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Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]
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Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday [self quizzes] [all lecture notes]

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  • A virus containing RNA as its genetic material. The RNA may be single stranded or double stranded. Examples of RNA viruses include Reoviruses, Picornaviruses, Togaviruses, Orthomyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses, etc.
  • R plasmids can contain genes that confer resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin.When antibiotics are used, they only kill those bacteria without resistance to that antibiotic. This causes resistant bacteria populations to increase. This is the reason that we see more and more antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria.Many R-factors can pass from one bacterium to another through bacterial conjugation and are a common means by which antibiotic resistance spreads between bacterial species, genera, and even families. For example RP1, a plasmid that encodes resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and kanamycin originated in a species of Pseudomonas, from the Family Pseudomonadaceae, but can also be maintained in bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, such as Escherichia coli.
  • corepressor:any substance that reacts with a genetic repressor in order to activate it and decrease gene expressionAPPEARS IN THIS RELATED CONCEPT:Operonscorepressor:any substance that reacts with a genetic repressor in order to activate it and decrease gene expressionAPPEARS IN THIS RELATED CONCEPT:Operons
  • An operon can be repressible or induciblelac operonThe lac operon is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria. It consists of three adjacent structural genes, lacZ, lacY and lacA. The lac operon is regulated by several factors including the availability of glucose and of lactose.inducera molecule that starts gene expressioninducible operonIn negative inducible operons, a regulatory repressor protein is normally bound to the operator, which prevents the transcription of the genes on the operon. If an inducer molecule is present, it binds to the repressor and changes its conformation so that it is unable to bind to the operator. This allows for expression of the operon.
  • reverse transcriptase, also called RNA-directed DNA polymerase, an enzyme encoded from the genetic material of retroviruses that catalyzes the transcription of retrovirusRNA (ribonucleic acid) into DNA
  • Hfr cell: A high-frequency recombination cell (Hfr cell) (also called an Hfr strain) is a bacterium with a conjugativeplasmid (often the F-factor) integrated into its genomic DNA.The Fertility factor (first named F by one of its discoverers Esther Lederberg) allows genes to be transferred from one bacterium carrying the factor to another bacterium lacking the factor by conjugation. The The episome that harbors the F factor can exist as an independent plasmid or integrate into the bacterial cell's genome. There are several names for the possible states:Hfr bacteria possess the entire F episome integrated into the bacterial genome.F+ bacteria possess F factor as a plasmid independent of the bacterial genome. The F plasmid contains only F factor DNA and no DNA from the bacterial genome.F' (F-prime) bacteria is formed by incorrect excision from the chromosome, resulting in an F plasmid carrying bacterial sequences that were next to where the F episome was inserted.F- bacteria do not contain F factor. Will act as the recipient.
  • Operon - a cluster of structural genes that are expressed as a group and their associated promoter and operator How does the system work? Without lactose in the cell, the repressor protein binds to the operator and prevents the read through of RNA polymerase into the three structural genes. With lactose in the cell, lactose binds to the repressor. This causes a structural change in the repressor and it loses its affinity for the operator. Thus RNA polymerase can then bind to the promoter and transcribe the structural genes. In this system lactose acts as an effector molecule. lac Operon - an inducible system
  • endo-end of the world
  • 11/21
  • Transcript

    • 1. Biology Exam IV Final: Monday, 12/9 75% new material 25% old
    • 2. Self quizes • • • • • 22 evolution 27 Bacteria 27 28 protist 31 fungi viruses
    • 3. Viruses
    • 4. Horizontal transmission of a plant viral disease could be caused by Insects as vectors carrying virus particles between plants
