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27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
27 lecture protists!
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27 lecture protists!

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  • 1. Gram
  • 2. • Botulin, tetanus • Exotoxin is made inside bacteria and secreted out • Exotoxin can elicit immune response • Exotoxin can be vaccinated against
  • 3. Exotoxin • Botulin, tetanus • Exotoxin is made inside bacteria and secreted out • Exotoxin can elicit immune response • Exotoxin can be vaccinated against • G-positive
  • 4. Endotoxin • Gram negative • Have outer membrane • ENDOtoxin is released when bacteria die • ENDOtoxin does not elicit an immune response
  • 5. Protists (28) • All are eukaryotes • Habitat
  • 6. Old classification 1. slime mold 2. Algae 3. Protozoa
  • 7. diplomad • • • • Flagella Mostly parasites Asexual reproduction TWO nuclei, lack mitochondria, no Golgi • Giardia (cause diarrhea) “looks like a happy face”
  • 8. parabasalids • • • • Anaerobic flagellate NO mitochondria YES, it has a Golgi Flagella arranged in cluster on anterior • Commensal symbiont of animals • Termites and cockroaches have parabasalids in their guts • Trichomonas (STD) transmit through toilet seat
  • 9. Trichomoniasis • Change of pH in vagina shift from 4 to 5 (less acidic)
  • 10. kinetoplastids • Kinetoplast: DNA found in mitochondria • Some are free living and some are parasites • Leishmania (sand fly) • Trypanosome (African sleeping sickness) • Chagas (kissing bug)
  • 11. Euglenids • pellicle (thin, flexible outer covering) • Chloroplast (auto or heterotrophic) • Eyespot (stigma): detect light • One or two flagella • Paramylon granule: stores starch • Euglena
  • 12. Alveolates • Alveoli (membrane bound sac) • THREE phylum 1. Dinoflagellate 2. Ciliate 3. apicomplexa
  • 13. dinoflagellate • marine, unicellular, photosynthetic • possess 2 flagella • chromosomes lack histones • bioluminescence • many are symbiont of corals; dinoflagellates give sugar to corals; corals provide home • coral bleaching
  • 14. red tide • explosive growth of dinoflagellates • filter feeder (i.e. clams) eat the neurotoxin, then humans eat the clams • Pfiesteria (dinoflagellate) make poison
  • 15. Apicomplexan (sprozoan) • harmful protist • malaria 1. apicoplast (nonphotosynthetic plastid) which stores starch 2. apical complex used to penetrate host’s cell • two or more different host species for life cycle completion • Plasmodium sps: cause malaria • cyclical chills • female mosquito Anopheles
  • 16. Toxoplasma (apicomplexan) • causes toxoplasmosis • can cause blindness in immunocompromised people • can damage human fetus
  • 17. ciliates • possess cilia to move and feed • have TWO nuclei 1. 2. large: everyday cell function (metabolism) small: sexual reproduction (conjugation) • MOST advanced protist – gullet: food particles go in – anal pore: waste goes out – For other protists, “same hole is used for everything,” Prof. Phommasaysy
  • 18. stramenopiles (heterokontes) • TWO flagella 1. hairy 2. smooth • EXCEPT oomcytes, all have fucoxanthin (yellow-brown carotenoid) • golden algae • brown algae – conceptide: make gametes and zoospores
  • 19. FOUR clades of stramenopiles 1. 2. 3. 4. oomycetes diatoms golden algae brown algae
  • 20. oomycetes (water molds) • fungus-like protists • oogonia “egg fungi” have female gametes • oogonia • water molds: fish parasites • white rust: tree parasites • downy mildew: crop plant parasites
  • 21. Irish potato famine • oomycetes • Phytophthora infestans
  • 22. diatoms • photosynthetic • two-part, silica shell called frustule • Why are they important? – most O2 production (more than rain forests) – food for organisms – oil (fossil fuel) – diatomaceous earth make insectide
  • 23. golden algae • pigment fucoxanthin • biflagellated • most are freshwater • P. Parvums
  • 24. brown algae (seaweed, kelp) • Phaeophyles • most complex, largest algae • most are multicellular • algin
  • 25. Quiz on Thursday 11/21!

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