60 a intro to argument


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60 a intro to argument

  1. 1. April 28th<br />60 A<br />
  2. 2. DUE TODAY:<br />READING:<br />How Not To Be Bamboozled by Donna Woolfolk Cross<br />REMINDER:<br />Final Draft of Comparison/Contrast Paragraph is DUE TUESDAY!<br />
  3. 3. Introduction to Thinking Critically and Arguing Well.<br />Small/Large Group Discussion (Propaganda)<br />Thinking Critically…<br />What does this mean and how do we do it?<br />Sentence Skills 1<br />The Writer’s World (Ch. 15-17)<br />Today’s Agenda<br />
  4. 4. How Not to be Bamboozled<br />BY: Donna Woolfolk Cross<br />
  5. 5. Group Challenge<br />
  6. 6. DESCRIBE YOUR PITFALLS<br /><ul><li>« pitfalls for the unwary. »
  7. 7. 6 groups:</li></ul>Name Calling and GlitteringGeneralities<br />Plain-FolksAppeal and Stroking<br />Argument to the Man and Transfer (Guilt or Glory by association)<br />Bandwagon and Faulty Cause and Effect<br />False Analogy and Begging the Question<br />The Two-ExtremesFallacy (False Dilemma) and CardStacking<br /><ul><li>AnswerThese Questions:</li></ul>Whatisit?<br />How doesitwork? <br />Whatis the goal?<br />How canwedefendagainstit?<br />On the board: Write a brief description. <br />
  8. 8. Find as manyexamples as youcan of thesefallacies AND chargedlanguage (virtuewords) in the following clips:<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3izn6w3Mys<br />Stay in your groups! <br />Challenge<br />
  9. 9. What does that mean?<br />Becoming a Critical Thinker<br />
  10. 10. GRAMMAR SKILLS<br />SENTENCES I<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. REVIEW<br />
  13. 13. *CLAUSES<br />A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb that functions as a part or all of a complete sentence.<br />
  14. 14. Types of Clauses<br /><ul><li>*Independent (main) Clause
  15. 15. A group of words with a subject and a verb that can stand alone and make sense. An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can be written as a separate, simple sentence.
  16. 16. Ex. She plays the bass guitar.
  17. 17. Ex. I play the drums.
  18. 18. *Dependent Clause
  19. 19. A group of words with a subject and verb that depends on a main clause to give it meaning. Cannot stand alone as a sentence.
  20. 20. Ex. Since Shannon came home.
  21. 21. Ex. Because she was needed.</li></li></ul><li>4 Types of Sentences<br />*Simple<br />*Compound<br />*Complex<br />*Compound-Complex<br />
  22. 22. Simple Sentences<br /><ul><li>Consist of one independent clause and no dependent clauses.
  23. 23. The lake looks beautiful in the moonlight.
  24. 24. We sang the old songs and danced happily at their wedding.</li></li></ul><li>Long Sentences<br />Why is variety important? How can you use sentences as rhetorical moves?<br />
  25. 25. Different Types of Long Sentences<br />
  26. 26. Compound Sentences<br /><ul><li>Consist of two or more independent clauses with no dependent clauses.
  27. 27. Can be joined by a conjunction OR by a semicolon.
  28. 28. He opened the drawer, and he found his missing disk.
  29. 29. He opened the drawer; he found his missing disk.</li></li></ul><li>Complex Sentences<br /><ul><li>Consist of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
  30. 30. When lilacs are in bloom, we love to visit friends in the country.
  31. 31. TIP: always use a comma after a dependent clause that appears before the main clause.</li></li></ul><li>Compound-Complex Sentences<br /><ul><li>Consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
  32. 32. Albert enlisted in the Army, and Jason, who was his older brother, joined him a day later.
