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JHAMMBC Brief 23 Jan 03 Rev1.0
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JHAMMBC Brief 23 Jan 03 Rev1.0




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  • Hybrid Aircraft technology can TRANSFORM AIR DELIVERY as we know it today. The unique feature of this global transport is its ability to operate from land or sea without the need for airports ----- a goal is to deliver “ready to fight” troops and armor directly from a training base to the line-of-departure in enemy territory. The JHAMM ACTD proposal follows three years of funded investigation by JCS/J-4 in its quest to improve air delivery and logistics support of combat ground forces. The system to be flown and evaluated is a 30ton lift version of a Hybrid Ultra Large Aircraft (HULA).
  • JFC concepts such as Dominant Maneuver and Rapid Decisive Operations, when blended with Navy visions for Sea Power 21 and the Army’s 2015 Objective Force, portray a common need for a means to insert decisive forces into hostile territory from strategic distances. In the emerging world, access is uncertain due to political barriers and enemy blockade of or damage to air and sea ports of entry. Even when access is invited , air delivery and re-supply is limited not only by airport and aircraft availability but by ground off-loading facilities and space available to accept material. The MOG problem. There is a clearly stated need for an air transport system that can deliver composite ready to fight decisive forces and supplies to tactically important locations that are remote from airports and seaports. Other problems which have been with us for decades are becoming more acute as the world “agony index” rises with population growth and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Protection of our forward deployed forces emerges as a “must solve” problem as does protection of the homeland and its natural resources. On top of this we are faced with growing domestic transportation and environment clean-up challenges. This entire menu of problems is addressed within the JHAMM ACTD.
  • The J-4 funded engineering study, a technical review performed by NAVAIR in addition to the industrial design exercises and flight demo of a small hybrid model suggest that the technology is sufficiently mature to attempt the development of a full scale Hybrid Aircraft. J-4 proposes this JHAMM ACTD to verify the military utility of a possible near-term solution for a key logistical short-fall as well as exploring by-product applications for important collateral missions such as: - At-sea Replenishment - Forces Protection - Ocean Patrol/Counter Narcotics Barrier - Intermoadality of National Transportation
  • The proposed solution combines non-rigid airship and aircraft lifting body features with current and advanced fabric envelope materials plus a proven air cushion system in a catamaran configuration to create a turbo-prop powered, trans-global range, and outsized cargo triphibian. Seventy percent of the hybrid’s lift is derived from helium and 30 percent from aerodynamics. The Hybrid Aircraft will be unconstrained by reception facilities and fully compatible with all US, coalition and civil inter-modal transportation environments. It is to be interoperable with the equipment and infrastructure of all agencies and military services. A hybrid aircraft is a “lighter than air” vehicle that never flies light , a feature that accounts for its ability to land and remain on the surface when off-loading, without external assistance. It has the potential of becoming the safest form of long range heavy transportation available. Severe damage may result in no more than a “benign failure”; very unlike heavier than air aircraft. Live fire testing of non-rigid “blimps” has revealed remarkable resilience to damage and, compared to other forms of transportation, the HULA may exhibit the lowest radar and IR signatures and prove to be the least vulnerable to gunfire and missiles. These important features should be confirmed and exploited during the MUA. Relative to our Joint Warfighting Problems, a 500ton capacity HULA addresses the need to insert ready to fight forces into hostile areas and re-supply them from strategic distances when air and sea ports of entry are unavailable. Smaller versions can reduce the number of port visits needed to replenish forward deployed naval forces. A thirty ton version of a HULA, the size to be used for MUA, when equipped with a large antenna low frequency three D radar offers the power/aperture product required to fill the existing void for protecting both the fleet at sea and ground combat maneuver warfare forces against cruise missiles and other low flying threats. The same basic vehicle, equipped for ocean and air surveillance, can satisfy the JIATF need for an extended range ocean patrol system to provide visible presence for policing CONUS borders, protecting against foreign invasion of our fishing areas and erecting barriers to narcotics traffic. HULA can contribute to the USCG’s traditional mission of sea rescue and their expanded areas of responsibility which includes protection of harbors which birth valuable naval forces. The DOT sees HULA as a potential solution to impending gridlock and as a means of reducing the dangers associated with transporting hazardous materials, especially nuclear waste. These collateral functions offered by the 30 ton hybrid class gave rise to the term “multi-mission”, all as by-products of the long range logistics focus of the primary HULA design.
