Sex Differences In Relationships
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Sex Differences In Relationships






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Sex Differences In Relationships Sex Differences In Relationships Presentation Transcript

  • Sex Differences in Relationships: Comparing Stereotypes to Self-reports Elizabeth F. Broady Sarah J. Hickman Hanover College
  • Attitudes Toward Marriage
  • Theoretical Perspectives
    • Evolutionary theory
      • Men may be more likely to cheat and show less commitment because the costs of pregnancy are lower (Buss & Schmitt, 1993; Cann, Magnum & Wells, 2001).
    • Social role theory
      • Women have been primarily responsible for work inside the home which has led them to develop more communal attitudes including more positive attitudes toward marriage (Eagly,1987)
  • Empirical Evidence
    • Oliver and Hyde, 1993
      • Men have more sexual partners than women (d=.25)
      • Men are more likely to engage in extramarital sex than women (d=.29)
  • Graphical representation of effect size
  • Why stereotypes?
    • Belle, 1985
      • We tend to focus on the differences when we are faced with two of anything
  • Hypotheses
    • Males and females will not differ in their self-reported attitudes toward marriage, commitment, or fidelity
    • Females will perceive males as having more negative attitudes toward marriage, lower commitment, and lower fidelity than males themselves report
    • Males will perceive females as having more positive attitudes toward marriage, higher commitment, and higher fidelity than females themselves report
  • Variables of interest
    • Attitudes toward marriage
    • Commitment
    • Fidelity
  • Method
    • Participants
      • 133 (37 male, 96 female)
      • Age range (18-47, M=21.5)
      • Ethnicity
        • 79.7% Caucasian, 7.2% African American
    • Procedure
      • Informed Consent
      • Survey (counterbalanced)
      • Debriefing
  • Questionnaire
    • Attitudes Towards Marriage (Wallin, 1954)
      • If you marry, to what extent will you miss the life you have had as a single person?
        • Not at all (1) Very much (6)
  • Questionnaire
    • Commitment Scale (Lund, 1985)
      • I would rather spend my free time with my partner than doing other things or seeing other people.
        • Not at all (1) Very much (6)
  • Questionnaire
    • Infidelity Scale
      • I have had a purely physical relationship with someone other than my partner.
        • Never Once Twice More than twice
  • Data Analysis
    • Mixed Model ANOVA
      • Between-subjects variable= Sex
      • Within-subjects variable= Ratee
    • Followed significant results with appropriate post-hoc comparisons
  • Attitudes Toward Marriage NS
  • Attitudes Toward Marriage NS p < .001
  • Attitudes Toward Marriage NS p < .001 NS
  • Commitment p= .001 NS NS
  • Fidelity p= .002 NS p=.003
  • Discussion
    • Men and women showed no significant differences in their self-reported attitudes and behaviors
    • Women viewed men as having more negative attitudes and behaviors than men self-reported
    • Men were relatively accurate in predicting women’s attitudes
    • Men viewed women more negatively in regards to fidelity than women self-reported
  • Discussion
    • Women are more likely than men to discuss relationship issues (Brody & Hall, 1993)
    • Popular media emphasizes that men have difficulty in relationships
    • Women and men perceive themselves more positively than the opposite sex (Epley & Dunning, 2000)
  • Implications
    • Stereotype inflation is a problem (Hyde, 2005)
      • Couple conflict
      • Communication