    • 5. RNA viruses require their own supply of certain enzymes because Host cells do not have enzymes available that can replicate the viral genome
    • 6. R plasmid Contains genes for antibiotic resistance and for sex pili
    • 7. Transposition differs from other mechanisms of genetic recombination because it Scatters genes to new loci in the genome
    • 8. An operon codes for an amino acid. If the regulation of this operon is like that of the trp operon The amino acid acts as a corepressor
    • 9. A mutation that makes the regulatory gene of an inducible operon nonfunction would result in Continuous transcription of the operon’s genes
    • 10. Which information transfer is catalyzed by reverse transcriptase? RNA -> DNA
    • 11. Which characteristic is common to BOTH bacteria and viruses? Nucleic acid as genetic material
    • 12. Which of the following processes would never contribute to genetic variation within a bacterial population? meiosis
    • 13. During conjugation between an Hfr cell and an F- cell Genes from the Hfr cell may replace the genes of the F- cell by recombination
    • 14. Emerging viruses arrive by All of the above a) b) c) Mutation of existing viruses The spread of existing viruses to new host species Broader dissemination of an existing virus within the current host population
    • 15. A certain mutation in E coli makes the lac operator unable to bind to the active repressor. How would this affect the cell? The cell would wastefully produce the enzymes for lactose metabolism continuously, even in the absence of lactose
    • 16. Gram-negative • meningococcal menintus • Thin cell wall • outer wall (OM): toxic to humans • sensitive to osmotic pressure • antibiotic tolerant • thin peptidoglycan layer
    • 17. Gram-positive • THICK peptidoglycan layer • resistant to osmotic pressure
    • 18. Classify bacteria by habitat 1. halophile 2. coliform: your digestive tract 3. thermophile 4. acidophile
    • 19. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not 4. heterotroph v photoautotroph
    • 20. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • M. tuber 1. obligate aerobe: require O2
    • 21. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • Cl. tetanic 2. anaerobe
    • 22. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • E. coli (facultative) 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not
    • 23. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • cyanobacteria (photoautotroph) 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not 4. heterotroph v photoautotroph
    • 24. capsule: sugar material that covers cell wall • Strep pyroxenes, H. influenza • protect against phagocytosis • protect against desiccation • allow adherence
    • 25. fimbriae & pili: attachment purpose structures • pile: used for conjugation (sexual reproduction)
    • 26. slime layer: sticky matrix of polysaccharides that protects the bacteria • Streptococcus mutans cause tooth decays
    • 27. taxis: movement toward or away from stimulus
    • 28. internal/genome structure of bacteria • one chromosome (DNA) • no organelles • plasma membrane carries out metabolic processes • Some bacteria have additional genomes, circular DNA, plasmids
    • 29. binary fission: similar to mitosis • one bacteria splits to two • mitosis: split nucleus
    • 30. endospore • anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
    • 31. endospore • botulism
    • 32. endospore • tetanus
    • 33. endospore • gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringen)
    • 34. classify bacteria via nutritional intake 1. 2. 3. 4. photoautotrophy chemoautotrophy photoheterotrophy chemoheterotrophy
    • 35. photoautotrophy • energy from sunlight • carob from CO2
    • 36. chemoautotrophy • energy from inorganic molecules like sulfur • carbon from CO2
    • 37. photoheterotrophy • carbon from organic sources (other organisms)
    • 38. chemoheterotrophy • energy and CO2 from organic sources
    • 39. eubacteria aka “bacteria” • cell wall made of peptidoglycan
    • 40. Archaea • cell wall made of pseudomurein
    • 41. methanogen • anaerobic Archae • remove excess hydrogen, O2
    • 42. symbiotic categories 1. mutualism 2. commensalism 3. parasitism
    • 43. Genus of bacterial diseases! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Borelia Treponema Staphylococcus Mycobacterium Yersinia Neisseria 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lyme syphilis toxic shock (MRSA) tuberculosis plague gonorrhea
    • 44. Lyme • Borelia
    • 45. syphilis • Treponema
    • 46. MRSA • Staphylococcus
    • 47. tuberculosis • Mycobacterium
    • 48. plague 1. Bubonic 2. pneumonic • Yersinia
