by: Miss Florabel M. Biasong Abuyod National High School Teresa, Rizal
The way in which linguisticelements (words and phrases)are arranged to formgrammatical sentence structure.
A lexical category is a syntactic category forelements that are part of the lexicon of alanguage. These elements are at the wordlevel. part of speech word class grammatical category grammatical class
Proper Noun Common Noun Abby mayor Filipino school Sunday festival COUNT NOUN MASS NOUN book water sheep grains box gasSINGULAR NOUN PLURAL NOUN animal animals church churches knife knives cactus cacti
REGULAR VERB IRREGULAR VERB walk drive clap shake perform know SIMPLE TENSES PERFECT TENSES Present – go, goes Present Perfect - has gone Past - went Past Perfect - had gone Future - will go Future Perfect – will have gone ACTIVE PASSIVE Gail writes a letter. The letter was written by Gail.The firemen put off the fire. The fire was put off by the firemen.
ADJECTIVE OF QUALITY ADJECTIVE OF QUANTITY fat a lot easy little pretty few ADJECTIVE OF NUMBER DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE four this, these many that several thoseINTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE which my whose your whom Their
ADVERBS OF MANNER ADVERB OF TIME moderately a week ago graciously tomorrow fervently lately ADVERB OF PLACE ADVERB OF DEGREE somewhere greatly here completely there entirely
PRONOUN I, you, he, she, it, we, they Me, him, her, us, them Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs Myself, yourself, himself, itself, ourselvesPREPOSITION above, behind, from, through, upon, towards, underneath, below, between, beyond, acrossCONJUNCTION and, but, or nor, yet although, because, before, till while, since both…and, either..or, neither…nor, not only…but also, so…as, whether…orINTERJECTION Ouch!, Oh no!, Hey!, Alas!, Oh!, Ah!, Wow!, Presto!, Whew!, Gee!, Hush!
“Then you should say what you mean,” the March Hare wenton.“I do,” Alice hastily replied, “at least—I mean what I say—thesame thing you know.”“Not the same thing a bit!” Said the Hatter. “You might justwell say that „I see what I eat‟ is the same thing as „I eat whatI see‟!”“You might just as well say,” added the March Hare „I likewhat I get‟ is the same things as „I get what I like‟!”“You just as well say,” added the Dormouse…that „I breathewhen I sleep‟ is the same thing as „I seep when I breathe‟!”“It is the same thing with you,” said the Hatter. from Alice’s Adventure in Wonderland
In linguistics, word ordertypology refers to the study ofthe order of the syntacticconstituents of a language andhow different languages canemploy different orders.
1. Subject – verb – object (SVO) English, Roman, Bulgarian, Chinese and Swahili e.g. I see him.2. Subject – object – verb (SOV) Japanese, Mongolian, Turkish, Korean e.g. I him see.3. verb – subject – object (VSO) Classical Arabic, Insular Celtic languages, Hawaiian e.g. See I him.
4. verb – object - subject (VOS) Fijian, Malagsay e.g. See him I.5. object – verb - subject (OVS) Hixkaryana e.g. Him see I.6. object - subject – verb (OSV) Xavante, Warao e.g. Him I see.
1. In a normal (declarative) sentence, the subject ofa sentence comes directly in front of the verb. Thedirect object (when there is one) comes directly afterit:e.g.: The man wrote a letter. People who live in glasshouses shouldnt throw stones. The president laughed.2. Note that by the subject, we mean not just a singleword, but the subject noun or pronoun plusdescriptive phrases that go with it. The rest of thesentence - i.e. the part that is not the subject - iscalled the predicate.e.g.: People who live in glasshouses shouldnt throw stones.
3. If a sentence has any other parts to it - indirectobjects, adverbs or adverb phrases - these usuallycome in the following places:a. The position of the indirect object - The indirect object follows the direct object when it is formed with the preposition to: - The indirect object comes in front of the direct object if to is omittedExample: The doctor gave some medicine to the child. The doctor gave the child some medicine.
b. Adverbs or adverb phrases can come in three possible places: - before the subject (Notably with common adverbs or adverb phrases)e.g: Yesterday the man wrote a letter. - after the object (Virtually any adverb or adverbphrase can be placed here)e.g.: The man wrote a letter on his computer in the train. - in the middle of the verb group. (Notably with short common adverbs)e.g.: The man has already written his letter.
4. In standard English, nothing usually comes between thesubject and the verb, or between the verb and the object. There are a few exceptions. The most important of theseare adverbs of frequency and indirect objects without to.e.g: The man often wrote his mother a letter. I sometimes give my dog a bone.If you always apply these few simple rules, you will notmake too many word order problems in English. Theexamples above are deliberately simple - but the rules canbe applied even to complex sentences, with subordinateand coordinated clauses.The director, [who often told his staff (towork harder),] never left the office before [he had checkedhis e-mail.]
5. Word order in English questions: This really is so simple.... Almost all questions use the same structure. All you need to do is to remember this simple and common English phrase:The structure of almost every simple question in English isbased on this same model: (Question word if there is one) - Auxiliary or modal - subject - main verb - (plus the rest of the sentence):e.g. What did Tom Cruise do? Did Arnold Schwarzenegger learn English quickly? How quickly did Arnold Schwarzenegger learn English ? Has the representative from that Germancompany sent us his invoice yet?
ExceptionsExamples: - Never before had I seen such a magnificent exhibition. (After never or never before, subject and verb can be - andusually are - inverted). - Hardly had I left the house, than it started to rain. (When a sentence starts with hardly, subject andverb must be inverted.). - Had I known, Id never have gone there. (Inversion occurs in unfulfilled hypothetical conditionalstructures when if is omitted. - The book that you gave me Id read already. (The long object, The book that you gave me, is placed atthe start of the sentence for reasons of style: this unusualsentence structure is not necessary, just stylistic).
The rules of syntax combine wordsinto phrases and phrases into sentences. Correct word order for a language.1. The president nominated a new Supreme Court justice.2. *President the new Supreme justice Court a nominated.
Describe the relationship between themeaning of a particular group of wordsand the arrangement of those words.1. I mean what I say.2. I say what I mean.Specify the grammatical relations of asentence such as subject whom.1. Your dog chased my cat.2. My cat chased your dog.
Specify the other constraints that sentences must adhere to.1. The boy found.2. The boy found quickly.3. The boy found in the house.4. The boy found the ball. 1. Dina slept the baby. 2. Dina slept soundly. 1. Zack believes Robert to be a gentleman. 2. Zack believes to be a gentleman. 3. Zack tries Robert to be a gentleman. 4. Zack ties to be a gentleman. 5. Zack wants to be a gentleman. 6. Zack wants Robert to be a gentleman.
Sentences are not simply string of words with no further organization.1. Jack and Jill ran up the hill.2. Jack and Jill ran the hill up.3. Up the hill ran Jack and Jill.4. Jack and Jill ran up the bill.5. Jack and Jill ran the bill up.6. Up the bill ran Jack and Jill.
The syntactic knowledge crucially includes rules that tell us how words form groups in a sentence, or how they are hierarchically arranged with respect to one another.The captain ordered all old men andwomen off the sinking ship. old men and women old men and women