Web Design Principles
5th
Edition
Chapter Nine
Planning Site Navigation
Objectives
When you complete this chapter, you will be able to:
• Create usable navigation
• Build text-based navigation
•...
Creating Usable Navigation
4
Creating Usable Navigation
• Provide enough location information to let the
user answer the following navigation
questio...
5
Creating Usable Navigation
• To answer these questions, provide the
following information:
• Let users know what page th...
6
Creating Usable Navigation
• Provide consistent, easy-to-understand links
• Provide an alternative to the browser’s Back...
7Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
8
Limiting Information Overload
• Create manageable information segments
• Control page length
• Use hypertext to connect ...
Building Navigation Structures
10
Building Text-Based Navigation
• Text-based linking is often the most effective
way to provide navigation on your site
...
11
Sample Text Navigation
– To main pages (Home, Table of Contents,
Index)
– To the top of each chapter
– Within the Table...
12
Sample Text Navigation
– Between the previous and next chapter
– Within chapter pages to each topic
– To related inform...
13Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
14
Linking with a Text Navigation Bar
• The Table of Contents page must link to the other
main pages of the Web site, allo...
15Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
16
Linking to Chapter Pages
• The Table of Contents page needs links to the
individual chapter files in the Web site
Web D...
17Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
18
Adding Internal Linking
• Add a “back to top” link that lets users return to the
top of the page
Web Design Principles ...
19Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
20
Adding an Internal Navigation Bar
• You can use additional fragment identifiers in the
table of contents to add more us...
21Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
22
Linking to External Document
Fragments
• You can let users jump from the table of contents to
the exact topic they want...
23Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
24
Adding Page Turners
• You can enhance the functions of the navigation
bar in the chapter pages by adding page-turner
li...
25Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
26Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Adding Contextual Linking
28
Adding Contextual Linking
• Contextual links allow users to jump to related
ideas or cross-references by clicking the w...
29Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Using Graphics for Navigation and
Linking
Using Graphics for Navigation and
Linking
• If you use graphics for navigation, use the same
graphics consistently through...
Using the alt Attribute
• Provide alternate text-based links in addition to
graphical links
• Include alt attributes in yo...
33Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Using Icons for Navigation
• Be careful with navigation icons
• Not everyone agrees on their meaning
• Many Web sites incl...
Using Lists for Navigation
Using Lists for Navigation
• The HTML list elements are the preferred element
for containing navigation links
• Lists prov...
37Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Removing Default Padding and
Margin
• Most lists have built-in padding or margin values
• When creating navigation lists, ...
Removing Default Bullets
• HTML lists come with built-in bullets
• When creating lists for navigation, you can remove
the ...
40Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Building Horizontal Navigation
Bars
Horizontal Navigation
• In a standard list, each item is on its own line
• To create a horizontal navigation bar using the...
43Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Customizing the Horizontal
Navigation Bar
• You can customize the basic list navigation with
CSS properties
• For example,...
45Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Controlling Navigation Bar Width
• Horizontal navigation bars will wrap with the
browser
• To prevent this, set a width fo...
47Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Controlling Navigation Button Width
• To create navigation buttons that are all the same
width, change the display type to...
49Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Building Vertical Navigation Bars
Building Vertical Navigation Bars
• Use a standard list structure without changing the
display type as you did for a horiz...
52Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Using Background Color and
Graphics To Enhance Navigation
Using Background Color and
Graphics To Enhance Navigation
• You can use background colors and graphics in a
variety of way...
Indicating History
• Use the link pseudo-classes to show users where
they have been
• You can display a graphic based on t...
56Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Indicating Location
• Location can be indicated by a change in text
weight, text color, or background color or with a
grap...
58Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Creating Hover Rollovers
Changing Text Color and
Background Color on Hover
• The :hover pseudo-class lets you add interactivity
when users scroll o...
ul#navlist a:hover {
color: #fff;
background-color: #0033cc;
font-weight: bold;
}
61Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Changing Background Images on
Hover
• When the user hovers the pointer over a navigation
button, the button color changes
...
63Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Underlining on Hover
• You can use the hover pseudo-class to turn
underlining on when the user points to a link
a:hover {t...
