Sir, We are here in response to your “come see me” following the Army Safety Center’s briefing on the B-52 fratricide. You asked what we are doing to promulgate 3-1 TTP changes for JDAM employment, what TD&Es are we exploring for SOF and advanced munitions capable platforms, and to scrub the equipment we need to do the job correctly … follow-on to Viper, etc. We will provide an update on the B-52 accident findings, an update on JCAS issues, CAS TTP changes XO published last month, ACC’s proposed TD&E regarding using advanced weapons against targets close to friendlies and equipment we need to provide our GFACs We will have recommendations on the equipment requirements.
Following the AF/CVA tasker to AF/XO regarding the B-52 actions, the AF/XO released a message requesting OPR/OCRs for the various items and it also provided suspenses for closure or periodic updates. Additionally, CENTCOM is expected to release their official Accident Investigation Board findings. Should it have findings not included in the Army SIB, we will assume responsibility for them and assign them in a follow-up message.
The JROC chartered the JCAS ESC in 2000 to provide a mechanism to address CAS issues, as they cut across all four Services. AF/XOO and the Marine Asst Commandant for Aviation are the Co-chairs, and we have flag representation from the Army, Navy, JFCOM, USSOCOM, and the Joint Staff. One of the major accomplishments is the writing of a CAS Capstone Requirements Document. It should ensure interoperability as it addresses the CONOPS, architectures, information exchange requirements, and provides for threshold and objective requirements along with key performance parameters. Joint Pub 3-09.3, JCAS TTP just finished the O-6 level coordination and is expected to be published in Jan 03. In addition to the CRD and TTP accomplishment previously discussed, the first JCAS Action Plan has been written, approved, and published, and progress is occurring in the development of standardized ALO and Joint Terminal Attack Controller training. The Marine Corps is examining methods to leverage the Air Force’s TACP Modernization program, and the ESC has contributed to the development of the CONOPS for the Joint Tactical Radio System, which includes JCAS players in its cluster I for fielding. Finally, the demonstrated value of getting representatives of the JCAS community together annually to review issues, develop solutions, and share insights, will be sustained with the next JCAS Symposium, scheduled for Sep 02 at Eglin AFB, FL. It is the ESC’s conclusion that there is great momentum today in the resolution of JCAS issues - momentum that must be sustained.
The AF/XO released an interim CAS TTP message in May that makes several TTP changes. First, we emphasized the need to use the 9-line. Every GFAC we talked to that was in Afghanistan emphasized the need to follow the basics. The standard briefing ensures both the FAC and aircrew have the minimum required information. Although there may be circumstances where it is not practical, we did mandate it when using coordinate dependent weapons. Additionally, we made the readback mandatory and added target elevation to it. Previously, the aircrew was only required to readback when the FAC requested it. We also required the aircrew to provide the FAC the coordinates entered into coordinate dependent weapon. We also requested this TTP be added to the appropriate read file/FCIF. We are expecting the 3-1 editors to incorporate the changes in upcoming MDS revisions.
The TD&E was nominated by tactics SMEs. ACC convened a Tactics Review Board in Jan 02, and recommended a TD&E for employing advanced weapons against targets close to friendlies. ACC Test Requirement Board met in May 02. ACC/DR is the approval authority and 53 Wing will develop the test plan.
