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  1. 1. SREE AYYAPPA COLLEGEEramallikkara P.O. Thiruvanvandoor Chengannur , Alleppy Dist.
  3. 3. SREE AYYAPPA COLLEGE ERAMALLIKKARA Department of B.Sc Computer Science CERTIFICATE Certified that this is the bonafide record on the Seminar entitle SOFTWARE submitted by SREEJITH.BDuring the year 2008 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degreeof B.ScComputer science of University of keralaSeminar Coordinator Head of the Dept
  4. 4. AcknowledgementI take this opportunity to express my profound sense of gratitude to all those whohave contributed to the successful completion of my seminar.I wish to express my sincere gratitude to for providing me guidelines in thepresentation of seminar.I also thank all the lecturers in the department of computer science for their wholehearted co-operation and guidance in completing my seminar successfully.I also thank to computer science senior students and my friends which went a longway to make this seminar a satisfying experience for me. Sreejith .B S1CS Class No:10
  5. 5. ABSTRACTSoftware is a set of instructions to perform a desired and usefulwork, by which the operations of the computer for the computationsand processing are controlled. The complete software system with itscomponents and interaction among them. The term software systemcan be defined as the system software and application software thatmust be added to a host machine (hardware) in order to realise somedesired function.
  6. 6. CONTENTS page no• Introduction…………………………………………. 8• Software……………………………………………… 9• Classification of software…………………………… 10 1) System software 2) Application software• Relationship between hardware & software………. 15• Software figures………………………………………16• Conclusion…………………………………………… 20• Reference……………………………………………. 21
  7. 7. INTRODUCTIONThe computer is a very powerful machine, the basic use of which is to process data. Yet to realize the power of it, programs are needed. The computer consists of hardware and software and the software drives the hardware. That means without the software the computer can do nothing. But if we have the software, a computer can store, retrieve, solve different types of programs, create friendly environment for software development etc. That means the software brings the computer to life.The process of software development is called programming. To do programming the programmer should have detailed knowledge of the problem to be solved, the corresponding algorithm and the particular programming language to solve a problem or develop software.
  8. 8. SOFTWARESoftware is the part of the computer system which enables the hardware to operate. Acomputer without software is like a body without life. A computer is an extremely fast,accurately calculating machine that takes data as input and processes them according to aset of instructions to produce the desired result as output. A sequence of instructionswritten in a language that can be understood by a computer is called a computer program,the program is called SOFTWARE. Computer can solve problems through a program. Theperson who writes programs is called programmer. A programmer has to have a clearunderstanding of the problem and should also know the precise nature of the desiredresult. Any problems or data that require manipulation to derive the solution ormeaningful information, must be approached in a scientific manner.To process a particular set of data (either numeric or character) and to producemeaningful information, a computer must be given a program. Usually these programs arestored in a secondary storage device, so that it can be executed at any time. When a storedprogram is executed, the following things happen: 1) Data get into the computer’s memory from an input device like keyboard or secondary storage device such as floppy diskette or hard disk. 2)The data given as input is processed according to the program. 3)Output information is produced on the VDU (i.e. softcopy) or printed on to a sheetof paper (i.e. hard copy)
  9. 9. Classification of Software• System software• Application software• System softwareSystem software , also known as a system package, is a set of one or more programs designed to control the operation of a computer system. These programs do not solve specific problems. System software is a collection of programs that directly control the computer’s internal operations and also that help ordinary users to make use of a computer effectively and efficiently. The programs included in a system software are called system programs and the person who prepares systems software is referred to as a system programmer. The system software can be further classified into two categories: 1) Operating system 2) Language processor• Operating systemOperating system, which acts as an interface between the user and the hardware, is a set of programs that control, and co-ordinate the operations of a computer and help to make efficient use of its resources.