65Web Design Principles 5th
Ed.
Summary
• Usable navigation is the result of working with the
power of hypertext and designing for your users’
needs
• Wor...
Summary
• Use background colors, text colors, and graphics to
enhance navigation
• Use the :hover pseudo-class to add inte...
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Ppt ch09

  1. 1. Web Design Principles 5th Edition Chapter Nine Planning Site Navigation
  2. 2. Objectives When you complete this chapter, you will be able to: • Create usable navigation • Build text-based navigation • Use graphics for navigation and linking • Use lists for navigation • Build horizontal navigation bars • Build vertical navigation bars • Use background color and graphics to enhance navigation • Create hover rollovers 2Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  3. 3. Creating Usable Navigation
  4. 4. 4 Creating Usable Navigation • Provide enough location information to let the user answer the following navigation questions: • Where am I? • Where can I go? • How do I get there? • How do I get back to where I started? Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  5. 5. 5 Creating Usable Navigation • To answer these questions, provide the following information: • Let users know what page they are on and what type of content they are viewing • Let users know where they are in relation to the rest of the site Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  6. 6. 6 Creating Usable Navigation • Provide consistent, easy-to-understand links • Provide an alternative to the browser’s Back button that lets users return to their starting point Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  7. 7. 7Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  8. 8. 8 Limiting Information Overload • Create manageable information segments • Control page length • Use hypertext to connect facts, relationships, and concepts Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  9. 9. Building Navigation Structures
  10. 10. 10 Building Text-Based Navigation • Text-based linking is often the most effective way to provide navigation on your site • Always provide a text-based set of links as an alternate means of navigation Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  11. 11. 11 Sample Text Navigation – To main pages (Home, Table of Contents, Index) – To the top of each chapter – Within the Table of Contents page to chapter descriptions – From Table of Contents page to specific topics within each chapter • The following screens demonstrate a variety of text-based navigation options: Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  12. 12. 12 Sample Text Navigation – Between the previous and next chapter – Within chapter pages to each topic – To related information by using contextual links • The following screens demonstrate a variety of text-based navigation options (continued): Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  13. 13. 13Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  14. 14. 14 Linking with a Text Navigation Bar • The Table of Contents page must link to the other main pages of the Web site, allowing users to go directly to the pages they want • Achieve this by adding a simple text-based navigation bar Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  15. 15. 15Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  16. 16. 16 Linking to Chapter Pages • The Table of Contents page needs links to the individual chapter files in the Web site Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  17. 17. 17Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  18. 18. 18 Adding Internal Linking • Add a “back to top” link that lets users return to the top of the page Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  19. 19. 19Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  20. 20. 20 Adding an Internal Navigation Bar • You can use additional fragment identifiers in the table of contents to add more user-focused navigation choices Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  21. 21. 21Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  22. 22. 22 Linking to External Document Fragments • You can let users jump from the table of contents to the exact topic they want within each chapter • This requires adding code to both the Table of Contents page and each individual chapter page Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  23. 23. 23Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  24. 24. 24 Adding Page Turners • You can enhance the functions of the navigation bar in the chapter pages by adding page-turner links • Page turners let you move either to the previous or next page in the collection Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  25. 25. 25Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  26. 26. 26Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  27. 27. Adding Contextual Linking
  28. 28. 28 Adding Contextual Linking • Contextual links allow users to jump to related ideas or cross-references by clicking the word or item that interests them • These are links that you can embed directly in the flow of your content by choosing the key terms and concepts you anticipate your users will want to follow Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  29. 29. 29Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  30. 30. Using Graphics for Navigation and Linking
  31. 31. Using Graphics for Navigation and Linking • If you use graphics for navigation, use the same graphics consistently throughout your site • These provide predictable navigation cues for the user • Reusing graphics minimizes download time 31Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  32. 32. Using the alt Attribute • Provide alternate text-based links in addition to graphical links • Include alt attributes in your <img> tags • The alt attribute is important to accessibility 32Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  33. 33. 33Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  34. 34. Using Icons for Navigation • Be careful with navigation icons • Not everyone agrees on their meaning • Many Web sites include descriptive text within navigation icons 34Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  35. 35. Using Lists for Navigation