  33. 33. Because Mr. Sanchez was a talented teacher, he was voted teacher of the year, and his students prospered.</li></li></ul><li>Ways to Add Variety to Your Sentences<br />
  34. 34. Use Questions and Exclamations!<br />
  35. 35. Switch Up Your Sentence Openings<br /><ul><li>Start with Adverbs
  36. 36. Start with a Preposition</li></li></ul><li>SentencesPart 2:Varying Methods of Joining Ideas<br />Combining Sentences<br />-Why do we combine sentences?<br />-What is the purpose?<br />
  37. 37. The Compound Sentence<br />If you intend to communicate two equally important and closely related ideas, you certainly will want to place them close together, probably in a compound sentence. <br />-How can we join two, independent ideas?<br />
  38. 38. Conjunction Review<br />The FANBOYS<br />
  39. 39. 27<br />Functions of FANBOYS<br /><ul><li>FOR shows a reason: I am very tired, for I worked hard today.
  40. 40. AND shows equal ideas: I am very tired, and I want to rest for a few minutes.
  41. 41. NOR indicates a negative choice or alternative: I am not tired, nor am I hungry right now.
  42. 42. BUT shows contrast: I am very tired, but I have no time to rest now.
  43. 43. OR indicates a choice or alternative: I will take a nap, or I will go out jogging.
  44. 44. YET indicates contrast: I am tired, yet I am unable to relax.
  45. 45. SO points to a result: I am tired, so I will take a nap.</li></li></ul><li>*Punctuation with Coordinating Conjunctions<br />When you combine two sentences by using a coordinating conjunction, drop the first period, change the capital letter that begins the second sentence to a small letter, and insert a comma before the coordinating conjunction.<br />-I hate mice. I have a cat. <br />
  46. 46. Joining Sentences with Semicolons<br />We were late. We missed the first act.<br />We were late; we missed the first act. <br />
  47. 47. Joining Sentences with Conjunctive Adverbs<br />We were late. We missed the first act.<br />-We were late; therefore, we missed the first act.<br />-More conjunctive adverbs:also, consequently, furthermore, hence, however, in fact, moreover, nevertheless, now, on the other hand, otherwise, soon, therefore, similarly, then, thus<br />
  48. 48. The Complex Sentence<br /><ul><li> Whereas a compound sentence contains independent clauses that are equally important and closely related, a complex sentence combines ideas of unequal value (one or more dependent clauses). </li></ul>My neighbors are considerate, and they never play loud music. (equal value)<br />Because my neighbors are considerate, they never play loud music. <br />
  49. 49. 32<br />*Subordinating Conjunctions<br />Show the relationship of a dependent clause to an independent clause<br />Because the storm hit, the game was canceled.<br />After the storm passed, the dogs began to bark.<br />He did not volunteer to work on the holiday, although the pay was good.<br />They refused to work unless they were allowed to wear chef’s hats. <br />MORE: as, as if, even if, even though, if, in order that, rather than, so that, than, whenever, where, while, whether, wherever, whereas, provided that<br />
  50. 50. 33<br />Punctuation with Subordinating Conjunctions<br /><ul><li>If the dependent clause comes before the main clause, set it off with a comma.
  51. 51. Before Mike wrote his final draft, he looked over his outline.
  52. 52. If the dependent clause comes after or within the main clause, set in off only if the clause is not necessary to the meaning of the main clause or if the dependent clause begins with the word(s) although, though, or even though.
  53. 53. We went home after the concert had ended.