  10. 10. Main Functions Of Operating SystemProcess Management: The process management module of an operating system takes care of the creation and deletion of processes, scheduling of various system resources to the different processes requesting them, and providing mechanisms for synchronization and communication among processes.Memory Management: The memory management module of an operating system takes care of the allocation and dealloaction of memory space to the various programs in need of this resource.File Management: The file management module of an operating system takes care of file related such as organization, storing, retrieval, naming, sharing and protection of files.Security: The security module of an operating system protects the resources and information of a computer system against destruction and unauthorized access.Command Interpretation: The command interpretation module of an operating system takes care of interpreting user commands, and direction the system resources to handle the request.• Language processors A computer can understand only machine language. A machine language program consists of numeric instruction codes. It is difficult to write programs directly in the machine language. In early days, assembly languages are used. Today high level languages are used. The result was high level languages. There is a big difference
  11. 11. between machine and high level languages. Languages processors are the system program that translates assembly or high level language instructions into equivalent machine language instructions. The different type of language processors are: 1) Assembler 2) Compiler 3) InterpreterAssembleThe assembler of a computer system is a system software, supplied by the computer manufacturer, which translates an assembly language program into its equivalent machine language program.CompilerCompiler is a translator program, which translates a high level language program into its equivalent machine language program.InterpreterIt takes one statement of a high level language program, translates it into machine language instructions, and then immediately executes the resulting machine language instructions.
  12. 12. • Application softwareSoftware developed for specific application is called application software. The term application indicates that the software is applied for the job at hand. Software for applications like inventory control, payroll, accounting, air-line reservation etc are some common examples of this type. Application software is a set of one or more programs, designed to solve a specific problem, or do a specific task for an individual or an organization. Application software includes prewritten software packages, custom made programs and utilities.Prewritten softwarePrewritten software packages address the processing needs of many users, whereas custom- made programs (customized software) meet the requirements of specific organisation or individual. Prewritten software are:1) Word processing packages2) Electronic spreadsheets3) Graphics and multimedia packages4) Database management packages5) Desk top publishing packages
  13. 13. UtilitiesUtilities are those application programs that assist the computer by performinghousekeeping functions like backing up disk or scanning/cleaning viruses or arranginginformation etc. some important utilities are:1) Test Editor2) Bank up Utility3) Compression Utility4) Disk Defragmenter5) Antivirus SoftwareCustomized SoftwareThere is no single software that meets every imaginable need. General purpose softwarepackages are meant for specific tasks like word processing or spreadsheet preparation.Custom software on the other hand are development to meet the processing needs of aspecific organization individual. These are tailor-made according to the specificrequirements of the user.Custom-software development is needed as a consequence of computerization process.Custom-made software are generally for data-processing needs and building informationsystem. Some common application where custom-made software is required are:
  14. 14. 1) Payroll 2) Accounting 3) Air-line reservation 4) Insurance 5) Government 6) Banking 7) Library management 8) Sales and Inventory Control 9) Hospital management Relationship Between Hardware & Software• Both hardware & software are necessary for a computer to computer to do useful job. Both are complementary to each other.• Same hardware can be loaded with different software to make a computer perform different types of jobs just as different songs can be played using the same cassette player.• Except for upgrades (like increasing main memory and hard disk capacities, or adding speakers, modems, etc.). Hardware is normally a one-time expense, whereas software is a continuing expense. Like we buy new cassettes for newly released songs whose cassettes, we do not have, we buy, new software to be run on the same hardware as and when need arises, or funds become available.
  15. 15. SOFTWARE FIGURESSoftware system added to host machine
  16. 16. Classification of Software
  17. 17. Software Themes
  18. 18. Software Themes
  19. 19. CONCLUSIONSoftware is a set of instructions to perform a desired and useful work, by whichthe operations of the computer for the computations and processing arecontrolled. The term software system can be defined as the system software andapplication software that must be added to a host machine (hardware) in order torealize some desired function. It depicts the relationship among hardware, systemsoftware, application software, and users of a computer system. Surrounding thehardware is system software layer that constitutes the operating andprogramming environment of the computer system. It hides the hardware detailsof the system from application programmers, and coordinates the operations ofvarious hardware devices for optimizing the performance of all devices. Finally,the users’ layer consists of the user interfaces provided by the applicationsoftware. Different application software usually provide different user interface.Software are classifieds into two they are system software & application software.The term software refers to a collection of programs. A program is a sequence ofinstructions written in a language understood by a computer.
  20. 20. References•Computer fundamentals (Fourth Edition) - Pradeep k. Sinha Priti Sinha•Computer Fundamentals with C programming (Second Edition) - Sabu G . R•Computer Science (Arjun Books, class +1) - G . S . Anil Kumar Hashir . A Shiju S . S
  21. 21. Thank You