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Managerial Decision Making             Chapter 9
Managerial Decision Making     Decision                     making is not easy     It      must be done amid          – ...
Managerial                                                                                 Topics    Decision Making      ...
Decisions and Decision Making     Decision = choice made from available       alternatives     Decision                 ...
Categories of Decisions     Programmed                                Decisions         Situations occurred often enough ...
Decisions and Decision Making     Many  decisions that managers deal with      every day involve at least some degree of ...
Certainty, Risk, Uncertainty, Ambiguity    ●      Certainty             ●    all the information the decision maker needs ...
Conditions that Affect the Possibility      of Decision Failure                                                     Organi...
Selecting a Decision Making Model          Depends   on the manager’s personal           preference          Whether the...
Three Decision-Making Models                                                      Classical Model                        ...
Classical Model     Logical decision in the organization’s best economic interests           Assumptions                 ...
Administrative       Model                                                                    Herbert A. Simon How nonprog...
Administrative Model How nonprogrammed decisions are made--uncertainty/ambiguity    Managers actually make decisions in di...
Political Model                     Closely resembles the real environment                                                ...
Characteristics of Classical, Political,          and Administrative Decision Making          ModelsClassical Model       ...
Six Steps in the Managerial                                                Decision-Making Process                        ...
Recognition of Decision     Requirement      Problem                                                               Oppor...
Diagnosis and Analysis of Causes      Diagnosis = analyze underlying causal        factors associated with the decision s...
Underlying Causes - Kepner /Tregoe        What is the state of disequilibrium affecting us?        When did it occur?   ...
Selection of Desired Alternatives      Risk   Propensity = willingness to undertake        risk with the opportunity of g...
Decision Styles      Differences   among people with respect to how         they perceive problems and make decisions    ...
Personal Decision Framework     Situation:                                            Personal Decision                   ...
Directive Style      People  who prefer simple, clear-cut solutions       to problems      Make decisions quickly      ...
Analytical Style      Complex   solutions based on as much data       as they can gather      Carefully consider alterna...
Conceptual Style        Consider a broad amount of information        More socially oriented than analytical style     ...
Behavioral Style        Have a deep concern for others as individuals        Like to talk to people one-on-one        U...
Participation in                                                                         Vroom-Jago      Decision Making  ...
Participation in                                                                          Vroom-Jago     Decision Making  ...
Seven Leader Diagnostic Questions    How significant is the decision?    How important is subordinate commitment?    Wh...
New Decision Approaches         for Turbulent Times                                                                       ...
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Chapter 9 managerial decision making

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  1. 1. Managerial Decision Making Chapter 9
  2. 2. Managerial Decision Making  Decision making is not easy  It must be done amid – ever-changing factors – unclear information – conflicting points of view Manager’s Challenge: Tupperware Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.2
  3. 3. Managerial Topics Decision Making Chapter 9  Decision Characteristics  Decision-making Models  Steps Executives Take Making Important Decisions  Participative Decision Making  Techniques for Improving Decision Making in Today’s Organizations Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.3
  4. 4. Decisions and Decision Making  Decision = choice made from available alternatives  Decision Making = process of identifying problems and opportunities and resolving them Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.4
  5. 5. Categories of Decisions  Programmed Decisions Situations occurred often enough to enable – decision rules to be developed and applied in the future – Made in response to recurring organizational problems  Nonprogrammed Decisions – in response to unique, poorly defined and largely unstructured, and have important consequences to the organization Ethical Dilemma: The No-Show Consultant Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.5
  6. 6. Decisions and Decision Making  Many decisions that managers deal with every day involve at least some degree of uncertainty and require nonprogrammed decision making  May be difficult to make  Made amid changing factors  Information may be unclear  May have to deal with conflicting points of view Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.6
  7. 7. Certainty, Risk, Uncertainty, Ambiguity ● Certainty ● all the information the decision maker needs is fully available ● Risk ● decision has clear-cut goals ● good information is available ● future outcomes associated with each alternative are subject to chance ● Uncertainty ● managers know which goals they wish to achieve ● information about alternatives and future events is incomplete ● managers may have to come up with creative approaches to alternatives ● Ambiguity ● by far the most difficult decision situation ● goals to be achieved or the problem to be solved is unclear ● alternatives are difficult to define ● information about outcomes is unavailable Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.7
  8. 8. Conditions that Affect the Possibility of Decision Failure Organizational Problem Low Possibility of Failure High Certainty Risk Uncertainty Ambiguity Programmed Nonprogrammed Decisions Decisions Problem Solution Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.8
  9. 9. Selecting a Decision Making Model  Depends on the manager’s personal preference  Whether the decision is programmed or non-programmed  Extent to which the decision is characterized by risk, uncertainty, or ambiguity Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.9
  10. 10. Three Decision-Making Models  Classical Model  Administrative Model  Political Model Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.10
  11. 11. Classical Model Logical decision in the organization’s best economic interests Assumptions  Decision maker operates to accomplish goals that are known and agreed upon  Decision maker strives for condition of certainty – gathers complete information  Criteria for evaluating alternatives are known  Decision maker is rational and uses logic Normative = describes how a manager should make and provides guidelines for reaching an ideal decision for the organization Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.11
