Leadership     Chapter 15
Topics      Leadership                                                                                 Chapter 15Different...
LeadershipDifferent leaders behave in different ways – style, need, situation      There     is probably no topic more   ...
Nature of Leadership                                                                          travel the globe solving    ...
Leadership versus Management    Management                                                                                ...
Leader versus Manager Qualities                        Leader Qualities                                             Manage...
Leadership Traits     Traits  - distinguishing personal        characteristics, such as intelligence, values        and a...
Personal Characteristics of Leaders    Physical Characteristics Personality                                               ...
Behavioral Approaches     Ohio State StudiesConsideration: people-oriented behavior– Is mindful of subordinates– Establish...
Behavioral Approaches     Michigan State Studies                  At about the same time as Ohio State Studies      Unive...
The Leadership Grid                  Blake and Mouton; University of Texas      Two-dimensional     leadership theory tha...
The Leadership Grid     High         Leadership Grid            1,9                                    Country Club Manage...
Contingency Approaches - the     relationship between leadership styles and specific     organizational situations      F...
Contingency Theory     A Leader needs to know     Whether they have a relationship- or task-oriented style     And shoul...
Situational Leadership Theory Links leader’s behavioral style with subordinates’ task readiness         Follower Character...
Path-Goal Theory     - Leader’s responsibility is to increase motivation by     clarifying the behaviors necessary for tas...
Path-Goal Theory      Leader Behaviors                  Classification of (4) leader behaviors             Supportive lea...
Path-Goal Theory      Leaders Behaviors               Classification of (4) leader behaviors           Participative lead...
Path-Goal Situations &       Preferred Leader Behavior     Source: Adapted from Gary A. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations ...
Leading Change     Transactional Leaders        A leader who clarifies role and task requirements        Initiates struc...
Leading Change     Charismatic Leaders      A leader who has the ability to motivate       subordinates to transcend thei...
Leading Change      Transformational                                      Leader        Similar to charismatic leaders  ...
Sources of Power         Legitimate Power: power coming from a formal          management position.         Reward Power...
Post-Heroic Leadership     for Turbulent Times      The   turbulence and uncertainty of the         environment in which ...
Post-Heroic Leadership     for Turbulent Times      Five  Approaches of Post-Heroic Leadership        for Turbulent Time ...
Post-Heroic Leadership     for Turbulent Times          3.       Interactive Leadership – a leader characterized          ...
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Chapter 15 leadership

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Chapter 15 leadership

  1. 1. Leadership Chapter 15
  2. 2. Topics Leadership Chapter 15Different leaders behave in different ways – style, need, situation  Leadership definition  Differences in leadership and management  Theories of leadership effectiveness  Charismatic and transformational leadership  How leaders use power and influence to get things done  New leadership approaches for today’s turbulent environment Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.2
  3. 3. LeadershipDifferent leaders behave in different ways – style, need, situation  There is probably no topic more important to business success today than leadership leadership occurs among people involves the use of influence is used to attain goals Manager’s Challenge: Aramark Corp. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.3
  4. 4. Nature of Leadership travel the globe solving problems  Leadership is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals.  Leadership is reciprocal, occurring among people.  Leadership is a “people” activity, distinct from administrative paper shuffling or problem-solving activities.  Leadership is dynamic and involves the use of power. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.4
  5. 5. Leadership versus Management Management Leadership Promotes Promotes stability, order vision, and problem creativity, and solving within change existing organizational M L structure and systems Takes care of where you are Takes you to a new place Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.5
  6. 6. Leader versus Manager Qualities Leader Qualities Manager Qualities SOUL MIND Visionary Rational Passionate Consulting Creative Persistent Flexible Problem solving Inspiring Tough-minded Innovative Analytical Courageous Structured Imaginative Deliberate Experimental Authoritative Initiates change Stabilizing Personal power Position power Source: Genevieve Capowski, “Anatomy of a Leader: Where Are the Leaders of Tomorrow?” Management Review, March 1994, 12 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.6
  7. 7. Leadership Traits  Traits - distinguishing personal characteristics, such as intelligence, values and appearance  Great Man approach - early research focused on leaders who had achieved a level of greatness – Find out what made them great – Find people with same traits Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.7
  8. 8. Personal Characteristics of Leaders Physical Characteristics Personality Social Characteristics Energy Self-confidence Sociability, interpersonal skills Physical stamina Honesty & integrity Cooperativeness Enthusiasm Ability to enlist cooperation Desire to lead Tact, diplomacy Social Background Independence Education Mobility Intelligence and Ability Work-related Characteristics Judgment, Achievement drive decisiveness Drive to excel Knowledge Conscientiousness in pursuit of goals Intelligence, cognitive Persistence against obstacles, tenacity ability Source: Adapted from Bernard M. Bass, Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, rev. Ed. (New York: Free Press, 1981), 75-76. This adaptation appeared in R. Albanese and D. D. Van Fleet, Organizational Behavior: A managerial Viewpoint (Hinsdale, III.: The Dryden Press, 1983). Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.8
  9. 9. Behavioral Approaches Ohio State StudiesConsideration: people-oriented behavior– Is mindful of subordinates– Establishes mutual trust– Provides open communication– Develops teamworkInitiating Structure: task-oriented behavior– Directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment– Typically gives instructions, spends time planning, and emphasizes deadlines– Provides explicit schedules of work activities Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.9