  54. 54. He continued painting, although he had repainted the cabinet twice.</li></li></ul><li>The Compound-Complex Sentence<br /><ul><li>At times you may want to show the relationship of three or more ideas within one sentence. If that relationship involves two or more main ideas and one or more supporting ideas, the combination can be stated in a compound-complex sentence (two or more independent clauses and one or dependent clauses).</li></li></ul><li>For Example:<br />Before he learned how to operate a computer, he had trouble with his typewritten assignments, but now he produces clean, attractive pages. <br />
  55. 55. 36<br />*Punctuation of Complicated Compound or Compound-Complex Sentences<br />If a compound or compound-complex sentence has one or more commas in the first clause, you may want to use a semicolon before the coordinating conjunction between the two clauses. Its purpose is to show the reader very clearly the division between the two independent clauses. <br />Because the Fourth of July fireworks were especially loud, my dog ran away; but when the animal control officer made his morning rounds, he found my dog in another part of town.<br />
  56. 56. QUESTIONS??<br />
  57. 57. Critical ThinkingWhat is it? <br />I am not a parrot!<br />"Study without reflection is a waste of time; reflection without study is dangerous." -- Confucius<br />
  58. 58. Benefits of thinking critically<br />Students are able to raise vital questions and problems, as well as formulate and present them clearly—in school and at home. <br />Students can gather and assess information and interpret it effectively<br />Students can reach well-reasoned conclusions and solutions to problems while testing them against relevant criteria and standards<br />Students can be open-minded<br />Students can clearly communicate ideas, positions, and solutions to others (share the wealth )<br />
  59. 59. Novice Vs. Expert Thinker…<br />Expert thinkers<br />Quickly identify relevant information<br />Can formulate a solution with “sketchy” information<br />Novice thinkers<br />Consider all information equally important<br />Develop hypothesis, test hypothesis<br />Cannot focus on central issues<br />
  60. 60. Attitude? Examples?<br />What about in an argument?<br />What types of ‘arguers’ are there? <br />What are Critical Thinkers Like?<br />
  61. 61. Dispositions of Critical Thinkers<br />Engagement<br />Looking for opportunities to use reasoning <br />Anticipating situations that require reasoning<br />Confident in reasoning ability<br />Innovativeness<br />Intellectually curious<br />Wants to know the truth<br />Cognitive maturity<br />Aware that real problems are complex<br />Open to other points of view<br />Aware of biases and predispositions<br />
  62. 62. What is intelligence?<br />Universal standards.<br />
  63. 63. Universal Intellectual Standards<br />Clear: If a statement is unclear we cannot evaluate its fit with the other standards. <br />Accurate: Accuracy = TRUTH. Is it true?<br />Precise: Is there enough detail to completely understand the statement. <br />Relevant: Is the information connected to the question at hand?<br />
  64. 64. Universal Intellectual Standards<br />Depth: Does the statement, fact, etc. address the complexity of the issue? <br />Breadth: Are there other points of view or other ways to consider this question? Are you considering the key factors?<br />Logic: Does it make sense? Can you make that conclusion based on the information and evidence?<br />
  65. 65. Critical thinking begins when you question beyond what is given.<br />You want to know more:<br /><ul><li> how something happens,
  66. 66. why it happens, and further
  67. 67. what will happen if something changes. </li></ul> <br />Critical thinking, therefore, requires a conscious level of processing, analysis, creation and evaluation of possible outcomes, and reflection. <br />
  68. 68. If you’re a critical thinker, you think.<br />….No surprise….<br />You are willing to examine your beliefs, assumptions, and opinions and weigh them against facts. You are willing to evaluate the generalizations and stereotypes you have created and are open to change, if necessary.<br />
  69. 69. Critical Thinking Takes Critical Listening<br />
  70. 70. Critical thinkers listen carefully.<br />If you’re a critical thinker, you listen carefully to what others are saying and are able to give feedback. You are able to suspend judgment until all the facts have been gathered and considered.<br />
  71. 71. Critical thinkers look for evidence….<br />If you’re a critical thinker, you look for evidence to support your assumptions and beliefs. You examine problems closely and are able to reject information that is incorrect or irrelevant. <br />
  72. 72. Therefore…through experience, as a critical thinker, you will:<br /><ul><li> identify information that is being put forth as an argument and break it down to its basic components for evaluation.
