U.S. Army MODULARITY Mini-Brigades


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  • Department of Defense transformation includes "new combinations of concepts, capabilities, people, and organizations“. Your Army is transforming to meet the very real challenges of the 21 st century. It is critical that everyone understands the challenges that your Army faces today and how we are changing to meet those challenges . We are transforming to a Campaign Quality Army with a Joint and Expeditionary Capabilities.
  • Big Picture Context We are a Nation at War, and it is essential to understand the kind of war we are currently waging. The United States military overwhelms conventional enemies The enemy is highly adaptive and self-organizing, and he presents fleeting targets. Our tactical forces have adapted to meet this challenge and must continue to adapt. Soldiers and Leaders have performed magnificently, and it is a testament to their agility and versatility. We have a mandate for change:  First and foremost, enable Soldiers today; Increase the speed at which we compile, assess and incorporate the hard lessons learned by Soldiers and leaders; Integrate change in a manner that enhances combat effectiveness and readiness; and Remain vigilant to safeguard our Soldier's preeminent advantage in the future. The Army must maximize Combat Power for Combatant Commanders
  • After 9-11, we find ourselves in an increasingly unstable world. We are dealing with terrorists, regional instability, and the very dangerous proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. The dangers exists from our Homeland to the very theater where combat operations can occur. Our deployments have been largely unpredictable and for longer periods. We found a need to rapidly incorporating the right Lessons Learned, staying ahead of adversaries, and focusing on what is necessary We’ve seen an increased need for smaller, more agile units; not of divisional size, but of brigade size with more capabilities (MPs, SOF, Civil Affairs).
  • The Army’s current organizational structure has served well for many years with a wide variety of units designed around the principle of task organizing to achieve combined arms capabilities with joint interoperability as a secondary objective. The Army Division is the centerpiece of existing operational forces.
  • The Division is our current building block for all conflicts and operations, but it is: Industrial Aged Army focused on predictable opponents (Threat Based) Provides specialized functions to organizations to achieve combined arms capability, but adversely impacts unit effectiveness Organized by branch functionality to facilitate training of specialists Designed to defeat or destroy a like opponent in most environments Joint is additive --- not in design
  • These attributes make us a Campaign Quality Army with Joint and Expeditionary capabilities. Strategic flexibility; with relevant land forces available quickly Modular qualities with sustained land combat characteristics Highly adaptive forces to stay one step ahead of our enemies Enter the theater, gain the initiative, and fight at a time and place of our choosing. Win decisively as an integral part of Joint Forces in two Major Combat Operations
  • These attributes make us a Campaign Quality Army with Joint and Expeditionary capabilities. Strategic flexibility; with relevant land forces available quickly Modular qualities with sustained land combat characteristics Highly adaptive forces to stay one step ahead of our enemies Enter the theater, gain the initiative, and fight at a time and place of our choosing. Win decisively as an integral part of Joint Forces in two Major Combat Operations
  • Our current Army is a divisional one. We will become a brigade-based Army. We will take much of the structure in the division, and some at the Corps level, and create powerful, broad-spectrum, brigade-level Units of Action, that are much more capable of independent action. Currently, to get a broad-spectrum force, we start with a brigade and then add in all the enablers and then reinforce/task organize as needed. Once that’s done we often have many parts of different units left over, which are of limited use. UAs will be permanently task-organized so as to require minimal augmentation, if any. The obvious advantage is the ability to train and work with all of your organic units Divisions will still have important roles, and will become capable of being used as a JTF-HQs as we move to a Unit of Employment X design. UEx will have Corps-level attributes as well. A UEx will command and control up to six maneuver UAs and numerous functional UAs. Support UAs themselves will be standardized so that one aviation or fires SUA looks like another. Active and Reserve units with the same organizational designs Brigade-sized units packaged to deploy more rapidly than Divisions Flexible groupings of modular brigades tailor capabilities to missions More units create a larger number available to rotate into operations
  • Modularity represents a departure from the division-centric focus our Army has had since WWII. Currently, when a brigade is tasked for duty, the first thing it has to do is reorganize by taking pieces and parts from other areas of the division, such as artillery and engineering, in order to cobble together a BCT. Modularity changes that by creating standing combined arms brigades containing the combined arms capabilities necessary to deploy to a fight. Basically, we will organize as we fight. This includes adding access to joint capabilities at much lower levels with a more robust network for communications, more joint and specialized personnel, and enhanced training and leader development. These brigade combat teams will be either Infantry, Heavy or Stryker. Additionally, we are creating support brigades in such areas as maneuver enhancement, RSTA, aviation, fires and sustainment. This also sets the stage for the Future Combat Systems equipped future force by implementing now several doctrine, organization, and leader development activities we envision for FCS equipped units. This concept allows the Joint Force Commander greater flexibility to mix and match brigades depending on the operation.
