"Given the growing concentration of population in cities around the world, the U.S. military will require certain capabilities and forces capable of operating in urban environments, as well as other complex terrain and varied climatic conditions.” Guidance and Terms of Reference for the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review 20th Century Wars the equivalent of the 30 Years War in the 17th Century. No need to repeat the experience in the 21st Century!
Urban Warfare: Myth versus Reality PAST TODAYIn 1968, 3 NVA regiments and 2 VC “Senior tank officers denied that thebattalions (12,000 enemy troops) increasing urbanization seriouslyseized Hue, a city of 140,000 people. hampers the use of armor.”In 26 days of non-stop fighting, "Today, most of the successes in themarines lost only 147 KIA while the territories are due to the tanks there,"enemy lost 5,113 dead. said a senior tank officer…. “When tanksWhy? Devastating tank and artillery fire do open fire, their rounds are more lethalspearheaded attacks plus constant air than those of attack helicopters.”support and the disciplinedemployment of small groups of Officers and Soldiers alike say that themarines. minute a tank appears on any scene, the shooting stops and the gunmen flee. "They are afraid," said a senior tank officer. "Not only that, but when our soldiers see a tank they feel more assured." FUTURE: Substitute Technology for “The Army Banks On Its Tanks” by Manpower: Robotics, armed UAVs, Arieh OSullivan, Jerusalem Post, August non-line-of sight systems, nano 15, 2001, page 1. technology, etc.…
Urban Warfare: Future Options AUTONOMOUS URBAN FLYING ORDNANCESAPPER TANKS with mechanical advantage gaining devices DISPERSED/ UBIQUITOUS MICRO MULTI-SPECTRAL SENSOR SUITE(USG--”Unattended Ground Sensors”) ROBOTICS (saves lives, enhances affordability, redefines risk/ threatenvironment, enhances effectiveness) Much more reactive than humans, greatly Greatly improved hyperspectral sensors/data fusion Greatly improved accuracy and lethality Greatly improved affordability/miniaturization Redefines “risk,” minimal casualties Greatly reduced logistics As these new capabilities enter the force, how do we exploit them within a new joint framework for dispersed mobile warfare in urban and complex terrain?
MOUT VERTICAL ASSAULT VEHICLEStealthy Hybrid-Electric M113A4 Boom arm deliversused to transport infantry torifle squad over unexpected spot onrubble, debris buildings Combat-proven mobility with RPG resistant applique armor www.geocities.com/armysappersforward/sappertanks.htm
Can we continue to assault urban structures using predictable top-down or bottom-up tactics? Helicopter rooftop assaults exposes them to enemy firesSlow Ladderassaults dateback to ancient “Stacking” teams at Infantry exposed totimes! ground-level enemy fires!!!!!
We must see, the enemy must not... Infantry situationally aware, ready-to-MOUT Vertical Assault fightvehicle and helicopters verticallymust lay smokescreensto mask vertical assaultsLeaders with digitaldisplays to see “bigpicture”, navigate
Leader Situational awareness, head-out from MOUT vertical assault vehicle’s 1-man turret or cupola Starstreak HyperVelocity Missile + 20-40mm autocannon or 120mm mortar turret = anti-air, anti-tank, anti-bunker and anti- personnel lethality www.angelfire.com/art/enchanter/starstreak.html
U.S. ARMY EUROPEAN COMMAND “TRANSFORMS” ITSELF TO C-130 AIR- DEPLOYABILITY IMMEDIATELY WITH EXISTING M113A3 GAVIN TRACKED AFVs, January 2000 "The Army is a learning, thinking, adaptable organization," General John M. Keane U.S. Army Vice Chief of Staff www.hqusareur.army.mil/htmlinks/www.geocities.com/equipmentshop/m113a3setaf.htm
M113A3/4s can be heli-transported by CH-47Ds101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division Maximizing tracked vehicle weight/volume efficiency, Army CH-47D/F Chinook helicopters can air-transport M113A3/4s over mines, obstacles, avoiding road ambushes as the British Army did with its Scimitar light tanks to be the first NATO force into Kosovo in 1999. Can be flown to cities to cut them off... British Army Air-Mech into Kosovo FACILITATES 3D TACTICAL BATTLE MANEUVERS!
M113A3/4 Tracked Mobility to advance in the face of enemy fire, maneuver in rubbled urban areas... Tracks overcome fire and obstacles... LAV-III’s Rubber-tired Wheels vulnerable!“Run-flats” at 5mph for 5miles no life insurance incombat
TRACKED VEHICLES ARE FAR MORE 2D CROSS-COUNTRYTracks pull MOBILE THAN WHEELEDwheels out ARMORED CARS TO AVOIDfrom the ROAD-SIDE AMBUSHES, MINES,mud…save OBSTACLES!them from roadambush... Tracks swim, fight, move by land, sea or air!
The 21st Century Environment• Urbanization • Increased Access to• Ethnic & Religious Technology Conflict • Increased U.S. Reliance on• Asymmetric Conflict Force Projection• Simultaneous SASO • Reduced Warning Time Operations • Joint, Combined, Multi-• Weapons Agency Operations Proliferation/WMD • Force Protection an Imperative U.S. Army Forces Must Be… U.S. Army Forces Must Be… Responsive --Deployable --Mobile --Versatile --Combat Responsive Deployable Mobile Versatile Combat Effective Effective
Missions of the Urban Combat Team• Rapidly Air Deploy Under a Division or Corps HQ as Part of a Joint Force as the spearhead for MOUT operations• Prevent, Contain or Stabilize Crises Through Presence and precise Military Operations in Urban Terrain• Determine Favorable Outcome of urban Small Scale Contingencies (SSCs)• Act as the urban Combat Force Guarantor in Security and Support Operations (SASO) as Part of a U.S. or Multinational Force• Participate, with Augmentation, in Major Theater Wars (MTWs) insuring urban areas do not hinder decisive maneuver
THE U.S. ARMY ALREADY HAS THOUSANDS OF 11-TON M113A3-type TRACKED AFVs IN SERVICE/STORAGE TO BE VERTICAL ASSAULT VEHICLES TO FORM MOUT COMBAT TEAMS! THAT ARE: C-130 AIR-TRANSPORTABLECOMBAT-PROVEN UNDER ALL CONDITIONS!*Vietnam *Panama *Entebbe *East Timor *U.S. Army Europe IRF
U.S. ARMY 11-TON M113A3 /4 TRACKED AFVs ARE ALREADY TESTED/CERTIFIED:82d Airborne C-130 PARACHUTE AIR- Division DROPPABLE to get to urban fights... FACILITATES 3D BATTLEFIELD MANEUVERS!