  73. 73. construct alternative interpretations
  74. 74. be willing to explore diverse perspectives
  75. 75. be willing to change personal assumptions when presented with valid information
  76. 76. be willing to ask difficult questions and the ability to receptive to opposing viewpoints.</li></li></ul><li>Critical thinkers are curious.<br />They are interested in knowing all there is about a topic. They look for new and better ways to do everything. They are not the person who will settle for “…because that is the way we have always done it.” <br />
  77. 77. Definitions<br />Critical thinking is . . .<br /><ul><li>Thinking “outside” the box
  78. 78. Divergent thinking
  79. 79. Forming logical inferences
  80. 80. Limitless thinking
  81. 81. Higher level thinking involving. . .</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Evaluating
  82. 82. Analyzing
  83. 83. Synthesizing
  84. 84. Forming opinions
  85. 85. Assessing
  86. 86. Rating
  87. 87. Making inferences
  88. 88. Drawing conclusions
  89. 89. Critiquing</li></ul>IN ACCORDANCE WITH . . .<br />
  90. 90. BLOOM’S TAXONOMY– A HIERARCHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE LEVELS OF THINKING <br />EVALUATION—critiquing,rating, grading, assaying, assessing, inferring,<br /> drawing conclusions, forming opinions<br /> SYNTHESIS—redesigning, recreating, putting back together in adifferent way<br /> ANALYSIS—examining, taking apart, breaking down<br /> APPLICATION—usingknowledge & comprehension; solvingproblems<br /> COMPREHENSION—understanding, paraphrasing, interpreting<br />COMPLEX<br />SIMPLE<br />KNOWLEDGE—naming, recognizing, identifying, recalling, reciting, etc.<br />
  91. 91. Understanding Bloom’s Taxonomy<br />. . . a hierarchyis a sequential organization<br />. . . it progresses upward from simple to complex<br />. . . each level builds upon the preceding level(s)<br />. . . an appropriate concept map of Bloom’s Taxonomy is pyramidalin shape, beginning at the base with knowledge and progressing upward<br />. . . at the highest levels there is no 1 “right” answer<br />Ex.: What is your opinion of . . .? <br /> What conclusions can you draw from . . .? <br /> How would you rate the movie . . .?<br />
  92. 92. Checkpoint<br />Which level of Bloom’s Taxonomy are you thinking on when you . . .<br /> 1. Paraphrase information you just read in your history textbook?<br /> 2. Summarize a case study presented in clinical psychology ?<br /> 3. Write a movie review for English class?<br /> 4. Prepare a book review?<br /> 5. Recite the Gettysburg Address?<br /> 6. Work some problems in math?<br /> 7. Make a timeline for the historical period referred to as “The Stormy<br /> Sixties”?<br /> 8. Use a microscope to see what kinds of markings an onion skin has.<br /> 9. Identify a fellow student by name?<br /> 10. Translate a story from Polish to English?<br />
  93. 93. CheckpointAnswers<br />Comprehension. Paraphrasing is a simple rewording ofinformation. Rephrase the information for clarification or improved understanding.<br />Synthesis. Summarizing requires weeding out of non-essential information then putting the remaining information together sequentially.<br />Evaluation. Requires opinion. Reading and reacting to the “facts”presented.<br />Evaluation. Calls for one’s personal response to ideas presented,style of presentation, etc.<br />Knowledge. Rote memory requires little if any “thinking”. It is simply recall of sequential presentation of information.<br />Application. Paraphrasing in graphic format—a step above comprehension.<br />Synthesis. Requires weeding out and organizing in order to chronologically arrangeevents.<br />Analysis. Examination—exactly what analysis is!<br />Knowledge. Putting name and face together—low-level skill.<br />Comprehension. Being able to translate indicates understanding(of language and material!)<br />
  94. 94. Why Is Critical Thinking Important?<br /> It . . .<br />. . . underlies reading, writing, listening and speaking—basic elements of communication<br />. . . plays an important part in social change. . .<br /> institutions in any society—courts, governments, schools, businesses—are the products of critical thinking<br />. . . plays a major role in technological advances<br />. . . blazes a path to freedom from half-truths and deceptions<br />
  95. 95. How Can One Become a Critical Thinker?<br />By asking pertinent questions (of self as well as others);<br />By assessing statements and arguments;<br />By developing a sense of observation and curiosity; <br />By becoming interested in finding new solutions;<br />By developing a “thinker’s<br /> vocabulary”.<br />By listening carefully to others, thinking about what they say, and giving feedback;<br />By observing with an open mind;<br />By making assertions based on sound logic and solid evidence;<br />By sharing ideas with others;<br />By becoming an open-minded listener and reader;<br />By engaging in active reading and active listening!<br />
  96. 96. And most importantly…<br />By examining beliefs, assumptions, and opinions and weighing them against reality.<br />
  97. 97. Who Uses Critical Thinking?<br />Parents <br />Nurses<br />Doctors<br />Athletic coaches<br />Teachers/Professors<br />Air Traffic Controllers<br />Military Commanders <br />Lawyers, Judges<br />Supervisors<br />Day Care Workers<br />STUDENTS ! !<br />
  98. 98. Thinking Critically in the Classroom<br />Some Elements and Rules<br />
  99. 99. The Elements of Critical Thinking<br />All reasoning has a purpose. <br />All reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some question, to solve some problem. <br />All reasoning is based on assumptions. <br />All reasoning is done from some point of view. <br />All reasoning is based on data, information, and evidence. <br />All reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, concepts and ideas. <br />All reasoning contains inferences by which we draw conclusions and give meaning to data. <br />All reasoning leads somewhere, has implications and consequences. <br />(5) http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html<br />
  100. 100. All reasoning has a purpose. <br /><ul><li>Take time to state your purpose clearly.
