Joint Attack Pathfinder Maneuver Air Support Teams 2005
To prepare for the fast-moving battlefield situations of WW2, the German Army had WW1 Ace Fieseler design a small, light fixed-wing airplane that could land without need of runways to co-locate itself with their blitzkrieg tank forces (panzers). The Fi-156 “Storch” to this day is a remarkable plane that can take off in under 150 feet and land in under 50, the world’s first STOL aircraft! The Fi-156’s wings could fold so it could be towed on a trailer or using its own landing gear. Fi-156s were so great they were built after the war, too! The 3,000 German Fi-156s gave Rommel a birds’ eye view of his battles, saved downed pilots, rescued Mussolini in a commando raid, flew wounded men back to hospitals, in desert, mud, snow... Fi-156 Storch F-8 BearcatAfter the war, the French built Fi-156s and towed folding wingfighter-bombers into action in Indo-China for air support
U.S. Army realized Fi-156 STOL liaison craft were vital; purchased thousands of STOL planes “grasshoppers” foundL-4 Piper Cub the enemy directed arty/air strikes, medevaced wounded Soldiers; could land anywhere…Patton thought about crossing Rhine using hundreds On roads On dirt trails On grassy fields
During WW2, Korea and Vietnam, U.S. Army/marine forces had light liaisonaircraft that could be co-located with them on the ground with folding wings andcould be towed by trucks (today UAVs move by trailer), were very simple tomaintain to fly continuously overhead and report back enemy activities forartillery barrages, aircraft strikes and their own decisive “Maneuver Air Support”(MAS) with light weaponry before enemy could flee; Cessna (L-19) O-1 BirdDog light plane could take off and land in a football field but was slow (100 mph),unarmored, poorly armed to defend self.. U.S. Army Dark Shadow UAVs are transported by trailers but are unarmed to do anything about what they viewHere an Army Grasshopper plane is put on back of a truck andtaken to a ship where it will launch off a small deck for the invasionof North Africa Major Strong’s excellent account of Bird Dogs in Vietnam War: www.strongware.com/23
Bird Dog replacement: OV-1 Mohawks can short-take-off andland under 1,000 feet like O-1 but faster (300 mph), armed &armored: the ultimate “Grasshopper” MAS aircraft formodern, non-linear battlefields!Mohawks were so successful they were taken from the tactical troops andmade into theater surveillance platforms flown from rear area air bases;helicopters are difficult to keep flying, noisy, slow; UAVs lack peripheralvision and investigative instinct = result U.S. troops no longer haveManeuver Air Support under their operational control!
Any flat surface at least 1800 feet long, allows the MAS OV-1 Mohawks to land & take off, to be co-located with ground maneuver units and to act as liaison with supported ground units--direct coordination insures understanding Real World Imagery from IraqNote: Landing distance is based on no reverse thrust and zero headwind. Actual distances may varyfrom 800 to 2400 feet based on temperature, D.A., runway surface, and aircraft weight.
OV-1 Mohawks are designed to be operated from field environment to beresponsive to troops and remain overhead continuously This easy-to-maintain MAS capability is yet to be fully exploited!
Attack: Human Airborne Forward Air Controllers (AFACs)in OV-1 Mohawks have excellent visibility to investigatesigns of enemy activity and down-link live video imagery toPathfinders below who can coordinate air strikes and/orground maneuver from M113 Gavin light tracked armoredfighting vehicles
As video imagery is fed down to Ground FAC Pathfindersbelow; objects of interest can be safely investigated byhuman observers in the air before lethal fires are bought tobear: preventing fratricide “I see a suspicious bus on your video feed, should you attack it?”
“We see a mortar in a courtyard!” “Engage! Its not ours!”
Attack Element can hit enemiesbefore they can run since OV-1carries light armaments; can alsodirect GFAC Pathfinders to lasertarget designate for other strikeaircraft with heavier ordnance tobe brought to bear…air helpsthose on ground and groundhelps air = TEAMWORK!
Other Capabilities: Mohawks can drop supply pods to units in needof ammunition, food, water, radios, and medical items with greatprecision…can fight way through enemy opposition to sustain ourmen. During Army 3rd ID’s “Thunder Run” into Baghdad this couldhave helped greatly... New Boeing Phantom Works JPOD
Boeing Phantom Work’s JPOD precision glide/parachutedelivery of weapons, supplies and/or Exfiltration Vehicles toIsolated Personnel Partial and Full Recovery Option
Chuck Warren’s CopterBox disposable airdrop resupply A B C . . . CopterBox: A. Kit B. Rigged C. Autorotative descent Low-Cost! Less than $400 per box www.dropmaster.com
Mohawks can also carry personnel pods to rapidly evacuate casualties orinsert/extract Special Forces Commandos EXINT pod by AVPRO in England
ANTI-UAV: Mohawks can fly continuously to be in position to hunt downand destroy low-flying enemy UAVs to deny enemy the ability to spy on us.Humans are needed in the loop to insure friendly drones are notaccidentally downedhttp://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/nm/20050411/wl_nm/lebanon_israel_dc_3Hizbollah Flies Drone Over Northern IsraelMon Apr 11, 4:47 PM ETBy Hussein SaadTYRE, Lebanon (Reuters) - Lebanons Hizbollah guerrillas flew an unmanned surveillance drone over northern Israel on Monday, thegroup and the Israeli army said."In response to repeated and continuous enemy violations of Lebaneseairspace, the surveillance planeMersad 1 carried out a ]reconnaissance mission in the skies of occupied northern Palestine, flying over several Zionist colonies," a Hizbollah statement said.The flight at 5.15 p.m.