  • As a transport, the HULA is slower but less expensive than an airplane; much faster and somewhat more expensive than a ship. And, it carries outsized cargo. In general, it should be regarded more as a ship than an aircraft. A niche example in the commercial market might be picking up strawberries at $2.00/box near farms in Imperial Valley and off-loading them near Tokyo, four days later, for $30.00/box. Another would be hauling nuclear waste from a facility on the East Coast and delivering it to the national storage site in Nevada via a circuitous route which avoids populated areas. Such potential uses have fueled expectations for commercial sector investment to share funding the ACTD and for eventual follow-on use by the airlines which would in turn afford DOD access to HULA transports via the CRAF program.
  • The technical approach is a straightforward low risk engineering exploratory development path, the first three items having been completed. The small 40’ model was an austere effort to illustrate the principle, little data was recorded. The engineering study illustrated the path and pointed out that the high risk area would be the advanced fabric required for such a large envelope. It also told us that the risk was much reduced for craft below a 500 ton capacity. The 30 ton vehicle is no significant challenge to the currently available fabric technology. The 500# mini-HULA will probably be about a hundred feet long and will be instrumented to yield flight loads and aerodynamic flow data; a less expensive means than employing a wind tunnel which also requires creating a very expensive model. After the contractor safety of flight DT&E on the 30 ton prototype, it will be subjected to FAA certification testing and then leased back to the government using the contractor crews, to conduct MUA by the using commands.
  • Insertion of RTF Forces Anywhere : Load combat forces as cohesive units (troops/armor/helicopters/ammo/water) at their home base, fly them in comfort to the objective area (training en-route), penetrating enemy territory at night, landing and off-loading near the line of departure. The “ready to fight” forces deploy immediately and establish an armed perimeter as other flights arrive, moving to execute an attack before dawn. The freedom to select advantageous points of entry expands tactical options and reduces the probability for hostile reception. An optional mission includes insertion of SOF on land or lakes, rivers or bays and/or an air drop at very slow speed from low altitude. Re-supply of Naval Forces at Sea : Toward reducing the necessity to visit ports in unfriendly parts of the world, HULA can re-supply either by landing amid the fleet and transferring cargo via barge or by flying formation just above ships and lowering supplies by winch. It can also serve as a medical evacuation ship or as a flying MASH to service fleet units which have minimum access to medical facilities. The aircushion landing system is designed to permit landing and taxi up through sea state three.
  • Force Protection : This is a mission the Navy has explored in depth relative to improving Aegis air defense against the CM threat by employing a Battle Surveillance Airship (BSA). The CONOPS called for two large BSAs to accompany a task force and provide continuous overhead presence (10,000’) for periods up to four weeks. BSA work areas and quarters afforded a comfortable living environment for a crew of twelve. Mission equipment included low frequency 3-D radar, a very large antenna, X band illuminators for SM-2 missile end game guidance, CEC, IR Search & Track, ECM and more. The predicted result was a four fold improvement in the ability to defend against multiple CMs, Exocets or other low-flying attackers. Similar configurations could be arranged using the 30ton HULA for protection and airborne C2 for ground maneuvering forces. Typically, the HULAs would require refueling every three to five days (when at sea, from designated ships). Ocean / Land Border Patrol : This is a mission which has been described by PACOM’s JIATF-West. HULA can provide patrol presence that is affordable for extended mission periods up to a week. It can relieve the demand for use of fixed wing aircraft which are currently over burdened and more expensive to operate, releasing them for missions where higher speed is needed. Based on operational experience of large rigid Navy airships of the thirties which served as airborne carriers for Sparrow Hawk fighters, it is conceivable to employ UAVs from a HULA. The UAVs could quickly extend patrol coverage to well beyond the horizon to afford a focused close look at distant ships or events reported from other sources such as satellites, pseudolites (HAA) or surface vessels. We can only speculate on the CONOPS which will evolve if the user is afforded the opportunity to become familiar with the HULA during and after the MUA.
