The 21st Century Environment• Urbanization • Increased Access to• Ethnic & Religious Technology Conflict • Increased U.S. Reliance on• Asymmetric Conflict Force Projection• Simultaneous SASO • Reduced Warning Time Operations • Joint, Combined, Multi-• Weapons Agency Operations Proliferation/WMD • Force Protection an Imperative U.S. Army Forces Must Be… U.S. Army Forces Must Be… Responsive --Deployable --Mobile --Versatile --Combat Responsive Deployable Mobile Versatile Combat Effective Effective
The Need: Solve the Heavy vs. Light dilemma-- Make U.S. Army Forces Dominant for 21st Century Operations• Air Deploy Rapidly — One Brigade Combat Team in 96 Hours• Be Lethal — Perform Successful Combat or Stability Operations on Arrival; Panama, 1989 not TF Smith, 1950• Win the First Engagement — Accomplish the Mission With Minimum Personnel Casualties and Equipment Losses: 4th Generation warfare• Achieve Tactical 3D/2D Mobility — Have the Tactical Mobility and Agility to Conduct Decisive Operations Against a Mobile Enemy Force• Sustain the Force — Conduct Sustained Operations With Minimum Deployed CSS Heavy Light Deployability – + Lethality + – Survivability + – Tactical Mobility + – Sustainability – + Can a Medium Weight Organization Answer the Need? Can a Medium Weight Organization Answer the Need?
Missions of the BCT• Rapidly Air Deploy Under a Division or Corps HQ as Part of a Joint Force• Prevent, Contain or Stabilize Crises Through Presence and Military Operations• Determine Favorable Outcome of Small Scale Contingencies (SSCs)• Act as the Combat Force Guarantor in Security and Support Operations (SASO) as Part of a U.S. or Multinational Force• Participate, with Augmentation, in Major Theater Wars (MTWs)
Operational Requirements for the BCT Maneuver Maneuver • • Cross-Country 2D Mobility in All Terrain Cross-Country 2D Mobility in All Terrain • • Speed & Range to Maintain High Tempo of Speed & Range to Maintain High Tempo of Operations Operations Command & Control Command & Control • AT Capability for Hard Targets and defeat • AT Capability for Hard Targets and defeat • • Common Operational Picture Enemy Armor in meeting engagements Common Operational Picture Enemy Armor in meeting engagements • • ABCS/Family of Systems • • Crew Protection Against Artillery, Mines and ABCS/Family of Systems Crew Protection Against Artillery, Mines and • • Enroute Mission Planning & Small Arms; off-road mobility to avoid ambush Enroute Mission Planning & Small Arms; off-road mobility to avoid ambush Rehearsal System • • Infantry-Heavy for Operations in Restrictive Rehearsal System Infantry-Heavy for Operations in Restrictive and Urban Terrain and Urban TerrainIntelligence Intelligence••Real Time Access to Joint ISR Systems Fire Support Fire Support Real Time Access to Joint ISR Systems • • Target Acquisition Overmatch••RSTA Squadron with UAV Capability Target Acquisition Overmatch RSTA Squadron with UAV Capability • • Position Location & TargetVital for CCIR Position Location & Target Vital for CCIR Designation Capability• Split-Base Access to National/Theater Designation Capability • Split-Base Access to National/Theater • Digital Call-for-FireIntelligence • Digital Call-for-Fire Intelligence••Unattended Sensor Capability Unattended Sensor Capability Combat Service Combat Service • • Optimize Counter Fire Capability Optimize Counter Fire Capability • 120mm Mortars Organic to CO/BN Support Support • 120mm Mortars Organic to CO/BN • • Move Faster than enemy Move Faster than enemy • • Reduce Logistic Footprint Reduce Logistic Footprint • • Lighten the Load Lighten the Load