PRC-117F: 754 required. multi-mode, multi-band, software programmable radio. Frequency spectrum covers 30 – 512 MHz. Wave forms include SINCGARS (with upcoming improvements to SIP/ASIP and HPW), UHF SATCOM, UHF(including HaveQuick) and VHF. This radio is significant because it provides the TACP with its first ever SATCOM capability. Laser Range Finder: required. Litton MK VII is used to determine precise GPS target coordinates. It has an effective range of 10Km with a +/- 9 mil azimuth and +/-3 mil elevation accuracy. Mission Software and computers: 740 required. The software is currently being developed by Anzus, Inc., out of San Diego, CA. In comparison with other software, Falcon View has a mapping and flight planning, but no communication capability. On the other hand, the ANZUS software is capable of digital communications as well has displaying the drill-down mapping, situational awareness, and graphics. It can also overlay imagery over the map. The software capabilities will be developed in spirals with the first offering due for fielding in FY02, designated "Spiral 0". This spiral will provide the TACP with the ability to connect the LRF to the computer and pass target data to message forms in the computer. The software will also insert GPS data into the message forms, which will also automatically calculate the heading and distance to the target from the IP. The goal of the software is to auto-populate as much information as possible into the CAS message forms as possible for the operator. Vehicular Communications System (VCS): 560 required. 398 Funded. This radio system falls under the Army's JTRS Cluster 1. TACP version of this radio will have six to eight channels. The TACP has the following waveform requirements defined in the JTRS ORD: Link 16, SATCOM, SINCGARS, UHF, VHF, HF, SADL/EPLRS and the Wideband Networking Waveform (WNW). The joint RFP has been released with responses due in December. The software will also be capable of displaying Link 16 data via JRE or Rosetta Range Extension (RRE). This will provide the TACP with an air picture. When TACPs get Link 16 radios, the software will be able to display the Link 16 data directly. Also includes the ability to transmit and receive JVMF messages and act as a message forwarding, multi-protocol gateway between dissimilar, digital messaging systems. TACP-M will be a plug and play system into the Army's Tactical Internet (TI). Selected JVMF messages will be included in the new software that will allow the TACP to receive and in some cases, send message through the TI. Among the messages TACPs will be able to receive are NBC warnings, Observed Position and Friendly Position reports. Upcoming spirals will include Battlefield Geometry provided by AFATADS, ATO/ACO and Overlay messages. The TACP-M mission software will act as a gateway between Link 16, SADL/EPLRS, VMF and MTS.
The Mark VII Laser Range Finder is the only one that meets our ORD requirements. ESC accelerated production (contract was let in Mar 01) and Litton is now running a production of two shifts. Due to funding shortfalls, funds are available for only 224 of the 361 TACP requirement. The AF Corporate structure is about to finalize funding for the STS requirement for 70. With an additional $6M, Litton will add a third shift and increase production to around 40 per month. It would also complete the TACP buy. We are working with the CI Panel to use $1M of the remaining withhold funds, and that will provide 20 additional LRFs (shortfall 97 unsourced [$5M]). The Mission Computer and Software is the first of our transformational pieces of equipment, designed to move us from voice to data. ESC is accelerating the first Spiral of the software, and it will allow the GFAC to pass the 9-line to F-16 IDM equipped jets (Block 40/50), transmit air support requests digitally and have them populate the TBMCS Air Operations Database (AODB), and automatically send GFAC GPS locations. As the software evolves, the next Spiral will allow connectivity with Harriers and Hornets, and finally Link 16 and SADL/EPLRS. We plan to field the initial computers in Jul 02, once we complete the regression testing. 740 required. The manpack radios are a success story. 754 required. The PRC-117F is the best tactical radio ever developed. We have one radio that is TACSAT, HQ II, and SINCGARS capable. Operational fielding for the active and ANG will be complete in FY 02 and the spares delivery will be complete in early FY 03. The latest generation of night vision equipment capable of tactical ground use is essential for night CAS operations. All of the GFACs now have the latest version of NVGs. Although beacon bombing is not very practical, the Microponder provides a good way for the GFAC to mark his position for the AC-130 and bombers. To equip every active duty GFAC team, we would need 282. 282 required, 63 funded, 24 fielded. Shortfall is 219 @ $6700 =$1.5M. Unit cost is $6700. SOF/RANGER = 59.