  • This chart illustrates the results of making the Army fully modular. The purpose of completely restructuring the Army is to provide the joint force commander with the right land forces and the right command and control for the mission. To do that we have to change not only unit designs, but Army philosophy, or culture. Modularity is accomplished by selecting from a menu of units of action – brigade sized formations that accomplish the major functions of maneuver, fires, aviation, sustainment, and protection (which we designate as maneuver enhancement brigades). The mix of forces is determined by the mission, and not a large standing organization such as a division. To the mix of brigades, the joint force commander selects form the appropriate mix of modular headquarters, or even parts of headquarters. Finally, the appropriate commander is selected for the mission. While that would normally be the commanding officer assigned to the UE-level headquarters, the flexibility of the command structure allows the JFC greater latitude in selecting the right command to go with the appropriate control.
  • Modularity establishes the conditions for an Army that is more responsive to Regional Combatant Commanders needs; It employs Joint capabilities in a better manner and enables Joint interdependence It facilitates force packaging to provide needed capabilities It allows for the rapid deployment of the Army as part of a Joint deployment-employment, and sustainment system They fight effectively as self contained units as an integral part of a Joint Force and are capable of full spectrum operations.
  • The Army is ambitiously reorganizing its war-fighting units. By increasing the number of combat brigades into more mobile, versatile units over the next three years, the Army hopes it will generate about 10 more active component brigades within its current end strength. The Army is restructuring to increase the number of maneuver brigades from the current 33 to between 43 and 48. The 3rd Infantry Division and 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) are at the leading edge of that change. The Army is also immersed in an effort to rebalance 125,000 jobs between the active and Reserve components. We are still working the number of RC conversions The targeted result is 34 fully manned National Guard brigades - about 10 armor, 22 Infantry, a scout brigade and one Stryker brigade. A significant increase in Army capability
  • As always, the soldier is the centerpiece of what we are doing. They are the face of the United States overseas. Most effective, flexible and adaptable asset we possess. Rapidly re-tasked from combat to stability operations to homeland defense. Best sensor – receives & processes information better than any technology. Everything is designed to support the soldier. GEN Schoomaker has made it clear that everything is on the table for debate – except our values. And nothing symbolizes our values better than the American Soldier.
  • We are creating a modular “brigade-based” Army that is more responsive to regional combatant commanders’ needs. It better employs Joint capabilities, facilitates force packaging and rapid deployment It will fight as self contained units in non-linear, non-contiguous battlespaces to achieve decisive outcomes.
  • Awaiting feedback from : GEN(R) Hartzog ADM(R) Cebrowski BG(P) Swan Other Services members in TF Modularity.
  • The Army’s efforts will result in new programs and initiatives designed to address the challenges of the new strategic environment. Three major new initiatives, will produce an increased capability for the Army and the Joint Force Commander, they are: Modularity Force Stabilization AC/RC rebalancing and restructuring All three of these efforts combine to: Divest Cold War Structure to Better Fight the War on Terrorism Relieve Stress on High Demand Units Improve Readiness and Deployability of Units now and in the future
  • The Army is at a critical juncture. As shown by history, it is time to act. As during past times of conflict, the Army adapted to changing conditions. Today is no different. Just as WWI, WWII, and Korea resulted in profound changes to the Army, the Global War on Terrorism represents a window of opportunity of events, time and resources to change our Army. To maximize our Nation’s military potential, there simply is no alternative but to pursue true Joint Transformation and field a future force that is joint interdependent across the full spectrum of operations. This joint interdependence will drive cultural change within the Army and across all the Services.