The BCT in Deployment and Entry OperationsPreparation & Predeployment Deployment • Regular Cross-Training of • Maneuver Battalions and EDREs OBJ • Ammunition and Equipment Strategic ISB Tactical • Uploaded and Staged • Airlift Load Plans Reflect Unit • Deployment Assault Packages • BCT Constitutes Division Lead Force • Air Deploy on 18-Hours Notice • Maneuver Units in Platoon Packages • by tactical airland into forward • BCT Augmented With Division Assets • landing strips secured first by • According to METT-TC • forced-entry units • Intermediate Staging Base (ISB) May Be • Required Entry Operations • BCT May Be Initial Entry Force or Follow Forced-Entry Forces • BCT Occupies and Expands Lodgement • Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RSTA) • Elements Operate Beyond Lodgement
The BCT in Defensive Operations BCT Expands the Lodgement• BCT reinforces Assault entry force in • Provides Greater Lethality and Mobility • UAV Plt Expands Area of SurveillanceLodgement • Enhances Full Spectrum• Mounted AFV Force Is Capable of Fast- Capability • RECCE TroopsPaced Operations Obtain Info on Operational• Medium AFV platforms provide Lethality Environment • RSTA Sqdn Providesand Survivability Early Warning – Operates Day/Night• RSTA Operations Provide Security & – Develops Situation AwarenessSituational Awareness BCT Defends in Complex BCT Conducts Area Defense Terrain •Economy of Force •MAV Repositions •Defense of Infantry Fighting Positions • Limited Objectv • 120mm Mortars Counter • HIMARs Conducts Attack Counterfire Provide Fire Support
The BCT in Offensive OperationsAssigned & Supporting C4ISR BCT Employs Mobility, Speed &Assets Provide Real-Time All Weather Capability toIntelligence to Set the Conditions Enhance Maneuver, Achievingfor Decisive Operations Surprise2D Mobility, Speed & Firepower Enhanced Protection, Range &Allow Concentration of Forces Trafficability Facilitate Flexibilityto Overwhelm the Enemy and Promote AudacityCross-country off roads
The BCT in Stability & Support Operations Combination of Armored Fighting Large Infantry Presence, Armored Vehicles & Infantry Provides Mobility & ISR Assets Increase Visible Deterrence & Facilitates Coverage of AOR Transition to Combat Precision Weapons Systems Add-on Armor Capability Avoid Non-combatant Enhances Force Protection Casualties & Collateral Damage
BCT Design Principles• Balanced Deployability and Battlespace 2D/3D Dominance• Capable of Full-Spectrum Operations• Organic Combat, Combat Support and Combat Service Support• Organic Combined-Arms at the Company Team Level• Robust Combination of C4ISR, Direct-Fire and Indirect Fire Weapons• Significant Tactical 2D/3D Mobility and Agility• Combination of Active and Passive Force Protection Measures• Decisive Action Achieved Through Mounted or Dismounted Assault• Reduced Sustainment Requirements• Minimal In-Theater Personnel and Logistics Footprint•
Initial BCT Organization X I II II I I IIHHC SPT I I I MI
AFV Platform AssessmentNon-Developmental Tracked Light Combat Vehicles versus developmental LAV-III wheeled armored cars Wheels Tracks IFVLLAV-I I I MGS M113A3 LAV 300 Strike 1: Too Heavy for C-130 deployment to FLSs M8 AGS LAV AG M113A4 MTVL Strike 2: Too large for medium class deployment 4-6 per C-17, MGS too high for airland/airdrop without costly $ R&D MEETS ALL BCT REQUIREMENTS Strike 3: Not available NOW
Closing Brigade/BCT With CS/CSS Slice Over 5000 NM in 96 Hours Deployment Comparison X II RAC: 13.5 Force XXI II C-17 Equiv Infantry 479 C-17 Fleet: 230 Brigade (M2 BFV Sorties MECH) II X II Tracked BCT 223-278 x C-17 Sorties M113A3/4 and RAC: 7.8 FLS M8 AGS C-17 Equiv Fleet 133 Tracked 1025 x C-130 AFVs can fly Sorties by C-130sTracked MAVs can into FLSs,deploy using plentiful Heavier BFVsC-130s and LAV-IIIs RAC: 9.6 X C-17 Equiv cannot (Armored Cars) Fleet : 164 LAV-III w/MGS 342 C- 17 LPT Sorties RAC = Reception Tracked BCT has Better C-17 or Tracked BCT has Better C-17 or Airfield Capacity C-130 Deployability than a LAV-III C-130 Deployability than a LAV-III wheeled armored car BCT wheeled armored car BCT
