• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Chapter 14   Blood
 

Chapter 14 Blood

on

  • 10,930 views

Hole's Anatomy and Physiology II

Hole's Anatomy and Physiology II

Statistics

Views

Total Views
10,930
Views on SlideShare
10,919
Embed Views
11

Actions

Likes
4
Downloads
359
Comments
2

3 Embeds 11

http://study.myllps.com 9
https://m.facebook.com&_=1361047036181 HTTP 1
https://m.facebook.com&_=1361051299231 HTTP 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

12 of 2 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • i am interested b/c it is interesting lecture notes thanks
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • very informative and clear!
    thnx 4 d info
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Chapter 14   Blood Chapter 14 Blood Presentation Transcript

    • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 14 Lecture PowerPoint
    • 2402 Anatomy and Physiology II Chapter 14 Susan Gossett [email_address] Department of Biology Paris Junior College
    • Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 14 Blood Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 14.1: Introduction
      • Blood :
        • Is connective tissue
        • Transports vital substances
        • Maintains stability of interstitial fluid
        • Distributes heat
      • Blood cells :
        • Form mostly in red bone marrow and are:
        • Red blood cells (RBCs)
        • White blood cells (WBCs)
        • Platelets (cell fragments)
        • The amount of blood varies with body size, changes in fluid concentration, changes in electrolyte concentration, and amount of adipose tissue
        • Blood is about 8% of body weight
        • Adult blood volume is about 5 liters
    • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Centrifuged Blood Sample Peripheral Blood Smear Liquid (plasma) “ Buffy coat” (white blood cells and platelets) Red blood cells Red blood cells Platelets White blood cells
    • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Plasma = 55% Capillary tube Plug Buffy coat Red cells = 45% (hematocrit)
    • Blood (4.8%) (95.1%) (0.1%) Plasma Hormones Monocytes Basophils Eosinophils Neutrophils (54–62%) (1–3%) (<1%) (3–9%) (25–33%) Globulins Albumins (92%) (7%) N 2 O 2 CO 2 Platelets Red blood cells Proteins Nutrients Gases 45% 55% Wastes Water White blood cells Electrolytes Vitamins Lymphocytes Fibrinogen Formed elements Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 14.2: Blood Cells
      • Blood cells originate in red marrow from hemocytoblasts or hematopoietic stem cells
      • Stem cells can then:
        • Give rise to more stem cells
        • Specialize or differentiate
    • The Origin of Blood Cells Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (b) Megakaryoblast Myeloid stem cell Megakaryocyte Monocyte Macrophage T lymphocyte B lymphocyte Plasma cell Hematopoietic stem cell Myeloblast Progranulocyte Erythroblast Normoblast Reticulocyte Erythrocyte In circulating blood Neutrophil Basophil Granulocytes Eosinophil Proerythroblast Monoblast Promonocyte Prolymphocyte Prolymphocyte In red bone marrow Agranulocytes (a) Lymphoid stem cell Lymphoblast B cell precursor Lymphoblast T cell precursor Neutrophilic myelocyte Basophilic myelocyte Eosinophilic myelocyte Eosinophilic band cell Basophilic band cell Neutrophilic band cell Thrombocytes (platelets) Activated in tissues (some cells)
    • Characteristics of Red Blood Cells
      • Red blood cells are :
      • Erythrocytes
      • Biconcave discs
      • One-third hemoglobin or:
        • Oxyhemoglobin
        • Deoxyhemoglobin
      • Able to readily squeeze through capillaries
      • Lack nuclei and mitochondria
      Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Top view 2.0 micrometers 7.5 micrometers Sectional view (a) (b) b: © Bill Longcore/Photo Researchers, Inc.
    • Red Blood Cell Counts
      • RBC counts is the number of RBCs in a cubic millimeter or microliter of blood
      • It may vary depending on age and health
      • Typical ranges include:
        • 4,600,000 – 6,200,000 in males
        • 4,200,000 – 5,400,000 in adult females
        • 4,500,000 – 5,100,000 in children
      • RBC counts reflects blood’s oxygen carrying capacity
    • Red Blood Cell Production and Its Control
      • Low blood oxygen causes the kidneys and the liver to release erythropoietin (EPO) which stimulates RBC production
