Exadata Migration How to modernize your database platform to realize consolidation savingsChris Bradham
About Applied Engineering ManagementApplied Engineering Management (AEM) Corporation Founded in 1986 as a100% woman-owned businessMore than 25 years of profitable growthHeadquartered in Chantilly, VA with offices located in major metropolitanareas including; Los Angeles, San Antonio, and JacksonvilleDiversified client base including Fortune 500 and major governmentagenciesIndustry recognized awards and certifications for performance, capabilityand delivery
Chris Bradham•Oracle DBA experience 1997 to present (Oracle 7 to 11.2)•Replication, Materialized Views, Data Guard, GoldenGate, Exadata, RAC•Part-time Instructor George Mason University (OCA/OCP)•Oracle Certified Exadata Implementation Specialist, Oracle CertifiedProfessional (11g), Oracle Performance Tuning Certified(11g), ITILFoundation, Security+•Oracle Application Server, SAN Administration, Linux Administration,VMWare, IBM / Sun Blade Administrationchris.firstname.lastname@example.org
What’s being covered? •Technology Refresh •Legacy Environment / Options •Exadata Components •Operational Considerations •Migration Considerations •Results of Migration •Lessons Learned •References •Q & A
Disclaimer The US Navy, Commander Navy Installations Command (CNIC), nor any related government organization in no way endorse Oracle Corporation or the Oracle Exadata Database Machine. The opinions expressed during the presentation are solely those of the presenter and in no way reflects those of the government or any government interest.
Background Information Global multi-service DoD Web-based Housing application Over 300 schemas 750 Gb of data 4,300 Active Users 4.2 million annual log ins 4,500 Reports Generated Per Day AEM Corporation responsible for Hosting / Operations & Maintenance / Technology Refresh
Pre-Tech Refresh Issues Legacy hardware over six years old •Patches (5 nodes, slower machines) •Deployments, data updates time consuming •Large or complex reports often hang •Node evictions due to network / disk speed issues •Oracle 10.2.0.4 Support ended 6/31/11 Data Warehouse delay due to performance requirements (Oracle Streams attempt)
Alternative 1 : Based on Legacy Solution Virtualized application servers Network bonding 8 Gbps Fibre Channel EMC Disk Array 5 Node RAC Servers Oracle 11gR2 RAC install
Alternative 2 : Based on Exadata Solution Virtualized application servers Network bonding 40 Gbps backbone Oracle Storage Servers 2 node Quarter Rack Oracle 11gR2 RAC preconfigured Surprise, we chose Exadata!
Exadata Selection Points•Licensing fees made Exadata the low cost solution•Total database hardware solution o2 nodes vs. 5 nodes oNumber of Vendors•Patch Strategy•Sizable and expandable•Oracle vested to help DoD succeed•Storage Indexes / Smart Scan / Smart Flash Cache
Throughput Gb/Second 80.0 75 70.0 60.0 50.0 2 Gbps Fibre Channel x2 4 Gbps Fibre Channel x2 40.0 8 Gbps Fibre Channel x2 30.0 37 Exadata 1/4 - Disk 20.0 25 Exadata 1/2 - Disk 10.0 12.5 16 Exadata Full - Disk 0.4 0.8 5.4 1.6 Exadata 1/4 - Disk & Flash 0.0 Exadata 1/2 - Disk & Flash Exadata Full - Disk & Flash
Tech Refresh Challenges•100% hardware replacement and Data Center move•Narrow window for outage to avoid negative impact on end users•Performance of system, database growth, and network bandwidth•Exadata unproven in DoD space at the time (Security)•Upgrading Database versions (data/code/reports)Lots of change, what if issues surface???
Smart Flash Cache ConsiderationsHelps with… •Write-Through cache voids caching data that will not be reused •Holds hot data, much faster than disk (small, random I/O) •Data not duplicated from cache in other Storage Servers •Reduce latency of log write by simultaneous write to flash / disk (faster writes) with minimal space (512 Mb) •Write-Back cache 184.108.40.206.9Don’t touch except for… •Alter table <table_name> flash_cache keep; •Create Flash Disks out of the Flash Cache •Reassign portion for TEMP tablespace on index builds
Database Node Considerations•Database Consolidation•SGA Settings •AMM Bad! ASMM Good! (set minimum values)•Huge Pages (reduce overhead)•Where’s the shared storage space? •DBFS is the answer (fix_control=8,ac_timeout=60 and SGA=2Gb)•Is everything setup correctly? •Exachk is the answer•Indexes / Hints / Compression•Large Segments <- 8 Mb Initial / Next Size with Autoallocate•TEMP <- BIGFILE, Autoextend 1 Gb, Uniform 1 Mb
Exadata Patch ManagementMultiple Patches •Infiniband (once per year) •DB Nodes / Storage Server (quarterly) •Bundle Patch (BP) DB Software (quarterly) •Additional components (Ethernet switch, KVM, PDU)Bug Fixes included so important to applyOne-off patches / opatch before and after patchRolling option time a consideration
Security•DoD 8570 Requirements•Security Technical Implementation Guide (STIG) oOracle installation not customizable oDBFS and idle_time don’t play well together oAutomatic Service Request (ASR) / Configuration Manager Limitation oGrid Control / Third Party Certificates (September release) oBanners / SQLNET.ORA settings impact on toolsDon’t assume security settings will not have impact. Must TEST!!!