  101. 101. Distinguish your purpose from related purposes.
  102. 102. Check periodically to be sure you are still on target.
  103. 103. Choose significant and realistic purposes. </li></ul>(5) http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html<br />
  104. 104. All reasoning is an attempt to figuresomething out, tosettlesome question, tosolvesome problem.<br /><ul><li>Take time to clearly and precisely state the question at issue.
  105. 105. Express the question in several ways to clarify its meaning and scope.
  106. 106. Break the question into sub questions.
  107. 107. Identify if the question has one right answer, is a matter of opinion, or requires reasoning from more than one point of view. </li></ul>(5) http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html<br />
  108. 108. All reasoning is based on assumptions. <br /><ul><li>Clearly identify your assumptions and determine whether they are justifiable.
  109. 109. Consider how your assumptions are shaping your point of view. </li></ul>(5) http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html<br />
  110. 110. All reasoning is done from some point of view. <br /><ul><li>Identify your point of view.
  111. 111. Seek other points of view and identify their strengths as well as weaknesses.
  112. 112. Strive to be fair-minded in evaluating all points of view. </li></ul>(5) http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html<br />
  113. 113. All reasoning is based on data,informationandevidence. <br /><ul><li>Restrict your claims to those supported by the data you have.
  114. 114. Search for information that opposes your position as well as information that supports it.
  115. 115. Make sure that all information used is clear, accurate, and relevant to the question at issue.
  116. 116. Make sure you have gathered sufficient information. </li></ul>(5) http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html<br />
  117. 117. All reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, concepts and ideas. <br /><ul><li>Identify key concepts and explain them clearly.
  118. 118. Consider alternative concepts or alternative definitions to concepts.
  119. 119. Make sure you are using concepts with care and precision. </li></ul>(5) http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html<br />
  120. 120. All reasoning contains inferences or interpretations by which we draw conclusionsand give meaning to data. <br /><ul><li>Infer only what the evidence implies.
  121. 121. Check inferences for their consistency with each other.
  122. 122. Identify assumptions which lead you to your inferences. </li></ul>(5) http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html<br />
  123. 123. All reasoning leads somewhere or has implicationsand consequences. <br /><ul><li>Trace the implications and consequences that follow from your reasoning.
  124. 124. Search for negative as well as positive implications.