  36. 36. Using Lists for Navigation • The HTML list elements are the preferred element for containing navigation links • Lists provide an easy way to create navigation that can be styled with CSS <ul id="navlist"> <li><a href="index.html">Home</a></li> <li><a href="history.html">History</a></li> <li><a href="how.html">How it Works</a></li> <li><a href="clubs.html">Balloon Clubs</a></li> <li><a href="festivals.html">Festivals</a></li> <li><a href="rides.html">Where to Ride</a></li> <li><a href="faq.html">FAQ</a></li> </ul> 36Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  37. 37. 37Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  38. 38. Removing Default Padding and Margin • Most lists have built-in padding or margin values • When creating navigation lists, you will need to remove this default spacing • Set the margin padding properties to zero for the UL element as shown ul#navlist { padding: 0; margin: 0; } 38Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  39. 39. Removing Default Bullets • HTML lists come with built-in bullets • When creating lists for navigation, you can remove the default bullets • Use the list-style-type property as shown ul#navlist { padding-left: 0; margin-left: 0; list-style-type: none; } 39Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  40. 40. 40Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  41. 41. Building Horizontal Navigation Bars
  42. 42. Horizontal Navigation • In a standard list, each item is on its own line • To create a horizontal navigation bar using the list, you need to set the list item display setting to in-line • This allows the list to display on one line ul#navlist li{ display: inline; } 42Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  43. 43. 43Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  44. 44. Customizing the Horizontal Navigation Bar • You can customize the basic list navigation with CSS properties • For example, you can: – Add borders, background colors, or images – Set space between buttons 44Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  45. 45. 45Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  46. 46. Controlling Navigation Bar Width • Horizontal navigation bars will wrap with the browser • To prevent this, set a width for your navigation list ul#navlist { padding: 0; margin: 10px 0px 0px 0px; list-style-type: none; width: 700px; } 46Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  47. 47. 47Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  48. 48. Controlling Navigation Button Width • To create navigation buttons that are all the same width, change the display type to block • Float the boxes so they align next to each other 48Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  49. 49. 49Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  50. 50. Building Vertical Navigation Bars
  51. 51. Building Vertical Navigation Bars • Use a standard list structure without changing the display type as you did for a horizontal navigation bar • The <a> elements in the list must be set to a block display property value 51Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  52. 52. 52Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  53. 53. Using Background Color and Graphics To Enhance Navigation
  54. 54. Using Background Color and Graphics To Enhance Navigation • You can use background colors and graphics in a variety of ways to enhance your navigation • You can indicate location with graphic or background color • You can create interactive hovers that change when the user points to a link 54Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  55. 55. Indicating History • Use the link pseudo-classes to show users where they have been • You can display a graphic based on the state of the link • In this example, the visited state causes a graphic check mark to display 55Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  56. 56. 56Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  57. 57. Indicating Location • Location can be indicated by a change in text weight, text color, or background color or with a graphic 57Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  58. 58. 58Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  59. 59. Creating Hover Rollovers
  60. 60. Changing Text Color and Background Color on Hover • The :hover pseudo-class lets you add interactivity when users scroll over your navigation links • In this example, when the user hovers the mouse over the link: – The text color changes to white (#fff) – The background color changes to bright blue (#0033cc) 60Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  61. 61. ul#navlist a:hover { color: #fff; background-color: #0033cc; font-weight: bold; } 61Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  62. 62. Changing Background Images on Hover • When the user hovers the pointer over a navigation button, the button color changes 62Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  63. 63. 63Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  64. 64. Underlining on Hover • You can use the hover pseudo-class to turn underlining on when the user points to a link a:hover {text-decoration: underline;} 64Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  65. 65. 65Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  66. 66. Summary • Usable navigation is the result of working with the power of hypertext and designing for your users’ needs • Work from the user’s point of view • Make all areas of your Web site quickly accessible • Provide plenty of location cues • Use text-based navigation bars • Use CSS to build attractive horizontal and vertical navigation bars using simple lists 66Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  67. 67. Summary • Use background colors, text colors, and graphics to enhance navigation • Use the :hover pseudo-class to add interactivity 67Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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