General Situation• Country Red Invades Blue with Armored Forces• Orange Offers Intermediate Staging Base Landing & Overflight Routes• NCA Directs Deployment to Blue to Defeat Red and Restore the Border• DRB of 25th ID Deploys from Fort Lewis, Washington Orange Blue Red Cuidado La Plata
Early-Entry Operations • Brigade Deploys 5,000 Miles by C-17 to Cuidado • Cuidado Airfield Capacity (MOG) Is Fifteen C-17 Aircraft • Task Organization – BDE HQ – MI Co – 3X INF BN – ENG Co – 1X RSTA SQDN – SIG Co – 1X HIMARS BTRY – AT Co – 1X FSB – Upon Arrival in Cuidado, BDE Stages onto C-130 Aircraft and Deploys 500 Miles Into Assault Forward Landing Strip Vicinity La Plata . . Assault Strip Capacity (MOG) Is Four C-130 AircraftDeployment Comparison Tracked BCT Wheeled Car BCT C-17: 2¼ hrs. on the Ground M113A3/4 + M8 AGS LAV-III C-130: ½ hour on the Ground Airfield Sorties Sorties Closure (hrs) Closure (hrs) Tracked M113A3/4 + M8 C-17 Airlift 223-278 58 (1) 342 67 AGS BCTs can fly into forward battle positions, C-130 Airlift 839 130(2) Not capable Not capable LAV-IIIs cannot (1) Assumes sufficient C-17s, 2-1/4 hours on the ground, 12 hours flight time, and 4 hours to clear airfield (2) Assumes sufficient C-130s, 1/2 hour on the ground, 1.6 hours flight time, and 2 hours to clear airfield
BCT Combat Operations• Brigade Occupies La Plata• Enemy Stay Behind Forces in La Plata Engage Brigade with Small Arms, RPG & AT Mines• Infantry Battalions Begin Clearing Operations Force Survivability Small-Arms RPG A.T Mines MGS Ready 105mm Rounds Tracks High High High Dismounts/Carrier Wheels Low Low Low LAV-III 9 LAV LPT 8 (Must stop to shoot) M113A3 11 (+ 18%) M8 AGS 21 (+ 150%) A4 MTVL 15 (+ 40%) Tracks Provide Increased Force Tracks Provide Increased Force Survivability and Combat Power Survivability and Combat Power
“FIRST BASE”: THE U.S. ARMY ALREADY HAS THOUSANDS OF 11-TON M113A3-type TRACKED AFVs IN SERVICE/STORAGE TO FORM INTERIM BRIGADE COMBAT TEAMS! THAT ARE: C-130 AIR-TRANSPORTABLECOMBAT-PROVEN UNDER ALL CONDITIONS!*Vietnam *Panama *Entebbe *East Timor *U.S. Army Europe IRF
U.S. ARMY EUROPEAN COMMAND “TRANSFORMS” ITSELF TO C-130 AIR- DEPLOYABILITY IMMEDIATELY WITH EXISTING M113A3 GAVIN TRACKED AFVs, January 2000 "The Army is a learning, thinking, adaptable organization," General John M. Keane U.S. Army Vice Chief of Staff www.hqusareur.army.mil/htmlinks/www.geocities.com/equipmentshop/m113a3setaf.htm
“SECOND BASE”: U.S. ARMY 11-TON M113A3 and M8 Armored Gun System type TRACKED AFVs ARE ALREADY82d Airborne TESTED/CERTIFIED: Division C-130 PARACHUTE AIR- DROPPABLE FACILITATES 3D BATTLEFIELD MANEUVERS!
“THIRD BASE”! M113A3/4s are available NOW forunits to be made combat-ready as U.S. ArmyEuropean Command has done with its ImmediateReady Force (IRF); BILLIONS SAVED can be used toupgrade M113A3/4-M8 AGS type vehicles to exceedIBCT requirements Remote weapon station and Rubber, single-piece “Band- squad Tracks” for low-vibration, leader low-noise, no maintenance, displays no HETs, light-on-third- world-roads, high road speeds Applique armors to defeat Rocket Propelled Grenades (RPGs), autocannon fire without cross-country mobility loss, gunshields
“BASES LOADED”! M113A3/4s can be heli- transported by CH-47Ds101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division Maximizing tracked vehicle weight/volume efficiency, Army CH-47D/F Chinook helicopters can air-transport M113A3/4s over mines, obstacles, avoiding road ambushes as the British Army did with its Scimitar light tanks to be the first NATO force into Kosovo in 1999. British Army Air-Mech into Kosovo FACILITATES 3D TACTICAL BATTLE MANEUVERS!