  • The Army has several new initiatives, the major changes are: The temporary 30K increase in endstrength Setting the Force – post OIF and OEF Modularity AC/RC rebalancing and restructuring Force Stabilization All three of the efforts listed here combine to: Divest Cold War Structure to Better Fight within the current and projected operating environment Relieve Stress on High Demand Units Improve Readiness and Deployability of Units
  • Joint interdependence is potentially the Joint Team's greatest asset. The Army provides the Joint Force commander with unique and complementary capabilities across the full spectrum of operations. These include supporting civil authorities at home and abroad, providing expeditionary forces, reassuring friends, allies, and coalition partners, dissuading and deterring adversaries, decisively defeating adversaries should deterrence fail, and winning the peace as part of an integrated interagency post-conflict effort. We are helping to examine all the capabilities resident in the Joint Force and determine the Service best positioned to provide that capability to the Combatant Commanders. We will then be able to shed excess and redundant capabilities while concentrating our efforts and resources to enhance those capabilities the Army is best suited to contribute to the Joint Team. Both our combat, Intelligence, and logistics formations will become functionally joint interdependent.
  • U.S. Army MODULARITY Mini-Brigades

    1. 1. Why We are Changing the Army
    2. 2. The Strategic Context• We are a nation at war• This is a prolonged period of conflict for the US with great uncertainty about the nature and location of that conflict• We must be able to defuse crises and/or defeat aggression early to prevent escalation, limit damage• Thus, we need flexible, rapidly We have 364,000 SOLDIERS overseas in 120 countries deployable forces and sufficient depth and strength to sustain multiple, simultaneous operations Combatant Commanders need versatile, potent land power
    3. 3. Challenges for the Current Force• War is the norm, peace is the exception• Our adversaries seek adaptive advantage through asymmetry• We have near peer competitors in niche areas• Conventional Force on Force conflicts are still possible• There is an enormous pool of potential combatants armed with irreconcilable ideas• Our homeland is part of the battlespace• We are adapting to these challenges NOW 3
    4. 4. The Army Today COMMAND LEVEL Third Army Army GENERAL Eighth Army (2-5 Corps) 100,000 - 300,000 Soldiers I Corps LIEUTENANT GENERAL III Corps Corps Corps 40,000 - 100,000 Soldiers V Corps (2-5 Divisions) (2-5 Divisions) XVIII Corps MAJOR GENERAL 10 Active Divisions Division 2 Integrated Divisions (3 Maneuver Brigades) 10,000 - 18,000 Soldiers 8 ARNG Divisions COLONELAdditional Unit Types: Brigade Brigade Brigade 3,000 - 5,000Aviation BrigadeCorps Artillery (3 or more Battalions) (3 or more Battalions) (3 or more Battalions) SoldiersArmored Cavalry RegimentSeparate Brigade LIEUTENANT COLONELMilitary Intelligence Brigade BattalionAir Defense Artillery Brigade 400- 1,000 Soldiers (3-5 Companies)Engineer BrigadeSignal BrigadeChemical Brigade CAPTAINMilitary Police Brigade CompanySpecial Forces Group (3-5 Platoons) 60- 200 SoldiersRanger RegimentSpecial Operations Aviation RegimentCivil Affairs Brigade LIEUTENANT PlatoonCorps Support Command 16- 50 SoldiersMedical Brigade (3-4 Squads)Personnel GroupFinance Group STAFF SERGEANTTransportation Group SquadQuartermaster Group 4 - 12 Soldiers (2-4 Teams)Explosive Ordnance GroupPsychological Operations Group
    5. 5. What the Current Force Looks LikeThe Army Division = traditional building block XX DIVISION = ~15,000 Soldiers & Equipment (typically over 20,000 when deployed)But… • Optimized for major land campaigns against similarly organized forces • Large, fixed organizations with interconnected parts • Requires extensive reorganization to create force packages • Limits Regional Combatant Commander’s ability to mix and match packaged capabilities for multiple missions • Limited Joint capabilities We’re good, but we can be better…
    6. 6. Clear Need for ChangeWe need to generate more versatile combat powerbecause… • We have extended worldwide commitments • We will remain at war for the foreseeable future • We must be more responsive to Combatant Commanders’ needs A Campaign Quality Army with Joint and Expeditionary Capabilities