    • 49. gonorrhea • Neisseria
    • 50. exotoxin • G positive
    • 51. botulin • exotoxin • Gram positive
    • 52. tetanus • exotoxin • Gram positive
    • 53. endotoxin • Gram negative • you get more sick • bacteria has outer membrane
    • 54. Gram-positive • EXOtoxin
    • 55. Gram-negative • ENDOtoxin • have outer membrane
    • 56. Gram • exotoxin – made of G positive – botulin and tetanin are examples – can elicit immune response  – can be vaccinated against  • endotoxin – made of G-negative – made of outer membrane (OM) – are released when bacteria die – does NOT elicit an immune response  – you get more sick  – vaccination is difficult 
    • 57. Chlamydomonas • eyespot • pyrenoid • protist
    • 58. Diatom • protist
    • 59. Algae • photosynthetic protist
    • 60. Protists • Lecture: Thursday 11/21 • • • • Cercozoans Forams Radiolarians Amoeba – 4 clades • Rhodophyta (red algae) • Chlorophyta (green algae) • Lab 26: slime molds
    • 61. Cerocozoans • Amoeba-looking cells • Clade foraminiferans (“forams”) • Feed by pseudopodia
    • 62. Phylum: Forams • shrimp • Porous, multichambered calcium carbonate shells called tests • Pseudopodia extend through the pores • ocean pH environmental problem: acidity dissolves tests
    • 63. Forams (importance) • layers of foram tests in marine sediments from limestone and oil deposits – Egyptian pyramids • act as carbon reservoir • used by geologists to locate oil reserves (oil explorer) • used to determine age of rocks and pas climate
    • 64. forams • limestone cliff in Dover England
    • 65. Kingdom: radiolarians • have silica tests fused into one piece (like diatoms) • pseudopodia are called axopodia, which radiate from central body • only ONE clade
    • 66. Kingdom: amoeba • have lobe-shaped pseudopodia (false feet) rather than threadlike • do not have tests and have no shape • The Blob (film)
    • 67. Four Clades of Amoeba 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold
    • 68. Gymnanoebas 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold • free living (not disease causing) • found in damp, environmental conditions (in your guts, soil, bottom of lakes)
    • 69. Entaamoeba 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold • generally parasitic  – ex. Entaamoeba histolytica: causes dysentery and organ damage – Naegleria: cause fatal encephalitis • found in warm fresh waters in southern states • infections occur via nose and in summer months • very rare: you’re more likely to win the lottery – E. histolyta in stool: cyst, trophozoite – N. fowleri in brain
    • 70. plasmodial slime mold 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold • spend most life cycle as a unicellular plasmodium • made up of thousands of cells that fuse to ONE giant cell with many nuclei • When stressed, plasmodium develop to sporangia and produce spores. • Spores germinate into biflagellated cells, which act as gametes or as amoeboid cells. • Syngamy of gametes produce new plasmodium.
    • 71. plasmodial slime mold 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold • Life cycle 1. fruiting body 2. spores released 3. signal: cells come together and fuse 4. form plasmodium
    • 72. cellular slime mold 1. 2. 3. 4. Gymnanoebas Entaamoeba plasmodial slime mold cellular slime mold • cells do NOT fuse; but they act as one organism • spends most life cycle as feeding individual protist cells • form pseudopodia (slug) when food is depleted • slug develops to fruiting body to produce spores
    • 73. cellular slime mold • life cycle – fruiting bodies – amoebas – signal: cells aggregate and form plasmodium slime mold; they do NOT fuse – they move as one
    • 74. kingdom: Rhodophyta (red algae) • phycoerythrin (red pigment) which allowed Rhodophyta to live in deeper waters • Most are large and multi-cellular • store sugar as floridean starch (glycogen) like humans • found in tropical waters
    • 75. kingdom: Rhodophyta (red algae) • Uses – eaten as food – agar: food, petri dish – coralline algae secrete shells of calcium carbonate, which form coral reefs. Algae are NOT coral. They are part of the ecosystem that supports corals.
    • 76. kingdom: chlorophyta (green algae) 1. chlorophylls 2. charophyceans • have chloroplasts – chlorophyll a and b – store sugar in the form of starch – have accessory pigments and stacked thylakoids – ex. Volva – ulva (sea lettuce) – calberna (sea feather)
    • 77. Slides: slime mold 1. endamoeba histolytica 2. foraminisera 3. trypanosome gambienso nasco 4. paramecium 5. plasmodium 6. radiolarian ooze tropical pacific

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