  10. 10. Behavioral Approaches Michigan State Studies At about the same time as Ohio State Studies  University of Michigan compared the behavior of effective and ineffective supervisors Employee-centered leaders – leaders who establish high performance goals and displayed supportive behavior toward subordinates Job-centered leaders – leaders who favor meeting schedules, keeping costs low and achieving production efficiency Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.10
  11. 11. The Leadership Grid Blake and Mouton; University of Texas  Two-dimensional leadership theory that measures the leader’s concern for people and for production  Builds on the work of Ohio State and Michigan State studies Experiential Exercise: T-P Leadership Questionnaire Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.11
  12. 12. The Leadership Grid High Leadership Grid 1,9 Country Club Management Team Management 9,9 Thoughtful attention to the Work accomplishment is from needs of people for satisfying committed people; interdependence relationships leads to a com- through a “common stake” in fortable, friendly organization organization purpose leads to atmosphere and work tempo. Concern for People relationships of trust and respect. 5,5 5,5 Middle-of-the-Road Management Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of Impoverished people at a satisfactory level. Authority-Compliance Management Efficiency in operations Exertion of minimum effort results from arranging to get required work done conditions of work in such a is appropriate to sustain way that human elements organization membership. interfere to a minimum Low 1,1 degree. 9,1 Low Concern for Production High Source: The Leadership Grid Figure from Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse, Leadership Dilemmas-Grid Solutions (Houston: Gulf, 1991), 29. Copyright 1991, by Scientific Methods, Inc. Reproduced by permission of the owners. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.12
  13. 13. Contingency Approaches - the relationship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations  Fiedler’s Contingency Theory  Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory  Evans and House Path-Goal Theory Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.13
  14. 14. Contingency Theory A Leader needs to know Whether they have a relationship- or task-oriented style And should diagnose the situation and determine the favorableness of the following three areas Source: Fred E. Fiedler, “The Effects of Leadership Training and Experience: A Contingency Model Interpretation,” Administrative Science Quarterly 17 (1972), 455. Reprinted by permission of Administrative Science Quarterly. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.14
  15. 15. Situational Leadership Theory Links leader’s behavioral style with subordinates’ task readiness Follower Characteristics Low Readiness Level Appropriate Leader Style Low Readiness Level Telling Moderate Readiness Level Selling High Readiness Level Participating Very High Readiness Level Delegating Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.15
  16. 16. Path-Goal Theory - Leader’s responsibility is to increase motivation by clarifying the behaviors necessary for task completion and reward Source: Based on Bernard M. Bass, “Leadership: Good, Better, Best,” Organizational Dynamics 13 (Winter 1985), 26-40. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.16
  17. 17. Path-Goal Theory Leader Behaviors Classification of (4) leader behaviors  Supportive leadership: - Leader behavior that shows concern for subordinates - Open, friendly, and approachable - Creates a team climate - Treats subordinates as equals  Directive leadership: - Tells subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do - Planning, making schedules, setting performance goals, and behavior standards Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.17
  18. 18. Path-Goal Theory Leaders Behaviors Classification of (4) leader behaviors  Participative leadership: … Consults with his or her subordinates about decisions  Achievement-oriented leadership: … Sets clear and challenging goals for subordinates … Behavior stresses high-quality performance Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.18
  19. 19. Path-Goal Situations & Preferred Leader Behavior Source: Adapted from Gary A. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1981), 146-152. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.19
  20. 20. Leading Change Transactional Leaders  A leader who clarifies role and task requirements  Initiates structure  Provides rewards  And displays consideration for subordinates  Meet the social needs of subordinates Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.20
  21. 21. Leading Change Charismatic Leaders  A leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance  Tend to be less predictable than transactional leaders  Create an atmosphere of change  May be obsessed by visionary ideas Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.21
  22. 22. Leading Change  Transformational Leader  Similar to charismatic leaders  A leader distinguished by their special ability to bring about innovation and change by  Recognizing followers’ needs and concerns  Helping them look at old problems in new ways  Encouraging them to question the status quo Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.22
  23. 23. Sources of Power  Legitimate Power: power coming from a formal management position.  Reward Power: stems from the authority to bestow rewards on other people.  Coercive Power: the authority to punish or recommend punishment.  Expert Power: leader’s special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks performed by followers.  Referent Power: personality characteristics that command subordinates’ identification, respect, and admiration so they wish to emulate the leader Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.23
  24. 24. Post-Heroic Leadership for Turbulent Times  The turbulence and uncertainty of the environment in which most organizations are operating is a significant influence on leadership styles  Post-heroic leader’s major characteristic is humility • Humility – being unpretentious and modest rather than arrogant and prideful Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.24
  25. 25. Post-Heroic Leadership for Turbulent Times  Five Approaches of Post-Heroic Leadership for Turbulent Time 1. Servant Leadership – a leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization’s larger mission 2. Level 5 Leadership – a leader who builds an enduring great organization through a combination of humility and professional resolve Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.25
  26. 26. Post-Heroic Leadership for Turbulent Times 3. Interactive Leadership – a leader characterized by values such as inclusion, collaboration, relationship building and caring 4. E-Leadership – a leader who uses information technology as a means to achieve organizational goals 5. Moral Leadership – distinguishing between right and wrong and choosing to do right in the practice of leadership Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.26
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