A good infrared pointer is needed for night operations. While every GFAC is equipped with a narrow GCP pointer, the IZLID provides a much better mark. 282 required, 121 funded, 47 fielded. 161 @ 4300 = $0.7M The PRC-148 is also becoming a required item, primarily as a backup radio for when GFACs are under fire and have to drop their Ruck. 184 required, none fielded. 184 @ $7000 =$1.3M. SOF/RANGER = 71. All of the STS, Rangers, and SOF TACPs are equipped with M-4s, but every TACP member now requires one now that the Army has converted their forces to the carbine. TACP requirement is 1445. SOF TACP and STS personnel require a way to see beyond 10Km. The range of the LRF is greater than its internal optics are capable. The 40 power spotting scopes allow for CAS execution at longer ranges. 184 required @ $1000 = $184K Although everyone is equipped with the standard PSN-11 PLGR, our personnel are using the Garmin Etrex Vista as a cross check with very good results. 282 required, 145 funded, 101 fielded. 137@$300= ($50K) Armored HMMWV needed for personnel protection against mines, small arms and artillery. 100 short @ 160K = $16.2M. 141 required/41 funded/100 short. We are researching the requirement for the thermal sight. It can identify personnel out to 2.8Km and vehicles out to 6.9Km. Unit cost is $19.3K.
If we can apply $6M to the Laser Rangefinder Buy, we can add a third shift and field the equipment faster. With a third shift, Litton should increase to 40 per month. We would also like your support the for funding the following items: Microponder, IZLID, MBITR, spotting scopes and Garmin GPS receivers. Additionally, we are short funding for 100 Armored TACP HMMWVs. Total shortfall is $9.75M. We are expecting to receive $1M in withhold funds, reducing our requirement to $8.7M. We are working with theMAJCOMs for armored HMMWVs and the requirement for PAS-13 imager.
Close Air Support CSAF Update
Headquarters U.S. Air ForceIntegrity - Service - Excellence CAS Update to CSAF CMSgt Steve Buhrow, AF/XOOY 1
Purpose Provide CSAF update on B-52 Friendly Fire Incident Follow-up Joint Close Air Support Issues Promulgating 3-1 changes for JDAM employment in CAS Tactics development and evaluation with SOF and JDAM/WCMD capable platforms Scrub equipment we need to do GFAC duty correctly Recommend a “way-ahead” “Scrub equipment we need to do this job correctly – Follow on to Viper, etc. Brief me please.” Integrity - Service - Excellence
B-52 Friendly Fire Incident Follow-up Army Safety Center investigated 5 Dec B-52 friendly fire incident and identified four findings with 14 action Items Findings briefed to CSAF, CSA and XO on 13 Mar 02 XO Message tasked MAJCOMs and appropriate Air Staff Directorates and Centers to take corrective action Awaiting release of CENTCOM Accident Investigation Board report -- XO will incorporate any additional recommendations to current action item task list Integrity - Service - Excellence
JCAS Issues JROC Chartered Executive Steering Committee -- Co-chaired by USAF and USMC with Army, Navy, Joint Staff, JFCOM & SOCOM membership JCAS CRD: June 2002 JROC approval expected JTTP JP 3-09.3: Jan 2003 approval VCJCS JCAS 2001 Action Plan - 15 Issues/55 actions Training standardization Equipment/Interoperability CAS Distributed Training Mission Needs Statement Air Force/Marine Warfighter Talks – Integration and interoperability of CAS Assets GAO JCAS ReviewGreat momentum today in the resolution of CAS issues Integrity - Service - Excellence
CAS Tactics, Techniques and Procedure Changes AF/XO Interim CAS TTP changes, dated 13 May 02 Emphasized use of standard 9-line briefing Mandates 9-line briefing when using coordinate dependent weapons Mandates read-back of IP, target elevation, target coordinates and friendly position (lines 1, 4, 6 and 8) Aircrew must provide GFAC coordinates entered into coordinate dependent munitions Mandatory read file item All AFTTP 3-1 Volume managers will incorporate new procedures “We should start now promulgating the correct 3-1 changes for JDAM employment in CAS, etc.” Integrity - Service - Excellence