    7. 7. How to ChangeWe must create units that are more relevant to Regional Combatant Commanders and generate versatile combat power with units that are… • More self-contained, sustainable, lethal force packages • Organized with capabilities for the full range of missions • Truly joint interdependent – a trained and ready member of the joint force • Comprised of adaptive, competent, and confident Soldiers and leaders A Campaign Quality Army with Joint and Expeditionary Capabilities
    8. 8. From Division to Brigade - CentricFROM: An Army based around TO: An Army designed around smaller,large, powerful, fixed organizations more self-contained organizations XX X Division Brigade MP/Security MP/Security Division Cav (Recon) Signal Signal Logistics Chemical Field Artillery Fires Intelligence Engineer Division Chemical Troops Combined Armed Combined Military Police Arms Recon Arms Intelligence . . . and modular multi-functional Support Brigades Logistics Aviation Support MNVR Engineers Aviation Fires Sustainment RSTA EN Reconnaissance, Maneuver Surveillance, and Mechanized Enhancement Armor Brigade Armor Brigade Target Acquisition Brigade A More Ready and Relevant Force
    9. 9. With Brigades as Building Blocks (Less than 4,000 Soldiers in each Brigade) X X X X FCSInfantry Heavy Stryker Future Standard maneuver brigades with organic combined arms capabilities X X X X X SUST Maneuver Reconnaissance, Aviation Fires Sustainment Surveillance,Enhancement Target Acquisition Supporting brigades with standard headquarters, but variable subordinate units
    10. 10. Employing the Army in the Joint Force Headquarter(s) & Units Available + + A Commander Command Posts UEy 4 3 2 1 Heavy Infantry RSTA Fires UEx Aviation Sustainment Maneuver Enhancement Multi- Joint/Other SOF Service national AssetsSpec Op Forces Multi-national Joint/Other Assets Tailored Land Forces for Regional Combatant Commanders
    11. 11. Projecting the Army Worldwide •• Units not tied to division base. Units not tied to division base. •• Simultaneous deployment from multiple Simultaneous deployment from multiple power projection platforms. power projection platforms. C Y•• Basing supports aacampaign Basing supports campaignquality Army with joint and quality Army with joint andexpeditionary capabilities. expeditionary capabilities.•• Power projection platforms Power projection platformsprovide full range of support for provide full range of support forresponsive deployment, employment responsive deployment, employmentand sustainment of forces. and sustainment of forces.
    12. 12. We Call This Approach Modularity• Modularity is packaging units into flexible configurations• Modular units are rapidly deployable, responsive, agile, tailorable and discrete packages of land force combat power
    13. 13. We are Converting the Army Now FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 Active 33 BrigadesComponentReorganize Total: Active 10 - 15 BrigadesComponent 77-82 Build Maneuver Brigades Reserve 34 BrigadesComponentReorganize Common organizational designs for Active and Reserve
    14. 14. What Isn’t Changing The Soldier is the Centerpiece of All Our UnitsEverything we do is designed to support the SoldierA heritage of fighting and winning our Nation’s WarsTraditions reflected in our unit’s lineage and honors 14
    15. 15. Conclusion• We are adapting to the current and projected operational environment• We are creating modular brigades and command and control headquarters to better meet Combatant Commanders’ requirements• Modularity is the foundation for building a Campaign Quality Army with Joint and Expeditionary capabilities
    16. 16. Why We are Changing the Army Back Up Slides
    17. 17. Briefing Coordination John McDonald  Congressional Staff John Gingrich SASC Maren Leed BG Ralston SAC-D Betsy Schmidt LTG(R) Jordan SAC-D Nicole Diresta EOH Stratcoms (Patti Benner & staff) OCLL (staff) SecArmy speechwriter OFT (staff) G-3 Army Transformation Office (staff) TRADOC CPG and Stratcoms TF Modularity
    18. 18. Impact New organizations and warfighting concepts + Stabilized combat and support forces + Rebalanced Active and Reserve force mix +Adaptive, competent, and confident Soldiers and leaders = Immediately ready forces for uncertainty of the early 21st century
