SlidecastScriptSlide 1This is a slidecast about online collaborative learning by Roxanne Gibbons as a partial fulfillment for thecourse 6610.Slide 2Online collaborative learning is a social interaction that involves learners and teachers, where membersobtain and share experiences or knowledge (Zhu,2012).Ortiz and Lin (2005) state the key elements of online collaborative learning include: activecommunication, interaction, online presence and sense of community.Slide 3Online collaborative learning provides many opportunities for the learner.It can increase and enhance peer interactions (Brindley et al., 2009) and enable context (Nevgi, 2006)needed to achieve learning outcomes.Online collaborative learning has been confirmed by many studies to help construct knowledge (Brindleyet al. , 2009; Jahng et al., 2010; Jarvela et al., 2007; Nevgi, 2006; and Zhu, 2012) through groupinteractions and help develop critical thinking skills such as analysing, synthesizing and evaluatinginformation which are skills needed for the real world.Slide 4The methods used in this study are consistent with qualitative analysis.The author completed an annotated bibliography of ten studies, followed by a literature review,powerpoint presentation of concept maps, and lastly a slidecast.Slide 5The author researched peer reviewed journals to select ten studies containing “collaborative learning”in the title that took place in an online medium.All studies contained research participants either graduate or undergraduate students from suchcountries asCanada,China, Finland, United States, England and United Kingdom.The most recent studies were selected and no more than two were selected from the same journal.Slide 6Data were collected via Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Google Scholar thus allsources had an electronic medium. The ten studies selected utilized qualitative methods.
The author created an annotated bibliography of the ten studies which then was used toidentifysimilarities, patterns and common themes, using qualitative meta-analysis and content analysis.Slide 7-FindingsThe author chose four themes that occurred most often in the ten studies which were discussed in thegreatest detail.The four emerging themes were interaction patterns (Brindley et al., 2009; DeLaat et al., 2007;Jahng et al., 2010; Jarvela et al.,2007; Ortiz and Lin, 205; and Zhu, 2012), building a sense of community (Brindley et al., 2009; Cho et al.,2005; ; DeLaat et al., 2007;Jahng et al., 2010; Jarvela et al.,2007;Kadirire, 2007; Wheeler et al., 2008 and Zhu, 2012) support tools (Jarvela et al.,2007;Kadirire, 2007; Nevgi, 2006; Ortiz and Lin, 2005; Wheeler et al., 2008 and Zhu, 2012)and acquisition of skills (Brindley et al., 2009 Nevgi, 2006; Ortiz and Lin, 2005; and Wheeler et al., 2008) which are all necessary for online collaboration to occur.Slide 8Two studies, Brindley et al. (2009) and Jarvela et al. (2007)found that scaffolding helps facilitate onlinecollaborative learning.In order for collaborative learning to take place, there must be interactions amongst members whichinvolve sharing experiences and knowledge (Zhu, 2012).Instant messaging and mobile devices (Kadirire, 2007)are two important support tools needed toenhance collaborative learning.Online collaborative learning depends on a sense of community. A sense of community was found togreatly impacted by online social presence.Slide 9Zhu (2012) stated that computer supported collaborative learning is based on the assumption thatstudents learn and construct knowledge through group interactions.The study of interaction patterns is crucial to understanding how networks develop and evolve overtime (Cho et al., 2005 and DeLaat et al., 2007).
Slide 10Social network analysis was identified as an effective tool to study network interaction patterns (Delaatet al., 2007). Interaction patterns were found to be affected by social presence, course design and pre-existing friendships all of which impact the effectiveness of online collaborative learning.The study of Interaction patterns provide evidence of engaged and socially active or inactive studentsinvolved in small group activities that promote online collaborative learning as well as enhancinglearning outcomes.A small group, for the purpose of this analysis is defined as having four-five students in a group (Jahgn etal., 2010).The only obstacle of collaborative learning identified in this analysis was computer mediated scheduling.Results indicated that online activities are positively correlated with learning outcomes (Zhu, 2012).Slide 11Several studies (Brindley et al.,2009; Kadirire, 2007; Ortiz and Lin, 2005; and Wheeler, S., Teomans, P., &Wheeler, D.,2008) in this literature analysis emphasized the significance of a sense of community amongits participants as it relates to online collaborative learning.Slide 12Support tools and smallgroup activities (Brindley et al.,2009 and Cho et al.,2005) can facilitate thebuilding of a sense of community.Small group activities stimulate interactions which can be greatly enhanced with support to improve thefeeling of a sense of community needed for online collaborative learning.There is a symbiotic relationship between online collaborative learning and a sense of community.Online collaborative learning depends on a sense of community and a sense of communityenhancesonline collaborative learning as well as learning outcomes.A sense of community was found to be is greatly affected by social presence and according to Ortiz andLin, (2005) it is considered a key element in collaborative learning.Slide 13Students require skills to use support tools, develop a sense of community and interact with each otherin groups as well as being able to interact online collaboratively.Brindley et al. (2009) study identified that most people have little training in how to interact with othersand interactions online require new skills.