      • This is a negative feedback mechanism
      • Within a few days many new blood cells appear in the circulating blood
      Low blood oxygen Liver Kidney Erythropoietin Red bone marrow + – Bloodstream Stimulation Inhibition Release into bloodstream Increased oxygen- carrying capacity Increased number of red blood cells Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Dietary Factors Affecting Red Blood Cell Production
      • Vitamin B 12 and folic acid are necessary
        • They are required for DNA synthesis making them necessary for the growth and division of all cells
      • Iron is also necessary
        • It is required for hemoglobin synthesis
    • Bilirubin Bone Blood Liver Globin + Heme 3 2 1 Absorption 4 5 Macrophage Hemoglobin Iron + Biliverdin 8 6 7 Bile Red bone marrow Red blood cells produced Red blood cells circulate in bloodstream for about 120 days Old red blood cells Blood transports absorbed nutrients Nutrients from food Vitamin B 12 Folic acid Iron Small intestine Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • (b) (a) a: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer :b © Ed Reschke Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 14.1 Clinical Application King George III and Porphyria Variegata
    • Destruction of Red Blood Cells
    • Types of White Blood Cells
      • White blood cells:
        • Are leukocytes
        • Protect against disease
        • WBC hormones are interleukins and colony-stimulating factors which stimulate development
        • There are five types of WBCs in two categories:
          • Granulocytes
            • Neutrophils
            • Eosinophils
            • Basophils
          • Agranulocytes
            • Lymphocytes
            • Monocytes
    • Neutrophils
      • Light purple granules in acid-base stain
      • Lobed nucleus
      • Other names
        • Segs
        • Polymorphonuclear leukocyte
        • Bands (young neutrophils)
      • First to arrive at infections
      • Phagocytic
      • 54% - 62% of leukocytes
      • Elevated in bacterial infections
      © Ed Reschke Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Eosinophils
      • Deep red granules in acid stain
      • Bi-lobed nucleus
      • Moderate allergic reactions
      • Defend against parasitic worm infestations
      • 1% - 3% of leukocytes
      • Elevated in parasitic worm infestations and allergic reactions
      © Ed Reschke Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Basophils
      • Deep blue granules in basic stain
      • Release histamine
      • Release heparin
      • Less than 1% of leukocytes
      • Similar to eosinophils in size and shape of nuclei
      © Ed Reschke Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Monocytes
      • Largest of all blood cells
      • Spherical, kidney-shaped, oval or lobed nuclei
      • Leave bloodstream to become macrophages
      • 3% - 9% of leukocytes
      • Phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, and other debris
      © R. Kessel/Visuals Unlimited Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Lymphocytes
      • Slightly larger than RBC
      • Large spherical nucleus surrounded by thin rim of cytoplasm
      • T cells and B cells
        • Both important in immunity
      • B cells produce antibodies
      • 25% - 33% of leukocytes
      © Ed Reschke Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Functions of White Blood Cells
      • WBCs protect against infection
      • These leukocytes can squeeze between the cells of a capillary wall and enter the tissue space outside the blood vessel (called diapedesis)
      Blood capillary Leukocyte Connective tissue Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Epidermis Dermis Blood vessels 1 Splinter punctures epidermis 5 6 2 3 4 Injured cells release histamine, causing blood vessels to dilate Bacteria multiply Bacteria are introduced into the dermis Neutrophils destroy bacteria by phagocytosis Neutrophils move through blood vessel walls and migrate toward bacteria Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • White Blood Cell Counts
      • A procedure used to count number of WBCs per cubic millimeter of blood
        • Typically 5,000 – 10,000 per cubic millimeter of blood
      • Leukopenia:
        • Low WBC count (below 5,000)
        • Typhoid fever, flu, measles, mumps, chicken pox, AIDS
      • Leukocytosis:
        • High WBC count (above 10,000)