    20. 20. Restructuring Today’s Army• Modularity: creating brigade sized building blocks of combat power• Stabilization: creating more cohesive and capable units and providing predictability to Soldiers by extending the length of assignments• Rebalancing: adjusting the types and mix of AC and RC units To produce more combat power for Combatant Commanders
    21. 21. The Task Organization Challenge To Create Brigade Combat TeamCurrent Division • Break apart division leaving incomplete• Powerful organization but residual behind• Great utility in major campaigns • Activate Reserves to support deploying brigade task forces • Reorganize less flexible structure xx DIV No joint assets Brigade Combat Team x x x x x x Artillery Support Aviation Engineer X x Maneuver Brigade Brigade Brigade Brigade Brigade Infantry ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll Armor ll ll ll SPT ll ll ll MI ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll Artillery ll ll Air Defense Engineers Intelligence Infantry Armor Artillery Sustainment Aviation Engineers Intelligence Sustainment
    22. 22. Army Fighting ForcesSoldiers Current Organization Missions Joint – Campaign Level 100K+ Army – Integrates the military instrument with other instruments of national power – Integrates all elements of the joint force. 70K+ Corps 15 -17K Division Operational – Major Land Operations – Plan and execute major land 1.5K Brigade/Regiment/Group operations. – Orchestrates Joint, Interagency & MN operations. 600 Battalion/Squadron – Execute Administrative Control and Army Support to Other Services. 100-150 Company/Battery/Troop 30-50 Tactical – Battles Platoon – Puts together complementary and reinforcing capabilities with 10-12 Squad/Section engagements to achieve military conditions within a specified Area of Operations 4-6 Fire Team/Crew (AO). • Tactical – Engagements 1 –Close Combat. Soldier –Generates specific effects / outcomes within the AO.
    23. 23. Versatile and Complementary Capabilities Heavy Bdes Light BdesPast (Armor, Mechanized, Armored Cavalry) (Airborne; Air Assault; Light; Light Cavalry)Mission Category 1 Mission Category 2 Mission Category 3• Offensive, Defensive, and • Offensive, Defensive, and SecuritySecurity Missions in open or Missions in or near urban terrain against • Offensive and Defensivemixed terrain either regular or irregular forces Missions in close terrain• Against either regular or • When in Forced Entry or Early Entry (mountains, jungle, forests)irregular forces context, premium is on C-130 against either regular or• Premium on mobile protected transportability and wheeled mobility irregular forcesfirepower balanced with • Premium is on infantry strength and • Premium is on infiltration bydismounted infantry mechanical transport foot and air assault mobility • Mobile protected firepower is an asset Heavy Brigade Unit of ActionModular Stryker Brigade Infantry Brigade Unit of Action
    24. 24. Modularity and The Army’s Need to ChangeModularity: Provides capabilities-based units at the Brigade level toRegional Combatant Commanders with responsive, fully mission-Capable combat and support organizations that operate in a Joint,Combined or Multi-National environment.Why Change: • Provides greater capacity for rapid and tailorable force capability packages • Improves strategic responsiveness for full spectrum operations Offers: • Embedded Joint capabilities and connectivity • Organic staff precluding augmentation • Interdependent Joint communications, ISR, and fires • Deployable, separable Command Posts • Organizations capable of C2 and/or support of Joint and multi-national forces
    25. 25. Joint Interdependence• The Army, as well as each service, are indispensable, and vitalcomponents of the Joint Team• The Army will always conduct operations—offensive, defensive,stability, and support—in a joint and expeditionary context• Prompt, sustained, and decisive land combat power acts inconcert with air and naval power to ensure a synergy that givesthe Joint Force capabilities and power well beyond the sum of itsparts• In a few short years, the Joint Force has moved fromindependent, de-conflicted operations to sustained interoperability• The Joint Force must now move rapidly to joint interdependence