  • Demo Plan: After DT&E and FAA Certification testing has been completed, the 30tonHULA will be made available to the user groups listed here for in-turn exercises as they desire. The eventual equipment to be employed for the various missions will be substituted for by surrogate equipments and the measured utility adjusted accordingly. Relative to the primary focus of the ACTD, insertion and re-supply of ground combat forces, this mission should consume the most time, probably four months while the other missions may be demonstrated/assessed during two to three month periods. If during the first year of testing, the HULA performs as advertised, the services/agencies could choose to have an additional model produced and leased for extended assessment of a particular mission area.
  • As tasked by J-4, NAVAIR performed the technical assessment.


  • 1. UNCLASSIFIED Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration J O I NT FY04 Candidate CH IE FF F S OF S TA Joint Hybrid Aircraft Multi Mission J-HAMM VADM Gordon Holder, USN Director J-4, JCS Mr. Stephen Huett, NAVAIR TM LTG Charles Mahan, USA G-4, Department of the Army 23 January 200301/11/13 1 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 2. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Joint/Interagency Problems CH IE FF F S OF S TA — Forcible Entry in the Face of Anti-Access Measures — Re-supply of Naval Forces at Sea — Protection of Forces Ashore and Afloat — CONUS Littoral Ocean Area Surveillance/Policing — Hazardous Materials Transportation and Impending Highway Traffic Gridlock01/11/13 2 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 3. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Overview CH IE FF F S OF S TA — Path to Hybrid Aircraft: Three decades of Navy/NASA/Industrial design exploration followed by unmanned hybrid model demonstration flights in 2000. — JCS/J-4 invested~$1.5M in a hybrid aircraft engineering feasibility study and a NAVAIR technical review, configuration definition, missions and CONOPS exploration. — JCS/J-4 proposes JHAMM ACTD to verify the military utility of a potential near-term solution for a logistical shortfall and provide basis for commercial investment. — JHAMM is to yield “proof of the pudding” and demonstrate yet unimagined possibilities from which military requirements and commitment often follow.01/11/13 3 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 4. UNCLASSIFIED The Solution: 300-500 ton Lift J O I NT Hybrid Aircraft CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 4 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 5. UNCLASSIFIED Innovative Inter-modal Middle Market J O I NT Transportation System CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 5 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 6. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT HULA Characteristics/Features CH IE FF F S OF S TA + More Ship than Plane (transit speed range: 50 to 100 knots) + Pilot Technique: sailing / flying / weather watching / planning + Cost/Ton Mile: Less than Airplanes, More than Ships + Component Technical Risk: Medium to Low (NAVAIR assessment) + Offers C/E Presence and Persistence for Airborne Manned Surveillance, C2 andTargeting + Comfortable Travel Environment (troops in condition to fight upon arrival) + Lowest Radar/IR Signature of all transports + Highest Damage Tolerance and Passenger Survivability of all transports + Relatively Safe Transportation Mode: No Concern with mines, torpedoes, CM, icebergs, other ships, reefs, heavy seas, small boats + Nemesis: high wind in an adverse direction and mountain ranges >9k’ + Weatherability: similar to a general aviation airplane but more tolerant of ice, snow, rain or turbulence and not constrained by low visibility + Unlike “Blimps”, HULA can land anywhere w/o assistance or adjusting ballast01/11/13 6 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 7. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Technical Approach CH IE FF F S OF S TA — Industrial exploration/design and flight of 40’ hybrid UAV — JCS funded engineering feasibility study of a 1000 ton HULA — NAVAIR technical evaluation of a proposed 30 ton version — Design/build/fly a 500# payload UAV test vehicle to gather additional aerodynamic/control related data — Design build/fly 30 ton payload hybrid sized for a RTF Stryker/crew/ammo + option for introduction of appropriate collateral mission equipment – DT&E + FAA Certification – Perform MUA for missions of interest (with leased aircraft) – Pre-design 300 – 500 ton hybrid to define performance/cost – DoD and Commercial Industry review re future lease or purchase of optional size hybrid aircraft01/11/13 7 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 8. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Concept of Operations CH IE FF F S OF S TA — Insertion/Supply of Ready to Fight Forces Anywhere – From Home Base/Strategic Distances – In Spite of Anti-Access Measures/No Airports – Composite/Cohesive RTF Units — Re-supply of Naval Forces at Sea – Reduce port visits – Medical Evacuation – Outsized Cargo Transfer01/11/13 8 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 9. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Concept of Operation (cont) CH IE FF F S OF S TA — Force Protection against CM and surface threats – Lift/power for unlimited suite of detection/tracking devices – Extended time on station (weeks) – Power/space/platform stability for Laser Energy Weapons — CONUS Shore/Land Border Security via Presence – Harbor Approach Security/Protection of Forces in Port – Fishing Area Encroachment Patrol – Counter Narcotics Patrol/Enforcement Possibilities + Airborne base for UAVs to quickly focus on OTH targets of special interest01/11/13 9 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 10. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Demonstration Plan CH IE FF F S OF S TA — TBD by Potential Operations Managers for Each User Mission Application – PACOM: USFK and ARPAC: Insertion of RTF Forces/FP JIATF-West: Littoral Ocean Patrol/Surveillance – DOT: Inter-modal Transportation, Highway Grid-lock, Fuel Consumption and Hazardous Waste Transfer01/11/13 10 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 11. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Technical Risks CH IE FF F S OF S TA Technology TRL Notes Relevant High-Strength Fabric Material Assembled On CL 75 Envelope low (sphere), sub-scale prototype hybrid envelope constructed and flown in varying conditions Complete 6-DOF model run extensively, sub-scale prototype Flight Control med flown successfully (no incidents), long pneumatic control lines & actuators tested Sub-scale model flown (no reefing system), relevant Hover System low materials surveyed, fans/motors simulated, suction stability simulated and tested in sub-scale model + LCAC Standard reliable turboprop engines to be used, propeller Propulsion low diameter similar to existing, thrust vector and propellers tested successfully on sub-scale model Existing GPS based navigation equipment planned, Navigation low Capstone (UPS) weather monitoring equipment (pivotal) demonstrated in GA use Large scale non-rigid fabric seaming process demonstrated Manufacturing med (CL 75), Tedlar weather barrier performance proven in years of aerostat use01/11/13 11 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 12. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Players CH IE FF F S OF S TA — Lead Service: TBD (Army is prime candidate) — Sponsoring Combat Command: PACOM — Potential Fed Agency Sponsors: DOT, DOE, FEMA — Tech Manager: NAVAIR — Operations Manager: Joint (three candidates) — Transition Manager: TBD — Other Interests: Commercial • FED-X , UPS, Mid-West Trucking01/11/13 12 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 13. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Metrics CH IE FF F S OF S TA Logistics Operations Surveillance Operations — Cargo Capacity (Wt,,Vol.) — Lift Capacity (Wt,,Vol.) At Surveillance Altitude — Payload-Range — Persistence (Unrefueled On Station — Compatibility With Existing Pallets/Tie- Time) down Systems — Sensor Integration Compatibility — Compatibility With Existing Equipment (Size, Types, Performance (MHE/CHE) Enhancement) — Speed/Ease Of Loading/Unloading — Interoperability (Comms, Air and Ground Platforms) — Remote Operations (Serviceability, Operability) In Various Conditions — Crew Conditions (Comfort, Including Desert, Water-Based and Effectiveness, etc.) Extreme Cold — Support Flexibility (land or sea-based support) — Minimization/Elimination Of Forward Basing Infrastructure — Unique Operations (Interdiction, Search & Rescue, etc.) — Operational Flexibility (Varying Weather and Site Conditions)01/11/13 13 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 15. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Transition/Residuals CH IE FF F S OF S TA — AeroCat30 is to be leased to USG for MUA, when completed, the aircraft is returned to contractor for introduction into the commercial transport industry. — The ACTD is expected to induce commercial investment for developing full sized HULAs for commercial airlines and lease back to the USG as CRAF assets, providing outsized cargo capability while reducing MOG. — Data from the MUA and DT&E can serve as the basis for a DoD procurement of AeroCat30 sized aircraft.01/11/13 15 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 16. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT ACTD Tentative Funding Plan CH IE FF F S OF S TA FY 03 04 05 06 07 08 TOT UAV (5) DT&E 20 20 20 15 MUA 24 99 •Conditions for outside investment are threefold: USG/DoD invests ~5 million in FY03 to start the project, approves ACTD (verification of intentions) and signs agreement that they “intend” to lease the prototype aircraft for at least one year following successful DT&E flight test. Government pays for fuel, spares and insurance during lease. •Although the ACTD is a FY04 start, an investment in FY03 is needed to launch the approval campaign and pre ACTD activity to get organized on the government side and for the contractor to get started on long lead items such as the digital flight control, and building/flying a 500# payload UAV flight model (mini-HULA) for aerodynamic flow verification, ACLS engineering, etc. The FY03 5 million essentially buys a year in getting to the MUA stage. Funding Is expected from FY02/03 adjustments •First flight of AeroCat 30 occurs at the end of FY05 or early FY06; DT&E follows for about one year to obtain FAA certification. The aircraft is the property of the contractor who agrees to lease it to the government for at least one year of MUA. •Lease amounts and periods are to be adjusted as a function of when a/c become available. These lease amounts reflect a nominal probable $1.5M/month lease. •Depending on weather, availability of ranges, exercise schedules, level of user interest, etc., the MUA could continue on for an additional year or two. •**About 15+% of this line is for government support and oversight activity, reports and project management overhead to comply with published ACTD requirements.01/11/13 16 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 17. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Summary CH IE FF F S OF S TA — The J-HAMM can contribute to a number of the mission concepts of Joint Vision 2020, in some cases, it offers capabilities otherwise unattainable: • Focused Logistics • Full Dimensional Protection • Information Superiority • Dominant Maneuver • Precision Engagement HULA may be the “magic carpet” that could make it possible to insert/support decisive ready-to-fight ground combat forces from strategic distances, in spite of anti-access measures (no airports) ---- this alone warrants an accelerated effort to test the concept and define its military utility. Additionally, hybrid aircraft technology may yield a transportation “transformation” ------ whether a mirage or opportunity, the cost to find out is less than $100M.01/11/13 17 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 18. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Backup Slides CH IE FF F S OF S TA — Commercial AeroCat 1000 Range — IBCT Scenario – Map — Military Load for AeroCat 1000 — AeroCat 1000 vs the C-5 IBCT Transfer — ACL T/O Landing — AeroCat 30 Multi-view — AeroCat 30 Unique Features — AeroCat 30 Performance — AeroCat 30 Dev Plan — Tech Risk — Common Questions and Answers01/11/13 18 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 19. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Commercial AeroCat 1000 Range CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 19 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 20. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT IBCT Deployment Scenario CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 20 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 21. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Military Tailored Design CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 21 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 22. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT AeroCat vs. C-5 CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 22 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 23. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT T/O, Landing, Parking CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 23 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 24. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT AeroCat 30 Multi-view CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 24 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 25. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Unique Aerocat 30 Features CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 25 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 26. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT AeroCat30 Performance Capabilities CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 26 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 27. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT AeroCat30 Development Plan CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 27 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 28. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Technical Risk CH IE FF F S OF S TA01/11/13 28 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 29. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Common Questions/Comments CH IE FF F S OF S TA — How will HULA handle weather? In the thirties, the big crude rigid zeppelins flew on regular schedules between Germany and Argentina without the benefit of global wx reporting, GPS, computers, reliable communications, night vision devices, etc. The passengers were comfortable, more so than on ships. No serious incidents. With the emerging decade’s technology, we should be able to drive along at low altitude, as they did, nearly unimpeded by weather. One major element of weather that most inhibits flight of airplanes is visibility near the ground. HULAs that can fly at speeds below 50kts will be about as bothered by weather as you are when driving your car. A Navy All Weather Flight Test Squadron subjected non-rigid airships to a wide spectrum of weather conditions including snow, icing, heavy rain, turbulence, night and day. Review of their reports provides confidence that non-rigid Hybrid Aircraft, especially with the equipment available during this decade, will be capable of performing the missions discussed. The nemesis of HULA will be very high wind blowing in an adverse direction. Flight planning and continuous adjustment of altitude and route (like sailing) will be important to mission performance.01/11/13 29 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 30. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Common Questions/Answers CH IE FF F S OF S TA — How can HULAs survive; aren’t they very vulnerable to all threats? The Navy performed an extensive analysis of survivability for the proposed Battle Surveillance Airship (circa 1986), comparing it to ships and other aircraft. Surprisingly, they found it to be the most survivable platform in the Battle Group, and especially so for the crew. This revelation gave rise to the suggestion that the Flag might better be stationed above the fleet in the command airship than on a large thin hull water-ship. To begin with, it was observed that the airship was not susceptible to the three primary threats to forces afloat: mines, torpedoes and CM; just being airborne affords a substantial improvement in survivability, compared to the ships of the fleet. Relative to other aircraft that might perform the same mission, surveillance, C2 or transport where the threat includes interception by enemy fighters (firing AAM or guns): the design and function of radar interceptor systems is such that their favorite targets are large aircraft with good radar reflectivity approaching head-on at relatively high speed. Motion relative to the earth improves the ability to detect and gain a lock- on. Crossing paths yield poor targets and the worst is a target with no closing speed. HULA will be an extremely poor target for both radar and IR missiles. Non-rigid LTA craft exhibit a lot of inherent stealth. Ergo, they less susceptible to guided weapons than are typical heavier than air aircraft. See next slide for the discussion of “vulnerability”, the respone of a vehicle to damage from hostile fires.01/11/13 30 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 31. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Common Questions/Answers CH IE FF F S OF S TA — HULA Survivability continued: Vulnerability (reaction to damage) One naturally imagines that a few rounds of gunfire into that hugh gas bag will yield a disaster. We refer to this as the “Hindenburg Syndrome”. The lifting gas of modern airships is Helium vice Hydrogen which is, in fact, a fire suppressant, ergo no explosion. Additionally, the difference between the atmospheric pressure and the pressure inside the envelope is on the order of 0.10 psi which means that when holed by bullets, there is seemingly no immediate reaction ---- the blimp slowly “oozes” Helium. Should the envelope somehow sustain major damage (a gigantic hole), the airship may eventually (half hour or so) descend until impact with the ground or water. Injury to the passengers or damage to the cargo should be minor. And if over water, the hulk will probably float for weeks. Keep in mind that the airship disasters of the thirties we read about, involved heavy structured rigid airships, not blimps. They did, in fact crash and there were serious casualties. Unlike airplanes that are moving at relatively high speed, HULAs will be very damage tolerant. Airplanes self-destruct because of the force produced by speed. The force, “q”, is a function of the square of the speed. Typically for an airplane, it is 25 times that for a HULA at cruise speed. The resilient structure of a blimp lift system coupled with its slow speed account for the fact that is the worlds safest form of transportation from the standpoint of passenger survival ---- perhaps safer than walking. Compare to the fate of crew and passengers of transport aircraft (fixed or rotary wing) which sustain damage from guns or missiles. A composite ready to fight unit aboard a HULA that is damaged so badly that it is forced to ground short of destination should be able to exit intact and proceed toward the objective area or wait for another HULA to land nearby to retrieve the unit.01/11/13 31 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 32. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Common Questions/Answers CH IE FF F S OF S TA — What about hangars? During WWII, the US Navy operated medium sized blimps along the coasts of the US and South America and England and in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of their work was within a couple of hundred miles of the coastlines searching for submarines and mines and escorting our ships carrying troops and supplies to Europe. There were no hangers available for most of this work. In those days, envelope material was more vulnerable to sunlight and they had to be replaced every six to eight years. The “bag” life today with current technology is on the order of 20 years and improving. HULAs should only require a hanger during construction and overhaul so we probably can get along with one or two hangars in the CONUS. For the immediate future, to build and operate the AeroCat30 for MUA, one of the existing hangars should suffice. The world’s largest hangar is in Germany --- the floor is the size of 12 soccer fields. Eventually, we may have to rent it.01/11/13 32 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 33. UNCLASSIFIED J O I NT Common Questions/Answers CH IE FF F S OF S TA — What about flight crews? Those who originated this current effort were dedicated to the proposition that the end product, a fleet of long range large capacity hybrid aircraft transports, would not become the property of the government. Their goal was to avoid the burdens of ownership by leasing the equipment complete with crews and maintenance via the CRAF program. If this goal becomes reality, the government will not have to train crews or procure the aircraft or establish a supply system. It is this vision which accounts for the plan to rent the AeroCat30 with crew and maintenance for the MUA for about $1.5M/month. Should the services become attracted to the concept of exploiting the AeroCat30 for missions such as force protection or long range patrol or re-supply of naval forces at sea, special arrangements and contracts will have to be developed which provide contractor flight crews plus service personnel who may be in-command of the vehicles for purposes of accomplishing these missions. Additional Questions/Answers/Comments to : cmyersaero@aol.com01/11/13 33 UNCLASSIFIED