Class  activity 11 march 2012
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Class activity 11 march 2012

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A presentation on HIV&AIDS awareness. It useful for the Life-Orientation Educators and even anyone beacuse it has a very crucial information that can help anyone.

A presentation on HIV&AIDS awareness. It useful for the Life-Orientation Educators and even anyone beacuse it has a very crucial information that can help anyone.

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  • Dr. Robert Gallo of the National Cancer Institute had isolated the virus which caused AIDS. Dr. Luc Montagnier Pasteur Institute in ParisThe scientific protagonists finally agreed to share credit for the discovery of HIV, and in 1986, both the French and the US names (LAV and HTLV-III) were dropped in favor of the new term human immunodeficiency virus
  • ABCs of prevention: A = abstinence, B = be faithful, C = use condoms (correctly & cosistently)

Class  activity 11 march 2012 Class activity 11 march 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • HIV/ AIDSThe 21st century pandemic Dr Soumar Dutta CDMO Guwahati Refinery Hospital
  • HIV/AIDS refers to… “Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome”(AIDS) or a set of symptoms andinfections resulting from the damage to thehuman immune system caused by theHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).This condition progressively reduces theeffectiveness of the immune system andleaves individuals susceptible toopportunistic infections and tumors. 2
  • Basic Definitions And MeaningsWhat is HIV?HIV is “Human Immunodeficiency Virus”,it is thevirus that cause AIDS.Human means that it affects only humans andlives only in humans.The virus does not live intoilets, mosquitoes, cups, spoons, on bed sheetsor towels that people with HIV might have used.Immunodeficiency refers to lack(deficiency) orbreakdown of immune system. The “immunesystem” is the body’s resistance or the body’sdefense force for fighting off infections. 3
  • History of HIV/AIDSHIV came from a similar virus found in chimpanzees - SIV.HIV probably entered the United States around 1970CDC in 1981 noticed unusual clusters of Kaposi’s sarcomain gay men in NY and San Francisco, which led to thedisease to be called GRID (Gay Related ImmuneDeficiency).By 1982 the disease was apparent in heterosexuals andwas renamed AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency).1984- Scientists(Dr. Luc Montagnier, Dr. Robert Gallo)identify HIV (initially called LAV or HTLV-III) as the cause ofAIDS1987- AZT is the first drug approved for treating AIDS http://www.avert.org/aids-timeline.htm
  • The Origin of AIDS and HIV HIV came from a similar virus found in chimpanzees - SIV. HIV probably entered the United States around 1970.the first recognized case of AIDS was in the early 1980s. HIV is a lentevirus (slow virus),which in turn is a part of a larger group of viruses known as retro virus 5
  • Epidemiology Males>females Occurs in all ages and ethnic groups All areas of the country are affected In some city inner areas, as many as 50% of males are HIV positive AIDS is now the second leading cause of death for all men aged 25-44 years(Unintended injuries is #1 and heart disease is #3 for this age group) 6
  • HIV Transmission• HIV enters the bloodstream through: Open Cuts Breaks in the skin Mucous membranes Direct injection 7
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  • You wont get HIV/Aids from:• Air you breathe• Public facilities like buses, telephones, drinking fountains• Touching, shaking hands or hugging• Sharing food, plates, cutlery, toiletseats or baths• Sharing clothing, linen or towels• Public swimming pools• Pets or incests like mosquitoes and bedbugs• Team sports unless there is bleeding wounds• Restaurants of cafeterias• Sharing a house with HIV person• Going to the same school or church• Kissing• Donating blood
  • You might get HIV/ Aids from:• Having unprotected sex• Having oral sex with sores in your mouth• Mother to unborn child• Using contaminated drug needles• Sharing razors or other sharp objects and toothbrushes• Rape or sexual abuse• Receiving contaminated donor blood
  • HIV AIDSWhen a persons immune system is overwhelmed by AIDS, the symptoms can include: extreme weakness or fatigue rapid weight loss frequent fevers that last for several weeks with no explanation heavy sweating at night swollen lymph glands minor infections that cause skin rashes and mouth, genital, and anal sores white spots in the mouth or throat chronic diarrhea a cough that wont go away trouble remembering things
  • Signs and symptoms List of symptoms of HIV/AIDS:Early infection: – More common to develop a brief flu-like illness 2-4 weeks after becoming infected. Signs and symptoms may include: – Fever – Headache – Sore throat – Swollen lymph glands – Rash
  • Signs and symptomsLater infection : May remain symptom-free for eight or nine years or more You may develop mild infections or chronic symptoms such as: ◦ Swollen lymph nodes — often one of the first signs of HIV infection ◦ Diarrhea ◦ Weight loss ◦ Fever ◦ Cough and shortness of breath
  • At Risk Populations Patients who are sexually active Homosexual and/or bisexual Pregnancy Commercial sex workers Newly diagnosed with tuberculosis Intravenous drug users Healthcare workers with exposure via needle sticks or other occupational exposure injuries
  • Prevention of TransmissionAvoidance of direct contact withsexual fluids Abstinence Safer sex & condom useInfection control practicesSafer blood supplyMother-to-child (MTC)IVDU
  • Prevention Theres no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. Prevention includes educating yourself about HIV and avoiding any behavior that allows HIV-infected fluids — blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk — into your body.HIV-negative Individual prevention: Educate yourself and others. Know the HIV status of any sexual partner. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. Consider male circumcision. Use a clean needle. Be cautious about blood products in certain countries. Get regular screening tests. Dont become complacent. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005/DSECTION=prevention
  • Prevention HIV positive individual prevention: Follow safe-sex practices. Tell your sexual partners you have HIV. If your partner is pregnant, tell her you have HIV. Tell others who need to know. Dont share needles or syringes. Dont donate blood or organs. Dont share razor blades or toothbrushes. If youre pregnant, get medical care right away.http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005/DSECTION=prevention
  • Prevention Of HIV/AIDSTheres no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. Prevention includes educating yourself about HIV and avoiding any behavior that allows HIV-infected fluids — blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk — into your body.HIV-negative Individual prevention: Educate yourself and others. Know the HIV status of any sexual partner. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. Consider male circumcision. Use a clean needle. Be cautious about blood products. Get regular screening tests. 18
  • Prevention Of HIV/AIDSHIV positive individual prevention: Follow safe-sex practices. Tell your sexual partners you have HIV. If your partner is pregnant, tell her you have HIV. Tell others who need to know. Dont share needles or syringes. Dont donate blood or organs. Dont share razor blades or toothbrushes. If youre pregnant, get medical care right away. 19
  • ABC Strategy Avoid exposure bstinence Mutual faithfulness Reduce exposure e faithful (Partner reduction) Block exposure effectively ondom use 20
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  • Reference List Vistacion, T. (2005). Principles of microbiology. Salvation. WHO. (2009, August 15). http://aids.about.com. Retrieved August 15, 2009, from World Health Organisation: http://aids.about.com Kevin, H. (c2008.). Health issues confronting minority men who have sex with men . New York :Springer. http://www.mayoclinic.com 22