“SLUGGER AT BAT”: M113A3 /4 Infantry situational awareness, security and firepower by ability to fight mounted or dismounted if the situation dictates...M8 AGS can shoot-on-the-move (LAV-III MGSmust stop to fire) to kill enemy tanks as well as blast buildings, bunkers, dug-in positions
“HE IS A CLUTCH HITTER”: M113A3/4 M8 AGS Tracked Mobility to advance in the face of enemy fire Tracks overcome fire and obstacles... LAV-III’s Rubber-tired Wheels vulnerable!“Run-flats” at 5mph for 5miles no life insurance incombat
“HE HAS BEAT THE ODDS”: TRACKED VEHICLES ARE FARTracks pull MORE 2D CROSS-COUNTRYwheels out MOBILE THAN WHEELEDfrom the ARMORED CARS TO AVOIDmud…save ROAD-SIDE AMBUSHES, MINES,them from roadambush... OBSTACLES! Tracks swim, fight, move by land, sea or air!
Air-Mech Vehicles = High Terrain AgilityTerrain Agility FormulaTerrain Agility Formula Cliffs, Swamps & Vehicle Vehicle Tight Urban AreasWidth X Length X WeightWidth X Length X WeightDivided by Surface PSIDivided by Surface PSI les All-Terrain *Smaller is better *Smaller is better ic eh rban h-V t & U X/Country, Light Forrest ec rres Wide Urban Terrain r-M s, Fo in Roads & Tank Trails Ai ou rraValley Floor ain Te nt M ou HEAVY AFVs
“WHEN THE GAME IS ON THE LINE”: TRACKED VEHICLES ARE ACTUALLYLIGHTER AND 28% MORE WEIGHT/VOLUME EFFICIENT FOR AIR-TRANSPORT THAN WHEELED ARMORED CARS! (Official U.S. Army Fort Knox power point slide)
Tracked Vehicles are the “Stealth Fighters” of future ground combat* Tracks can fully exploit C4ISR situational awareness viaterrain cover & concealment using off-road cross-countrytravel through vegetation to remain undetected/targeted bythe enemy; maximum 2D agility* Tracks can avoid likely enemies on roads/trails with brush-busting, obstacle crossing, x-country (omni-directional 1-60mph) mobility and 100-500 mph aircraft transportability: 3Dagility* Tracks have lower silhouettes than wheels, blending withthe terrain/vegetation; masked from visual, infared detectionby applique camouflage* Existing Tracked AFVs are simple to convert to hybridelectric drive and band-tracks to operate silently cross-country or on roads at high speeds to achieve surpise* New Tracked AFVs can be made out of non-metallics to beinvisible to ground surveillance radars, furthering thestealth synergism
(Official U.S. Army TACOM power point slides) BAND TRACKSystem ApproachContinuously molded rubberIntegrated drive mechanismAramid & polyester lateral reinforcementSteel cord longitudinal reinforcementPlastic sprocket and idler
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS• Developed band track for 12 ton vehicle • Durability tested summer 1997 - YPG (2908 miles)• Developed improved band track for 15 ton vehicle • Performance tested summer 1998 - YPG • Acoustic & IR test summer 1998 - Camp Grayling, MI • Projectile & mine blast tested summer 1998 - APG• Development of band track for 25 ton vehicle is ongoing
Applique visual and Forward Looking InfaRed (FLIR) camouflage kits available NOW off-the-shelf*Provisions forcamouflage netpoles like WarriorMICV*Thellie strips*Heat retentioncoverings*Dust skirts
The Hybrid-Electric M113A3 LIVES TODAY! Official U.S. Army TACOM power point slideNote: in operational M113A3s we suggest batteries placed outside left/right of the hull under applique armor tiles
Hybrid-Electric Drive M113A3s ready NOW! Official U.S. Army TACOM power point slide
“THE TYING AND WINNING RUNS ARE ON BASE”: Tactics, Techniques and Procedures already in place to support M113A3/4 and M8 Armored Gun System (AGS) operations FM 17-18 8 March 1994 FM 7-7 March 1985www.adtdl.army.mil/cgi- www.adtdl.army.mil/cgi-bin/atdl.dll/fm/7-bin/atdl.dll/fm/17-18/f1718.htm 7/toc.htmRead them online at the U.S. Army Library web site!
1. M113A3/4s-M8 AGSs ARE USAF C-130 transportable 2. M113A3/4s-M8 AGSs ARE “Medium-weight” as per SSI Aeromotorization report; 4-6"fly light, fight per USAF C-17 heavy" 3. M113A3/4s, M8 AGSs, RFVs, CSVs ARE available NOW for $ $$ BILLIONS less than LAV-IIIs “A FAST BALL HIT DEEP”! The U.S. Army needs only to upgrade existing vehicles and buy a small number of new vehicles to meet its requirements and gain 3D warfighting capabilities!!! “A GRAND SLAM FOR AMERICA!”