Migration Strategies10.2.0.4 to 11.2.0.x Options Considered •DBFS with external tables (5 to 7 GB/sec file system I/O throughput) •GoldenGate with datapump (near-zero downtime) •DatapumpFactors •Maintenance window •Risk of data loss •Familiarity with technologyWhatever the choice, perform multiple trial runs for optimal settings.
2011 – Technical Refresh (Data Center move)On 9/9/11 at 7pm applicationservers at legacy site were TurnedOff:•Transferred all data to Data Center•Reloaded data for all installations•Network outage occurred duringdata transfer (2 hours)•On 9/10/11at 7am New SystemTesting was Initiated• Users were on the system by 3pm•In Future-> X3 or Storage Expansion
Migration Timeline Text Initial1/4 Rack Grid DB CutoverDelivered Migration Oracle Setup / STIG Prod/ Migrate Control Setup to (Test) Options Setup DBFS Test CAB Load Apply BP Exadata 1/11 2/11 3/11 4/11 5/11 6/11 7/11 8/11 9/11 Chris Initial DB STIG Apply BP Migration 1/4 Rack Migration Grid First Setup / Test Test Selection Delivered Test Control Day Load (Prod) Setup
Post Tech Refresh Performance (in hours) Event Legacy Exadata BOR1 Process 4 hours 1 hour BOR2 Process 4 minutes 23 seconds Datamart IU 3 hours 35 minutes MV refresh 37 minutes 13 minutes
Exadata Lessons Learned•Ensure hosting center can accommodate Exadata’s dimensions (door height)•Staff requirements (more communication necessary)•Smart Scan <- direct path reads, table access full, fast full index scans,parallel with parallel_degree_policy not auto•Chained rows / “small” tables void smart scans•Ideally 2 Exadata Database machines•EHCC 10x space and performance (DML)•Expect CPU utilization to decrease In-Memory X2-8 Massive Memory X3 2010 All I/Os to Memory 2012
Exadata Lessons Learned (cont.)•Grid Control for monitoring / managing components•Platinum Support, major assistance•Exachk and opatch before / after patching•Standard tuning principles apply (OLTP)•Bring over OLTP database “AS-IS”•Time, Experience keys to stability
References (cont.)Database Machine and Exadata Storage Server (888828.1)Oracle Exadata Database Machine exachk (1070954.1)Oracle Exadata Best Practices (757552.1)Best Practices for OLTP on the Sun Oracle Database Machine (1269706.1)Best Practices for Data Warehousing on Database Machine (1297112.1)Oracle Sun Database Machine Application Best Practices for Data Warehousing(1094934.1)Oracle Sun Database Machine Diagnosability and Troubleshooting Best Practices(1274324.1)Expert Oracle Exadata (Osborne, Johnson, Poder)
Exadata Rack Options2 six Core Processors / 96 Gb RAM per DB node2 six Core Processors / 24 Gb RAM per Storage ServerDual ported 40 Gb/sec InfiniBandQuarter Rack •2 DB nodes •2 Infiniband switchesHalf Rack •4 DB nodes •3 Infiniband switchesFull Rack •8 DB nodes •3 Infiniband switchesInfiniband 10x faster than Fiber Channel
Cache Hierarchy (Full Rack X2-2) Database DRAM 768 GB Raw Capacity 100 GB / Second Flash Cache 5 TB Raw Capacity 50 GB / Second Disk 100 – 300 TB Raw Capacity 21 GB / Second
Quarter Rack Selected •2 Xeon-based Dual-processor Database Servers (Sun Fire X4170 M2) • 24 cores (12 per server) • 192 GB memory expandable to 288 GB (96 GB per server expandable to 144 GB) • 10 GigE connectivity to Data Center • 4 x 10GbE ports (2 per server) •1.1 TB High Speed Flash •3 Exadata Storage Servers X2-2 • All with High Performance 600GB disks OR • All with High Capacity 3 TB disks •2 Sun Datacenter InfiniBand Switch • 36-port Managed QDR (40Gb/s) switch •1 “Admin” Cisco Ethernet switch •Keyboard, Video, Mouse (KVM) hardware Can Upgrade to a Half Rack •Redundant Power Distributions Units (PDUs) or just add storage
Storage Components and Expansion (X2)-Local Storage (750 GB)-Storage Servers (12 Disks per server) Full Half Quarter InfiniBand switches 3 3 2 Ethernet switch 1 1 1 KVM Yes Yes Yes Exadata Storage Servers 18 9 4 Storage Grid CPU Cores 216 108 48 Raw Flash Capacity 6.75 TB 3.4 TB 1.5 TB Raw Storage High Perf 128 TB 64 TB 28 TB Capacity High Cap 648 TB 324 TB 144 TB Usable mirrored High Perf 58 TB 29 TB 13 TB capacity High Cap 288 TB 144 TB 64 TB Usable Triple High Perf 38 TB 19 TB 8.5TB mirrored capacity High Cap 192 TB 96 TB 43 TB