  12. 12. Administrative Model Herbert A. Simon How nonprogrammed decisions are made--uncertainty/ambiguity  Two concepts are instrumental in shaping the administrative model ● Bounded rationality: people have limits or boundaries on how rational they can be ● Satisficing: means that decision makers choose the first solution alternative that satisfies minimal decision criteria Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.12
  13. 13. Administrative Model How nonprogrammed decisions are made--uncertainty/ambiguity Managers actually make decisions in difficult situations characterized by non-programmed decisions, uncertainty, and ambiguity ●Decision goals often are vague, conflicting and lack consensus among managers; ●Rational procedures are not always used ●Managers’ searches for alternatives are limited ●Managers settle for a satisficing rather than a maximizing solution ●Descriptive = how managers actually make decisions--not how they should ●Intuition = Immediate comprehension of a decision situation based on past experience but without conscious thought Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.13
  14. 14. Political Model Closely resembles the real environment Closely resembles the real environment in which most managers and decision ● makers operate Useful in making non-programmed decisions ● Decisions are complex ● Disagreement and conflict over problems and solutions are normal ● Coalition = informal alliance among manages who support a specific goal ● Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.14
  15. 15. Characteristics of Classical, Political, and Administrative Decision Making ModelsClassical Model Administrative Model Political ModelClear-cut problem and goals Vague problem and goals Pluralistic; conflicting goalsCondition of certainty Condition of uncertainty Condition of uncertainty/ambiguityFull information about Limited information about Inconsistent viewpoints; ambiguousalternatives and their outcomes Alternatives and their outcomes informationRational choice by individual Satisficing choice for resolving Bargaining and discussion amongfor maximizing outcomes problem using intuition coalition members Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.15
  16. 16. Six Steps in the Managerial Decision-Making Process   Evaluation Recognition of and Decision Feedback Requirement  Implementation Diagnosis of Chosen Decision- and Analysis Alternative Making of Causes Process    Selection of Development of Desired Alternatives Alternative   Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.16
  17. 17. Recognition of Decision Requirement  Problem  Opportunity =A =A situation in which situation in which organizational managers see accomplishments potential have failed to meet organizational established goals accomplishment that exceed current goals Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.17
  18. 18. Diagnosis and Analysis of Causes  Diagnosis = analyze underlying causal factors associated with the decision situation  Managers make a mistake if they jump into generating alternatives without first exploring the cause of the problem more deeply Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.18
  19. 19. Underlying Causes - Kepner /Tregoe  What is the state of disequilibrium affecting us?  When did it occur?  Where did it occur?  How did it occur?  To whom did it occur?  What is the urgency of the problem?  What is the interconnectedness of events?  What result came from which activity? Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.19
  20. 20. Selection of Desired Alternatives  Risk Propensity = willingness to undertake risk with the opportunity of gaining an increased payoff  Implementation = using managerial, administrative, and persuasive abilities to translate the chosen alternative into action Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.20
  21. 21. Decision Styles  Differences among people with respect to how they perceive problems and make decisions  Not all managers make decisions the same – Directive style – Analytical style – Conceptual style – Behavioral style Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.21
  22. 22. Personal Decision Framework Situation: Personal Decision Decision Choice: · Programmed/non- Style: ·Best Solution to programmed ·Directive Problem · Classical, administrative, ·Analytical political ·Conceptual · Decision steps ·Behavioral Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.22
  23. 23. Directive Style  People who prefer simple, clear-cut solutions to problems  Make decisions quickly  May consider only one or two alternatives  Efficient and rational  Prefer rules or procedures Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.23
  24. 24. Analytical Style  Complex solutions based on as much data as they can gather  Carefully consider alternatives  Base decision on objective, rational data from management control systems and other sources  Search for best possible decision based on information available Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.24
  25. 25. Conceptual Style  Consider a broad amount of information  More socially oriented than analytical style  Like to talk to others about the problem and possible solutions  Consider many broad alternatives  Relay on information from people and systems  Solve problems creatively Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.25
  26. 26. Behavioral Style  Have a deep concern for others as individuals  Like to talk to people one-on-one  Understand their feelings about the problem and the effect of a given decision upon them  Concerned with the personal development of others  May make decisions to help others achieve their goals Experiential Exercise: What’s Your Personal Decision Style? Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.26
  27. 27. Participation in Vroom-Jago Decision Making Model  Helps gauge the appropriate amount of participation for subordinates in process ● Leader Participation Styles  Five levels of subordinate participation in decision making ranging from highly autocratic to highly democratic  Decide – Consult Individually – Consult Group – Facilitate – Delegate Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.27
  28. 28. Participation in Vroom-Jago Decision Making Model  Diagnostic Questions  Decision participation depends on the responses to seven diagnostic questions about ● the problem ● the required level of decision quality ● the importance of having subordinates commit to the decision Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.28
  29. 29. Seven Leader Diagnostic Questions  How significant is the decision?  How important is subordinate commitment?  What is the level of the leader’s expertise?  If the leader were to make the decision alone at what level would subordinates be committed to the decision?  What level is the subordinate’s support for the team or organization’s objectives?  What is the member’s level of knowledge or expertise relative to the problem?  How skilled or committed are group members to working together? Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.29
  30. 30. New Decision Approaches for Turbulent Times h ys New eF ive W th Brainsto Decision Practice rming Approaches for Turbulent Times Kno ate w W he b n to s De Bail r ou Le i go ar i nR n, e ag D g on En ’t Pu ni sh Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.30
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