Biometrics• Biometrics is the science and technology ofmeasuring and analyzing biological data• In information technology, biometrics refers totechnologies that measure and analyze humanbody characteristics, such as fingerprints, eyeretinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patternsand hand measurements, for authenticationpurposes.
Definition of BiometricRecognitionVerification1:1Yes/NOIdentification1:NAAA
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 37 StandardsISO/IEC 19785-1: 2006Common BiometricExchangeFormats Framework(CBEFF)Biometric information recordformat, including header,biometric data and security blockHas procedures for RegistrationAuthority to come up with owndata formatISO/IEC 19794: 2006 Face, finger, palm, iris, vascularimage dataFinger templates: minutiae,spectral, skeletalSpecifies data storage formatconforming to 19785ISO/IEC 19784:2006Biometric ApplicationProgramming Interface(BioAPI)Framework for use of multiplebiometric technologies/ vendors.Covers enrollment, verification,identification and databaseinterface. Provides interface forstorage, search and managementof biometric data.Conforms to ISO/IEC 19794,19785
Fingerprint• A fingerprint is animpression of the frictionridges found on the innersurface of a finger or athumb.• The science offingerprinting constitutesthe only unchangeableand infallible means ofpositive identificationknown to man
Why Fingerprint• Ridge patterns and the details in smallareas of friction ridges are unique andnever repeated.• Friction ridges develop on the fetus in theirdefinitive form before birth.• Ridges are persistent throughout lifeexcept for permanent scarring.• Friction ridge patterns vary within limitswhich allow for classification
Friction Ridges• On the palmar surface of the hands and feet areraised surfaces called friction ridges.• Friction ridges are formed during fetaldevelopment where their unique characteristicsemerge due to genetic and epigenetic factors(maternal diet, pH, temperature, movement of thefetus, etc.).• Even identical twins do not have the samefingerprints.
Minutiae• Minutiae, in fingerprinting terms, are thepoints of interest in a fingerprint, such asbifurcations (a ridge splitting into two) andridge endings.
Ridge Bifurcation• the ridge bifurcation isthe point where theridge splits into two ormore branches.
Ridge endings• A ridge ending isdefined as the pointwhere the ridge endsabruptly.
Short ridges• Short ridges (or dots)are ridges which aresignificantly shorterthan the average ridgelength on thefingerprint.
Thinned Image• This is a result to a falseminutiae (i.e. falsebifurcation and false endpoint.• These false minutiaemust be detected anddeleted from the initialminutiae set.• A thinned image shows inthe figure where P1, P2are a pair of false endpoint and P3 is a falsebifurcation.
Finger Print ClassificationTen-print classificationRoscher System Vuvetich System Henry SystemDeveloped in Germanyand implemented in BothGermany and JapanDeveloped inArgentina andImplemented inSouth AfricaDeveloped in IndiaAnd implementedIn most English-Speaking Country
Henry System• There are three basic fingerprint patters:Arc(5 % population), Loop(60 - 65 %) and Whorl(30- 35 % population).
In the Loop pattern there are twofocal points: the Core and the Delta• The Center of the loopis defined as Core.• The delta is the areaof pattern where thereis a triangular or adividing of the ridge.
Core and Delta in the Whorl Pattern• A Whorl pattern willhave two or moredeltas. For a whorlpattern, all deltas andthe areas betweenthem must berecorded
Fingerprint sensorsOptical Sensor (by L1) 500 dpi, 25mm × 25mm Good quality image Dirt, latent fingerprintsCapacitive Sensor (by Fujitsu) 500 dpi, 12.8mm x 15.0mm Electro-static discharge, Nosiy,Moisture dependent LightThermal Sensor (by ATMEL) 500 dpi, 0.4mm ×14mm Artifacts in image Reduced function in warm weatherUltrasound Sensor (by Ultra-scan) 500 dpi Capture of difficult fingerspossible BulkyRF modulation Sensor (by Authentec) 500 dpi , 9.75mm x 0.81mm Electro-static discharge Light, Low costFBI standard requires 500 dpi resolutionfor minutiae data
Scan resolution• The number of pixels per unit distanceused by a sensor or scanning device toinitially capture a fingerprint or palm printimage.• It should be 125 ppi - 1000 ppi.• 125 ppi is sufficient for verification (1:1match).• 500 ppi to 1000 dpi is used for highersecurity or for identification (1:N match).
Image Resolution• The number of pixels per unit distance inthe interchanged image.• The image resolution <=Scan resolution(i.e125 ppi to 1000 ppi)