Official Name: Commonwealth of AustraliaCapital: CanberraLargest City: SydneyMain Cities: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth,Hobart, Darwin.Area: 7,692,024 km2(6th), 2,969,907 sq mi (7,692,024 sq km)Population: 2013 estimate-> 23,016,141. 2011 census->21,507,717 density->2.8/km2(233rd) 7.3/sq miOfficial Language: NoneNational Language: EnglishMoney: Australian dollarMajor Mountain Ranges: Great Dividing Range, MacdonnellRangesMajor Rivers: Murray-Darling, Murrumbidgee, LachlanTelephone Australias country code is 61
About AustraliaAustralia is the only country that is also acontinent. In area, Australia rank as the sixthlargest country and the smallest continent.And the name Australia com from the Latinword. Australia, which means southern. THeofficial m=name of the country is thecommonwealth of Australia
GovernmentThe commonwealth of Australia is a federation of states governedunder a written constitusion gives certain power to the federalgovernment and leaves all other powers to the states. Australiahas six states, each with its own government. These states areNew south wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, andWestern Australia. Australia also has two mainland territories.The Australia capital Territory and the Northern and theNorthern Territory. Each territory is responsible for its ownadmini stration, the first step toward statehood. But the federalgovernment must approve major policy changes for theterrifories
GEOGRAPHYAustralia is the only country in the world that covers an entirecontinent. It is one of the largest countries on Earth. Although itis rich in natural resources and has a lot of fertile land, morethan one-third of Australia is desert. Most Australian cities andfarms are located in the southwest and southeast, where theclimate is more comfortable. There are dense rain forests in thenortheast. The famous outback (remote rural areas) containsthe countrys largest deserts, where there are scorchingtemperatures, little water, and almost no vegetation. Runningaround the eastern and southeastern edge of Australia is theGreat Dividing Range. This 2,300-mile (3,700-kilometer) stretchof mountain sends water down into Australias most importantrivers and the Great Artesian Basin, the largest groundwatersource in the world
NATUREAustralias ecosystem is an unusual one because of its remote location. As aresult, there are many animal species that occur here and nowhere else inthe world, such as the platypus, kangaroo, echidna, and koala. Australia has516 national parks to protect its unique plants and animals. One ofAustralias most amazing sites rises like an enormous whales back from aflat red-soil desert called the Red Center. This site is called Uluru, and it is asacred natural formation at the heart of the country. Rising 1,100 feet (335meters) tall, it is the largest rock in the world! There are several types of rainforests in Australia. Tropical rain forests, mainly found in the northeast, arethe richest in plant and animal species. Subtropical rain forests are foundnear the mid-eastern coast, and broadleaf rain forests grow in the southeastand on the island of Tasmania.
CultureAustralia is a product of a unique blend ofestablished traditions and new influences.The country’s original inhabitants, theAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples,are the custodians of one of the world’soldest continuing cultural traditions. Theyhave been living in Australia for at least 40000 years and possibly up to 60,000 years.
Famous place in AustraliaThe two largest cities in Australia are Sydney and Melbourne.Sydney has about 3 million people, and Melbourne, about 2-2/3million.Both are state capital and the major commercial, industrial, andcultural centers of their states. Each city was laid out near themouth of a river and close to a good ocean harbor. The riversprovided drinking water and the harbors enabled the settlementsto develop into centers of trade and immigrationToday, both Sydney and Melbourne have problem common to bigcities everywhere. Poor inner-hour traffic jams plague the citysresidents.
Famous place in Australia (Sydney)The oldest city in Australia, Sydney is the capital of the state of New South Wales. The city and itssuburbs cover about 4,700 square miles (12,000 square kilometers) on the countryssoutheastern coast. The British founded Sydney as a prison colony in 1788. The citys mildclimate enables the people of Sydney, called "Sydneysiders", to enjoy the outdoors during mostof the year. Sydneys vast harbor makes the area famous for water sport, Such as sailing. MostSydneysiders have British ancestors, but many other Europeans and smaller numbers of Asianhave settled in the city since the mid-1900s. Sydney also has a few thousand Aborigines. MostSydney families own a house and garden in one of the suburbs. Sydney has almost no slums,but some of the Aborigines live in substandard housingHigh -rise buildings dominate the skyline of Sydneys central business district. Sydney Harbor, oneof the worlds major ports, is also Australias most important port for shipping farm products.The city has about 12,000 manufacturing plants, which employ a total of over a million workers.Leading factory products include chemical and paper goods, food products, and machineryequipment . Sydney also serves as the banking and business center of New South Wales.Sydney’s famous Opera House, completed in 1973, includes facilities for concerts, opera, andtheater. Many architects consider it one of the finest buildings constructed during the 1900s.
Famous place in Australia(Sydney)2Sydney Harbor is one of the worlds major ports. Its white shell-like Opera House and theSydney Harbor Bridge are kad-marks recognized around the world. The bridge links thecity center with suburbs on the north shore of the harborBondi Beach, below, a beautiful stretch of sand close to the center of bustling downtownSydney, provides a peaceful refuge for many Sydneysiders.Sydney and its suburbs cover about 4,700 square miles (12,000 square kilometers.) DowntownSydney stands on the south side of Sydney Harbor. East of the downtown area lies a seriesof parks, including the Royal Botanic Gardens. The parliament house for New South Walesis also in this area. Suburbs spread out in every direction from the city. Two largerecreation areas-Royal National Park and Ku-Ring-Gai Chase-lie within 25 miles (40kilometers) of downtown Sydney
Famous place in Australia (Melbourne)Melbourne lies on Port Phillip Bay on Australias southeastern coast. John Batman, an Australianfarmer, founded Melbourne in 1835. He came from the nearby island of Tasmania, seeking landfor sheep farms. He brought 600,000 acres (240,000 hectares) from the Aborigines and paidthem with blankets, tomahawks, and other goods. Today, the city and its suburbs cover morethan 2,300 square miles (5,960 square kilometers).Melbourne has only about 2,700 people who are descended from the Aborigines. Almost one-fourthof Melbournes population was born outside Australia. About one-third of all immigrants camefrom Great Britain and Ireland . Other immigrants include those from Italy, Greece, andYugoslavia. Australias small Asian community consists mostly of descendants of Chineseimmigrants who arrived during the gold rush of the 1800s. Each ethnic group has introduced itsown type of food, entertainment, and clothing, making Melbourne a truly cosmopolitan city.More than 10,000 factories in Melbourne employ a total of about 400,000 workers. The citys chiefmanufactured products include automobiles, chemicals, food products, machinery, and textiles.Wholesale and retail trading and important financial institutions make Melbourne a majorcommercial center.
Famous place in Australia(Melbourne)2Old meets new in Melbourne, Australias second largest city, leftChristmas celebrations under the summer skies remind visitors thatthe country lies in the Southern Hemisphere