CAS Tactics Development and Evaluation “Emerging Technology CAS” TD&E will evaluate and recommend TTPs to employ weapons against targets close to friendlies Determine TTPs and guidelines to destroy targets with advanced weapons Nominated at ACC Jan 02 Tactics Review Board ACC/DR finalizing TD&E priority for FY03 Draft proposal shows funding for execution ACC is coordinating Army & SOCOM participation “TD&E with SOF and JDAM/WCMD capable platforms” Integrity - Service - Excellence
TACP Modernization Program (FY00-FY09) PRC-117F Manpack Radio Reliable Beyond Line of Sight comm w/ASOC & Army Voice and data DAMA SATCOM, Have Quick II, SINCGARS ASIP, IDM Interfaces w/radios & LAN Automates 9-Line Situational Awareness Mark VII LRF Mapping & Navigation Message Gateway Precise GPS Target Coordinates Messaging Interfaces w/computer & software Tactor 31 Mission Computers & SoftwareDISMOUNTED Vehicle Comm System Transforms CAS mission from ‘Voice’ to ‘Data’VEHICULAR Wideband Datalinks: Link-16, SADL/EPLRS, WNW Datalink Msg Standards: TADIL-J, VMF, SADL, AFAPD, USMTF Gateways between dissimilar waveforms and messages Narrowband waveforms: HQ II, DAMA SATCOM, SINCGARS-ESIP, HF-ALE, VHF ATC, GPS Integrity - Service - Excellence 7
Essential GFAC Equipment Laser Rangefinder -- Litton Mark VII (IOC FY02) 431 Required, 314 funded (includes 70 for Special Tactics) and 49 fielded -- 15-25 per month 117 short of total requirement ($6M) Mission Computers and Software -- initial fielding Jul 02 740 TACP required -- all funded Manpack radios PRC-117F (UHF/VHF, Have Quick, TACSAT and SINCGARS) Primary portable radio -- FOC FY02 PVS-7D/PVS-14 -- night vision goggles (fielded) Microponder SMP 1000 -- hand held radar beacon for use with AC-130 and bombers (282 required, 219 short -- $1.5M) Integrity - Service - Excellence
Essential GFAC Equipment Cont’d Infrared Marking capability -- Limited IZLIDs available (276 required, 161 short -- $700K) GCP1 and GCP2 -- narrow beam, low power PRC-148 Multi-band Inter Team Radio (MBITR) -- intra-team and backup to PRC-117F (184 required -- $1.3M unfunded) Weapons M-4 rifle -- Ranger/SOF TACPs & STS equipped Spotting scopes for long range target acquisition > 10Km (184 required -- $200K unfunded) Global Positioning System Receivers Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver -- interfaces with LRF GARMIN ETrex Vista (282 required, 137 short -- $50K) Armored TACP HMMWV (141 required, 100 short -- $16.2M) PAS-13 Thermal Sight -- researching requirement ($19.3K each) Integrity - Service - Excellence
Recommendations AF Corporate structure fund $6M LRF shortfall Completes Mark VII LRF requirements Adds 3rd shift to production line -- faster fielding CSAF support funding for GFAC requirements Microponder SMP 1000 ($1.5M) IZLID high power IR pointer ($700K) PRC-148 MBITR ($1.3M) Spotting scopes ($200K) Garmin GPS receivers ($50K) $9.75M improves mission effectiveness and reduces risk Armored TACP HMMWV ($16.2M) PAS-13 Thermal Sight (TBD) Integrity - Service - Excellence
Headquarters U.S. Air ForceIntegrity - Service - Excellence Back-up Slides 11
Quotes From the Field“… If it wasn’t for your ETAC, we would have lost the whole platoon.I will never go anywhere without my ETAC again.” (downed MH-47) Army Special Forces MSgt“When Anaconda set out, there wasn’t a company commander thatdidn’t want two TACPs with them. They wanted someone with themevery step of the way.” 682 ASOS Commander“[my] American Express card – I don’t leave home without it.” Army Special Forces SSgt Source: Lance M. Bacon, Air Force Times, 8 Apr 02 Integrity - Service - Excellence