The authors noted that collaborative learning provides opportunities for students to develop higherorder thinking skills, co- create knowledge and meaning and achieve better learning outcomes.Slide 14Students need to acquire skills to participate in groups and develop individual and group accountabilityneeded to regulate their own learning to improve online collaboration.Online collaboration provides opportunities for students to construct knowledge and increase learningoutcomes.Students need to acquire skills to be able to work independently and creatively to participate in onlinecollaborative learning.They must develop social skills and critical thinking skills to facilitate onlinecollaborative learning.Slide 15In order for collaborative learning to be effective, support tools are required.Nevgi (2006) suggestedinteractive tools may allow learners to manage their own learning and support collaborative learning.Wheeler’s study found that wikis enabled students to collaboratively generate, mix, edit and synthesizesubject specific knowledge and develop critical thinking skills through the use of shared spaces.Slide 16There were several support tools identified in this analysis. One of the support tools, IQ team was found to help students to learn social skills by reflecting back on their experiences. Smartphones and instant messaging both promoted a sense of community, needed to support online collaboration. Jarvela et al. (2007) found that the use of wireless networks and mobile devices increased students’ opportunities for interactions and sharing of ideas and according to Kadirire (2007), enhance connectedness needed to promote a sense of community as well as support online collaborative learning. Lastly, Wheeler et al. (2008) emphasized the use of wikis to promote the construction of knowledge and critical thinking skills through group interactions to promote onlinecollaborative learning.Slide 17In the next two slides the discussion section analyzes the results and brings all four themes togetherillustrating various relationships.
Slide 18Support tools such as asynchronous discussions, chats, forums, blogs, emails, instant messaging andsmartphones promote a sense of community which enhances online collaborative learning.Instant messaging as noted by Kadirire, (2007) is a natural medium for online community building andpeer discussions.Overall, support tools are required to construct knowledge to achievelearning outcomes to improveonline collaborative learning.Slide 19Throughout this analysis there was evidence indicating that acquiring skills to work collaborativelyonline is essential for effective online collaborative learning. It also identified that participants need toacquire social skills and technological skills (be able to use interactive online tools) (Brindley et al., 2009).Results consistently reported students participating in collaborative projects displayed an increase in theinteraction patterns (DeLaat et al., 2007; Jarvela, 2007; Zhu, 2012). These increases in interactionsprovided more opportunities for sharing and constructing knowledge as well as enduring collaborativerelationships needed to build a sense of community which facilitate collaborative learning.Slide 20Exchanging information is essential for online collaborative learning. Both the quantity and content ofmessage exchanges were identified as having a positive correlation within increased computersupported collaborative learning (DeLaat et al., 2007) or online collaborative learning.Slide21Online collaboration can be studied using social network analysis to map interactions and contentanalysis to understand interactions among members.Slide 22Online collaborative learning is the building of knowledge, a sense of community and critical thinkingskills to improve learning outcomes.Slide 23Instant messaging and wireless networksenhance interactions which occur more often in smallergroups. These interactions help build a sense of community and social networks which promote onlinecollaborative learning.Slide 24The literature analysis revealed several implications from the ten studies.
Slide 25It was recommended by several studies that more attention needs to paid to:Network structures and qualitative discourse analysis to help understand how networks evolve incollaborative learningCulture and its impact on online collaborative learningTechnological and social skills as well as instructional strategies needed to facilitate online collaborativelearningSupport devices such as instant messaging, mobile devicesand wireless networks needed to enhanceonline collaborative learningShareness, equality and quantity of message exchanges needed to evaluate online collaborative learningSlide 26The research was limited by the author’s choice of only ten studies. The studies chosen used qualitativemethods thus many of them contained small sample sizes which limited their generalizability of results.Research in some cases could only be applicable to specific settings.Limitations such as lack of : empirical data evaluative research and interdisciplinary approachwere identified as well as research that was based on one network community.Slide 27-30 References