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Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday
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Biology exam iv for dec 9-2013 monday

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22 Evolution …

22 Evolution
27-31

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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  • endo-end of the world
  • Transcript

    • 1. Biology Exam IV Final: Monday, 12/9 75% new material 25% old
    • 2. Gram-negative • meningococcal menintus • Thin cell wall • outer wall (OM): toxic to humans • sensitive to osmotic pressure • antibiotic tolerant • thin peptidoglycan layer
    • 3. Gram-positive • THICK peptidoglycan layer • resistant to osmotic pressure
    • 4. Classify bacteria by habitat 1. halophile 2. coliform: your digestive tract 3. thermophile 4. acidophile
    • 5. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not 4. heterotroph v photoautotroph
    • 6. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • M. tuber 1. obligate aerobe: require O2
    • 7. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • Cl. tetanic 2. anaerobe
    • 8. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • E. coli (facultative) 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not
    • 9. Classify bacteria by metabolic pathway • cyanobacteria (photoautotroph) 1. obligate aerobe: require O2 2. anaerobe: O2 kills anaerobes 3. facultative aerobe: can live with O2 and not 4. heterotroph v photoautotroph
    • 10. capsule: sugar material that covers cell wall • Strep pyroxenes, H. influenza • protect against phagocytosis • protect against desiccation • allow adherence
    • 11. fimbriae & pile: attachment purpose structures • pile: used for conjugation (sexual reproduction)
    • 12. slime layer: sticky matrix of polysaccharides that protects the bacteria • Streptococcus mutans cause tooth decays
    • 13. taxis: movement toward or away from stimulus
    • 14. internal/genome structure of bacteria • one chromosome (DNA) • no organelles • plasma membrane carries out metabolic processes • Some bacteria have additional genomes, circular DNA, plasmids
    • 15. binary fission: similar to mitosis • one bacteria splits to two • mitosis: split nucleus
    • 16. endospore • anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
    • 17. endospore • botulism
    • 18. endospore • tetanus
    • 19. endospore • gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringen)
    • 20. classify bacteria via nutritional intake 1. 2. 3. 4. photoautotrophy chemoautotrophy photoheterotrophy chemoheterotrophy
    • 21. photoautotrophy • energy from sunlight • carob from CO2
    • 22. chemoautotrophy • energy from inorganic molecules like sulfur • carbon from CO2
    • 23. photoheterotrophy • carbon from organic sources (other organisms)
    • 24. chemoheterotrophy • energy and CO2 from organic sources
    • 25. eubacteria aka “bacteria” • cell wall made of peptidoglycan
    • 26. Archae • cell wall made of pseudomurein
    • 27. methanogen • anaerobic Archae • remove excess hydrogen, O2
    • 28. symbiotic categories 1. mutualism 2. commensalism 3. parasitism
    • 29. Genus of bacterial diseases! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Borelia Treponema Staphylococcus Mycobacterium Yersinia Neisseria 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lyme syphilis toxic shock (MRSA) tuberculosis plague gonorrhea
    • 30. Lyme • Borelia
    • 31. syphilis • Treponema
    • 32. MRSA • Staphylococcus
    • 33. tuberculosis • Mycobacterium
    • 34. plague 1. Bubonic 2. pneumonic • Yersinia
    • 35. gonorrhea • Neisseria
    • 36. exotoxin • G positive
    • 37. botulin • exotoxin • Gram positive
    • 38. tetanus • exotoxin • Gram positive
    • 39. endotoxin • Gram negative • you get more sick • bacteria has outer membrane
    • 40. Gram-positive • EXOtoxin
    • 41. Gram-negative • ENDOtoxin • have outer membrane
    • 42. Gram • exotoxin – made of G positive – botulin and tetanin are examples – can elicit immune response  – can be vaccinated against  • endotoxin – made of G-negative – made of outer membrane (OM) – are released when bacteria die – does NOT elicit an immune response  – you get more sick  – vaccination is difficult 
    • 43. Chlamydomonas • eyespot • pyrenoid • protist
    • 44. Diatom • protist
    • 45. Algae • photosynthetic protist

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