跨功能性團隊 (cross-functional teams) <ul><li>是由組織中同一層級但不同工作領域的員工,為完成共同任務而組成。他們共同交換資訊、發展創意、解決問題以及協調聯絡複雜專案。 </li></ul>
    • 19. 虛擬團隊 (virtual teams) <ul><li>利用電腦科技將分散各地的成員結合起來,以完成共同目標。 </li></ul><ul><li>與一般團隊的主要差異 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>欠缺附屬口語與非口語的線索 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>有限的社交脈絡 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>能克服時空的限制 </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. 團隊績效能高於個人的情境因素 團體成員的依賴度 工作複雜度 目的與目標
    • 21. 建構有效團隊 的因素 Process Work Design Composition Context
    • 22. Work Design <ul><li>自由度與自主性 </li></ul><ul><li>運用不同技能與才能的機會 </li></ul><ul><li>工作的明確性 </li></ul><ul><li>工作的重要性 </li></ul>
    • 23. Composition Size Personality Preference for Teams Ability Roles and Diversity Flexibility
    • 24. 工作設計—成員能力 <ul><li>技術性的專業技能 </li></ul><ul><li>解決問題與做決策的技能 </li></ul><ul><li>良的傾聽與回饋技巧 </li></ul>
    • 25. 問題 <ul><li>一粒老鼠屎,壞了一鍋粥 </li></ul>
    • 26. 工作設計—性格特質 <ul><li>大五模式 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>團隊成員若具外向、親和、誠實及情緒穩定之特質,則團隊績效能呈現出較高的管理評價。 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>性格特質中的變異數要比平均數來得重要。 </li></ul>
    • 27. 團隊的主要角色 團隊 創造者 推動者 製造者 聯繫者 顧問 維持者 評估者 組織者 控制者
    • 28. 工作設計—團隊規模 <ul><li>小團隊缺乏多元化觀點 </li></ul><ul><li>大團隊協調互動困難 </li></ul><ul><li>適當的人數約為 5~12 人之間 </li></ul>
    • 29. 工作設計—成員的彈性 <ul><li>團隊成員擁有能相互完成彼此任務的彈性,可大幅增進團隊的適應能力,減少對單一成員的依賴。 </li></ul>
    • 30. 背景 <ul><li>充分的資源 </li></ul><ul><li>領導與結構 </li></ul><ul><li>績效評估與獎賞系統 </li></ul>
    • 31. 共同目的與 承諾 團隊工作的程序 衡突水準 團隊功效 特定的目標 社會賦閒
    • 32. 發展團隊成員 甄選 獎酬 訓練
    • 33. Contemporary Issues in Managing Teams Mature Teams Total Quality Management Workforce Diversity
    • 34. 勞動力多元化的優、缺點 <ul><li>多樣的觀點 </li></ul><ul><li>以更開放的態度面對新觀念 </li></ul><ul><li>多樣的詮釋 </li></ul><ul><li>提升創造力 </li></ul><ul><li>更大的彈性空間 </li></ul><ul><li>增加問題解決的技能 </li></ul>優點 <ul><li>模糊 </li></ul><ul><li>複雜 </li></ul><ul><li>混淆 </li></ul><ul><li>傳達不清 </li></ul><ul><li>難以取得一致的共識 </li></ul><ul><li>難以對特定行動意見一致 </li></ul>缺點
    • 35. 老化團隊的問題 <ul><li>熟悉引發怠惰 </li></ul><ul><li>成功導致自滿 </li></ul><ul><li>對新觀點與創新持有保守心態 </li></ul><ul><li>容易陷入團體迷思 </li></ul><ul><li>早期的成功導因於處理任務簡單,促使成員不願改變現的系統。 </li></ul>
    • 36. 老化團隊的振興 <ul><li>讓成員準備好處理老化的問題 </li></ul><ul><li>提供充電訓練 </li></ul><ul><li>鼓勵團隊視發展為經驗的持續學習與累積 </li></ul>

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