Oxidation of feed fats causes rancidity spoiling the taste and flavor of the feeds thus a
process known as lipid per-oxidation or autoxidation these rained fat containing diets
impart undesirable off flavor in the milk and milk products.
• Oxidation also causes much loss to carotenes; vitamin A and vitamin D.
• The uses of antioxidants limit this oxidative spoilage.
• Oxidation negatively affects odor, taste and nutritive value of the food, as well as
produces harmful by-products.
• The addition of antioxidants map up the free radicals
• Antioxidants may be natural and synthetic.
• Natural ones are
1. Vitamin E (tocopherol)
2. Ascorbic acid.
• The most common synthetic antioxidants are
1. Ethoxyquin, butyrate
2. Hydroxyanisole (BHA)
3. Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT).
• BHT and BHA tend to be more effective in preventing oxidation of animal fats
than of vegetable oils
• Ethoxyguin is most effective in protecting both animal fats and vegetable oils.
• These chemicals are harmful to animals and humans.
• The major mycotoxin producing fungi are
• The major toxins are aflatoxins,
Ochratoxin A, etc.
• Mycotoxin binding agents include
Yeast cell wall products,
Mined mineral days such as alumino-silicates, sodium betonies.
• These are substances that can pick up moisture without themselves becoming wet.
• They are added to dry mixes to prevent the particles clumping together and so hup
the product free flowing.
• Anti-caking agents include:
Ferrous ammonium citrate,
Yellow prussiate of soda,
Potassium or sodium ferrocyanide,
Sodium aluminum silicates,
Hydrated sodium calcium allumino-silicate (HSCAS),
Calcium aluminum silicate, etc.
• Flavors are used to improve palatability and thus food appeal.
• Palatability and FCR are interdependent.
• Flavors include species and sweetness.
• Taste and odor are important properties of a food or feed by which they are
recognized and enjoyed.
• The four basic taste qualities are salt, sour, sweet and bitter.
• Commercial flavoring agents only try to influence sweetness.
• Flavoring compounds are nonvolatile water soluble substances which have little
or no taste of their own, but modify or potentiate the flavor of a product,
Flavor in Poultry Feed
• Chicken possess a sense of taste but a very limited ability to small.
• Yet poultry accept or reject feed according to their preference.
• Flavors help to improve sedimentary taste perceptions, aid in sedimentary salivary
secretions, help to regulate water intake and help to overcome stress.
• Hence flavors increase feed intake, improve feed efficiency and reduce mortality,
e.g. monosodium glutamate (MSG) at 0.2%.
• Meat, cheese, mint, anion and garlic flavors are used in feeds for pets at less than
• Yeast products are also used at 0.25% in combination with MSG for the
improvement of dry dog food.
• Capsicum, red pepper, MSG, fennel, fenugreek seed, and ginger are examples
of spice and seasoning.
• Yolk color is improved by the addition of either dried alfalfa leaf meal at 2 to
3%, if yellow maize is not the part of the ration or synthetic carotenoid
• Most yellow and red pigments synthesized in vegetable materials are a
closely related group of chemical compounds known as carotenoids.
• Green leafy materials are excellent sources of xanthophylls.
• Alfalfa carotenoids produce yellow pigmentation of the skin and fat of
• Under normal feeding conditions, 70% of the yellow color of egg yolk is due
to xanthophylls, and most of the reminder is due to zeaxanthin.
• The biological availability of xanthophylls from various feed sources is variable
Corn gluten meal 47 to 89%,
Dehyhated alfalfa 37 to 65%.
• Xanthophylls are not stable compounds and can be lost from poultry feeds by
oxidation which can be protected by adding antioxidants.
• Lignin is the most widely used feed binder in the world today.
improved pellet quality,
greater pelleting efficiency,
improved press capacity and
lower power consumption,
lower production costs,
less feed rejections
Less dust in the mill.
• Sodium benonite can be used @ 2.5%.
• The other binders are
Calcium aluminates 0.6-1%
Gnar meal 2.5-5%.
• Feeding high grain diets to meat the energy requirements of high yielding i.e. over
35 kg milk/h/d, cow’s leads to changes in rumen pH and rumen fermentation
• Buffers are used to correct these changes.
• Sodium bicarbonate @200g/cow/d or 1.5% of grain ration, as well as other
Sodium bentonite can be used.
• Salt level under these conditions may be reduced to half normal.
• Magnesium oxide plays a major role in the synthesis of milk fat.
• Dietary requirement is = 0.23% of DM intake.
• Sodium bentonite prevents milk fat depression when fed @5% of the grain
• However, bentonite reduces availability of other minerals in the rumen and also
increases rate of passage.
Sodium bicarbonate for poultry
• It is being used to improve weight gain, FCR, live ability and processing yields
under stressful conditions.
For broilers used @ 1.8-2.7 kg/ton continuously.
For layers @ 1 to 1.8 kg/ton.
• In layers it improves shell quality and better litter conditions.
• During heat stress the dose is 3.6 to 4.5 kg/ton.
• Part of sodium bicarbonate can be given via water.
• A substance which aids in the formation of a stable mixture of two otherwise
immiscible substances (e.g. fat and water) is called an emulsifier.
• It should have one group with and affinity for water and another with an affinity
Glycosides esterifies with acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid,
Propylene glycol monostearate.
• Methane production could be inhibited by fatty acids, particularly unsaturated FAs.
• Other methane inhibitors are
Sulphites and nitrites, etc
Sodium lauryl diethoxy sulphate,
Sodium lauryl sulphate,
Oil rich in pufas
Dioctyl sodium sulpho-succinate
Keratosis controlling agents