(1015 EDT) flew as far south as Acre on the Israelicoast, the statement said.Israelisecurity sources said the small aircraft flew for several minutes over Israeli territory and then returned to Lebanon before Israeli aircraftcould intercept it."A short while ago, a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle)flown by the Hizbollah terrorist organization flew over westernGalilee in Israeli territory," an Israeli military spokeswoman said in Jerusalem.Witnesses said Israeli warplanes broke the sound barrierover the southern Lebanese port city of Tyre and a nearby Palestinian refugee camp just after Hizbollah announced the flight.The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), which monitors the border between Israel and Lebanon, said it was checkingthe report. "There have been a few violations by drones and jets today," a UNIFIL spokesman said. A senior Israeli airforce officialvoiced concern that Hizbollah had sent the aircraft to escalate tensions along Israels border with Lebanon while Syria waswithdrawing its forces from Lebanon after U.S.-led pressure."It is an attempt to harass us and send a message that Hizbollah is still there," the official told Reuters."Hizbollah is aiming for massive disruptions ... Hizbollah understands that Syrias move away (from Lebanon) is a chance to shore up its agenda to fight (Israel)," he said.The U.N. Security Council in September called on Hizbollah, backed by Syria and Iran, to disarm.Hizbollah said in November it had flown a small reconnaissance drone into Israel for the first time in response to repeated Israeliviolations of Lebanese airspace. Hizbollah said the November flight had taken photos of Israeli towns and returned safely to base. Butwitnesses said they saw a drone crash into the sea. The United Nations said in January it was gravely concerned about a flare-up ofviolence between the Jewish state and Hizbollah, which wants to drive Israeli forces from the disputed Shebaa Farms border area.Syria, Lebanon and Hizbollah say the area is Lebanese. The United Nations says it is Syrian land. Hizbollah was one of the mainforces behind Israels withdrawal from southern Lebanon in 2000.
www.strategypage.com/dls/articles/2004111220.aspJames Dunnigan reports:The Lebanese based terrorist group Hizbollah took credit for a small UAV that came downIsraelis Mediterranean coast on November 7th, flew over an Israeli town for 15 minutes and thenflew back into Lebanon. Hizbollah called their UAV "Mirsad 1", but it was probably an IranianAbabil. The Iranians have been developing UAVs for nearly a decade. Their Ababil is a 183pound UAV with a ten foot wing span, a payload of about 80 pounds, a cruising speed of 290kilometers an hour and an endurance of 90 minutes. The Ababil is known to operate as far as120 kilometers from its ground controller. but it also has a guidance system that allows it to fly apre-programmed route and then return to the control by its ground controllers for a landing(which is by parachute). The Ababil can carry a variety of day and night still and video cameras.There are many inexpensive and very capable cameras available on the open market, as is theequipment needed to transmit video and pictures back to the ground. The Israeli air defenseorganization was embarrassed by this undetected UAV flight. In 1987, a Hizbollah commandoflew undetected into northern Israel using an ultralight vehicle (somewhat larger than the Ababil), landed near a military camp, and killed six soldiers before hewas killed. This led to the air defense system in northern Israel being upgradedto prevent that sort of thing happening again. Since then, the Israelis havedetected other ultralights and small aircraft trying to enter Israel, and have stoppedthem. But during the November 7th flight, the UAV moved at an altitude of under300 feet, and was the smallest aircraft the Israelis have had to deal with so far.Nevertheless, the Israeli air defenses were apparently supposed to be capableof spotting something like an Ababil UAV.
OV-1 Mohawk Towing Parameters: once on the ground,they don’t need airbases; can be parked alongside tacticalground vehicles until needed…troops always have MAS 48 feet 22 feet 10 feet 12 feet 12 feet Standard Highways have 12 foot wide lanes
Proposed OV-1 Mohawk wings folded on trailer enhancement At Fort Hood, Texas Mohawks were 5 foot overhang towed when flight ops were not planned onto opposite and they needed to be lane if only line close to ground units separated still leaves 7 feet to pass 5 foot overhang over road shoulder Lead convoy vehicles screen vehicles ahead like when moving a double-wide motor home
o ds Snow Aviation International, Inc. ft M 7201 Paul Tibbets St. cra Rickenbacker International AirportAir Columbus, OH 43217-1204 Phone: (614) 492-7669 FAX: (614) 492-7679 E-MAIL: email@example.com
Joint Attack Pathfinder Team Attack Element Driver Gunner Chief Pilot Observer mechanic mechanic mechanic Pathfinder Element Driver TC/Leader GFAC GFAC Driver TC/AsstL GFAC GFAC
Joint Attack Pathfinder MAS Teams Operational prototype acquisition costs Purchase 2 x OV-1s fr/ USAF AMARC $150K Refurbish to flight status $200K FLIR/Electro-optical sensors $600K IRCM, Chaff, rockets, gunpods GFE High-Mobility Trailers $50K XM1108 Gavin prime movers $400K 2 x M113A3 Gavin GFAC TAFVs $200K 2 x Laser designators GFE 2 x Air/Ground Radio systems GFE Folding Wing Modifications* $4.935M (includes one time R&D costs) Contract staff for 2 years $400K _______________________________________ TOTAL $6.945M*Follow-on folding wing conversions will cost less, approximately $500K per aircraft
Joint Attack Pathfinder MAS Teams Operations costsThe costs for maintaining the aircraft, supplying spare parts,conducting flight testing for new capabilities (e.g. wing-mountedlitters) is going to be much greater. Figure on a contractor-suppliedwork force of four pilots, four observers (will probably be uniformedand no cost), four crew chief/maintenance (airframe, armament,avionics, engine), etc.For a two year period, we estimate this at:Crew $800K/yearMaintenance/op costs $400K/yearSpare Parts PLL $1.5M Initial cost $500K/year thereafterTotal $2.7M first year, $1.7M second year