  125. 125. Consider all possible consequences. </li></ul>(5) http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html<br />
  126. 126. Classroom Rules<br />for Critical Thinkers<br />***Because you are not God, it is inevitable some of the beliefs and viewpoints you firmly hold are completely wrong.<br />You must understand the viewpoints of those who disagree with you before you are fully able to understand your own viewpoints.<br />Until you can summarize another viewpoint so well those who hold it agree with your summary, you do not understand that viewpoint.<br />
  127. 127. Classroom Rules<br />for Critical Thinkers<br />You should always assume those who disagree with your viewpoint are as intelligent and as noble-minded as you are.<br />You must be willing to seriously consider alternative viewpoints and to change your mind in order to be a critical thinker.<br />A retreat into relativism is a retreat away from critical thinking. Not all viewpoints are equally valid.<br />(2)<br />
  128. 128. Final Words<br /><ul><li>Critical thinking is “higher level” thinking
  129. 129. It often requires us to think “outside the box”
  130. 130. Many occupations/careers require critical thinking
  131. 131. The things we enjoy in everyday society are the result of critical thinking
  132. 132. By adopting certain habits and behaviors we can learn to think critically.</li></li></ul><li>Who ShouldUse Critical Thinking?<br />EVERYBODY !<br />
  133. 133. Everyone thinks…<br />Everyone thinks.It is in our nature to do so.But so much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, or downright prejudiced.Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce depends on the quality of our thought. <br />-Richard Paul <br />
  134. 134. The world needs critical thinkers – not parrots!<br />I am not a parrot!<br />
  135. 135. Writing with Argument<br />FINAL ASSIGNMENT<br />
  136. 136. Intro to Argument<br />What is the goal of argument?<br />(get reader to accept an idea, adopt a solution, change their opinions, or take action)<br />
  137. 137. Writing Argument<br />
  138. 138. <ul><li>What is the historical or social context for this issue?
  139. 139. How much do you need to include?
  140. 140. Why does this matter?</li></ul>1.) Background:<br />
  141. 141. <ul><li>(the thesis of the essay) What do I want my audience to believe or to do?
  142. 142. State your argument precisely; avoid vague generalized statements
  143. 143. VAGUE: They should do something about all this trash on campus.
  144. 144. Improved: The maintenance department should clean the campus by removing litter and installing more trash cans.
  145. 145. General Subject vs Narrow Subject</li></ul>2) Be Precise: <br />
  146. 146. 3.) Emotion<br /><ul><li>Avoid emotionally charged, insulting, or exaggerated arguments.
  147. 147. These sick child molesters should be put on the spot.
  148. 148. People convicted of multiple sexual assaults against children should be given the maximum sentence the law allows.
  149. 149. AVOID CHARGED LANGUAGE</li></li></ul><li>(taking the opposing view in to account, mainly to show evidence that you are well-researched and to point out its fundamental weakness): <br />What is the view on the other side?<br />Why is it flawed in reasoning or evidence? What are the shortcomings?<br />4.) Refutation<br />
  150. 150. <ul><li>In addition to sound reasoning, can I use appropriate examples, facts, statistics, and opinions from authorities?
  151. 151. What is an authoritative source?</li></ul>5.) Support<br />
  152. 152. <ul><li>Facts
  153. 153. Events/Happenings are facts.
  154. 154. Examples
  155. 155. Number and relevancy
  156. 156. Statistics
  157. 157. Evidence from, and opinions of, authorities.
  158. 158. Who are authorities? Where can you find their stuff?</li></ul>Types of Evidence:<br />
  159. 159. Commonly Used Organizational Pattern:<br />Introduction<br /> background/Proposition<br />Refutation<br />b.) What does the other side say, and why is it inadequate<br />Evidence<br />a. Several paragraphs of evidence- show why your solution is valid.<br />Empathetic Restatement of Proposition (conclusion)<br />b. The clinching statement, often with generalization based on evidence. <br />
  160. 160. <ul><li>You should be acutely concerned with who will read your writing- especially in the workshops. If your readers are likely to be uninformed about the background of your issue, be sure to include it. This discussion of background should lead to the problem for which you have a solution or proposition. </li></ul>Audience:<br />
  161. 161. Distinguishing between opinions and facts<br />How?<br />What role should your beliefs/prejudices play in the essay?<br />Criteria for weighing evidence<br />Stuff to Remember:<br />
  162. 162. Bring a shitty first draft of your argument for peer review. <br />Read: Selection, Slanting and Charged Language by Birk and Birk<br />Journal 6 (final journal) <br />For Next Time F2F<br />