I. Job Structuring• Definition: a strategic management activity involving the formal definitions of tasks and jobs and authority delegations so organizational goals are accomplished• Job structuring is accomplished through job descriptions and job specifications
II. Job Structuring Purposes• To assure that tasks are properly assigned so that goals are accomplished• To prevent task duplication or task redundancy• To prevent unnecessary conflicts among employees in different jobs concerning who is to perform a task• To establish a hierarchical ordering of jobs so lines of formal authority and communication are established
III. Job Structuring and OrganizationalBehavior• Organizational behavior: employee responses to planned and unplanned stimuli• Extrinsic rewards• Intrinsic rewards
IV. Job Specialization• Job specialization: the degree to which the overall task of the organization is broken down and divided into smaller parts• Job specialization saves time & money• However, workers may become bored & dissatisfied• Overspecialization should be avoided
V. Job StructuringStrategies• A. Ergonomics• B. Job Rotation• C. Job Enlargement
Job StructuringStrategies• D. Job Enrichment• E. Job Characteristics Approach
Job StructuringStrategies• F. Work Teams – Groups of employees may design their own work systems, assign tasks, monitor performance, etc.• G. Quality of Work life (QWL) • www.sas.com • www.mbna.com • www.fortune.com – Employee opinion surveys; quality circles; feedback sessions
VI. Employee SchedulingMethods• Employee Scheduling: the arrangement of work hours and off-days• A. Flextime—employees are allowed to begin and end their workday within a range of hours; employees must be at work during a “core time”• B. Compressed Workweeks• C. Special Weekend Schedules• D. Reducing 40-Hour Work Week
Employee SchedulingMethods• E. Job Sharing• F. Part-Time Employment• G. Homework & Telecommuting• H. Shift Scheduling
VII. Job Structuring for the Disabled• The Americans with Disabilities Act and the Rehabilitation Act: – Prohibit discrimination – Require employers to structure jobs so that the disabled can be reasonably accommodated – Reasonable accommodations
VIII. Jobs and Positions• Job: a collection of tasks grouped together in a formal assignment with a unique title and performed by one or more employees• Position: the number of each type of job
IX. Job Descriptions• A job description has four basic parts: – 1. Job title – 2. One-sentence summary – 3. Detailed definition of tasks – 4. The job specifications• Description of tasks: – Element – Task
X. Job Specifications• Job Specifications: explain the qualifications a person must possess to perform the tasks of a job• Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Training, Education, and Experience
XI. Glossary• Job structuring – Strategic management activity involving the formal definitions of tasks and jobs and authority delegations so organizational goals are accomplished• Organizational behavior – Employees respond to planned and unplanned stimuli
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