        • Acute infections, vigorous exercise, great loss of body fluids
      • Differential WBC count
        • Lists percentages of types of leukocytes
        • May change in particular diseases
    • 14.2 Clinical Application Leukemia
    • Blood Platelets
      • Platelets are also known as thrombocytes
      • They are cell fragments of megakaryocytes
      • They lack a nucleus and are roughly half the size of a RBC
      • There are approximately 130,000 – 360,000 per cubic millimeter of blood
      • They help repair damaged blood vessels by sticking to broken surfaces
    • 14.3: Blood Plasma
      • Blood plasma is:
        • Straw colored
        • The liquid portion of blood
        • 55% of blood volume
        • 92% water
        • Includes transporting nutrients, gases, and vitamins
        • Helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and maintain pH
    • Plasma Proteins
      • These are the most abundant dissolved substances (solutes) in plasma
    • Gases and Nutrients
      • The most important blood gases:
        • Oxygen
        • Carbon dioxide
      • Plasma nutrients include:
        • Amino acids
        • Simple sugars
        • Nucleotides
        • Lipids
          • Fats (triglycerides)
          • Phospholipids
          • Cholesterol
    • Nonprotein Nitrogenous Substances
      • These are molecules containing nitrogen but are not proteins
      • In plasma they include:
        • Urea – product of protein catabolism; about 50% of nonprotein nitrogenous substances
        • Uric acid – product of nucleic acid catabolism
        • Amino acids – product of protein catabolism
        • Creatine – stores phosphates
        • Creatinine – product of creatine metabolism
        • BUN – blood urea nitrogen; indicates health of kidney
    • Plasma Electrolytes
      • Plasma contains a variety of these ions called electrolytes
      • They are absorbed from the intestine or released as by-products of cellular metabolism
      • They include:
        • Sodium (most abundant with chloride)
        • Potassium
        • Calcium
        • Magnesium
        • Chloride (most abundant with sodium)
        • Bicarbonate
        • Phosphate
        • Sulfate
    • 14.4: Hemostasis
      • Hemostasis refers to the stoppage of bleeding
      • Actions that limit or prevent blood loss include:
        • Blood vessel spasm
        • Platelet plug formation
        • Blood coagulation
    • Blood Vessel Spasm
      • Blood vessel spasm
        • Triggered by pain receptors, platelet release, or serotonin
        • Smooth muscle in blood vessel contracts
    • Platelet Plug Formation
      • Platelet plug formation
        • Triggered by exposure of platelets to collagen
        • Platelets adhere to rough surface to form a plug
      Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Endothelial lining Collagen fiber Platelet Red blood cell 1 2 3 4 Break in vessel wall Blood escaping through break Platelet plug helps control blood loss Platelets adhere to each other , to end of broken vessel, and to exposed collagen
    • Blood Coagulation
      • Blood coagulation
        • Triggered by cellular damage and blood contact with foreign surfaces
        • A blood clot forms
        • This is a:
          • Hemostatic mechanism
          • Causes the formation of a blot clot via a series of reactions which activates the next in a cascade
          • Occurs extrinsically or intrinsically
    • Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism
      • Extrinsic clotting mechanism
        • Chemical outside of blood vessel triggers blood coagulation
        • Triggered by tissue thromboplastin (factor III) (not found in blood)
        • A number of events occur that includes factor VII, factor X, factor V, factor IV, and factor II (prothrombin)
        • Triggered when blood contacts damaged blood vessel walls or tissues
        • This is an example of a positive feedback mechanism
    • © SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism
      • Intrinsic clotting mechanism
        • Chemical inside blood triggers blood coagulation
        • Triggered by Hageman factor XII (found inside blood)
        • Factor XII activates factor XI which activates IX which joins with factor VIII to activate factor X
        • Triggered when blood contacts a foreign surface
    • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Tissue damage Releases Factor Vll Factor X (Ca +2 ) (Ca +2 ) Activates (Ca +2 ) Converts Converts (Ca +2 ) (Ca +2 ) Activates Activates Factor V Fibrin Factor lX Factor Xl Factor X Activates Activates Activates Activates Activates Hageman Factor Xll Factor V Stabilizes Factor Xlll Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism Tissue thromboplastin (Factor lll) Blood contacts foreign surface Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism Prothrombin activator Prothrombin (Factor ll) Thrombin (Factor lla) Fibrinogen (Factor l) Fibrin clot Factor Vlll platelet phospholipids
    • Fate of Blood Clots
      • After a blood clot forms it retracts and pulls the edges of a broken blood vessel together while squeezing the fluid serum from the clot
      • Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to repair damaged blood vessel walls
      • Plasmin digests the blood clots
      • A thrombus is an abnormal blood clot
      • An embolus is a blood clot moving through the blood vessels
    • Lumen Lumen Artery wall Plaque Artery wall (a) (b) © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 14.3 Clinical Application Deep Vein Thrombosis
    • Prevention of Coagulation
      • The smooth lining of blood vessels discourages the accumulation of platelets and clotting factors
      • As a clot forms fibrin absorbs thrombin and prevents the clotting reaction from spreading
      • Anti-thrombin inactivates additional thrombin by binding to it and blocking its action on fibrinogen
      • Some cells such as basophils and mast cells secrete heparin (an anticoagulant)
    • 14.5: Blood Groups and Transfusions
      • In 1910, identification of the ABO blood antigen gene explained the observed blood type incompatibilities
      • Today there are 31 different genes known to contribute to the surface features of RBCs determining compatibility between blood types
    • Antigens and Antibodies
      • Terms to become familiar with:
        • Agglutination – clumping of red blood cells in response to a reaction between an antibody and an antigen
        • Antigens – a chemical that stimulates cells to produce antibodies
        • Antibodies – a protein that reacts against a specific antigen
    • Type B blood Type AB blood Type O blood Red blood cell Red blood cell Anti-B antibody Antigen A Anti-A antibody Anti-B antibody Red blood cell Antigen A Antigen B Red blood cell Anti-A antibody Antigen B Type A blood Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Red blood cell Anti-B antibody (a) (c) (d) (b) Agglutinated red blood cells Anti-A antibody Antigen A c: © G.W. Willis/Visuals Unlimited; figure d: © George W. Wilder/Visuals Unlimited Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 14.1 From Science to Technology Blood Typing and Matching: From Serology to DNA Chips
    • ABO Blood Group
      • Based on the presence or absence of two major antigens on red blood cell membranes
        • Antigen A
        • Antigen B
    • Rh Blood Group
      • The Rh blood group was named for the rhesus monkey
      • The group includes several Rh antigens or factors
      • Rh positive – presence of antigen D or other Rh antigens on the red blood cell membranes
      • Rh negative – lack of these antigens
      • The seriousness of the Rh blood group is evident in a fetus that develops the condition erythroblastosis fetalis or hemolytic disease of the newborn
    • + + + + + + + + + – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – + + + + + + + + + – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – + + + + + + + + + + Rh-negative woman with Rh-positive fetus Cells from Rh-positive fetus enter woman’s bloodstream In the next Rh-positive pregnancy, maternal antibodies attack fetal red blood cells Woman becomes sensitized— antibodies ( + ) form to fight Rh-positive blood cells + – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Important Points in Chapter 14: Outcomes to be Assessed
      • 14.1: Introduction
      • Describe the general characteristics of blood and discuss its major functions.
      • Distinguish among the formed elements of blood and the liquid portion of blood.
      • 14.2: Blood Cells
      • Describe the origin of blood cells.
      • Explain the significance of red blood cells counts and how they are used to diagnose disease.
      • Discuss the life cycle of a red blood cell.
      • Summarize the control of red blood cell production.
    • Important Points in Chapter 14: Outcomes to be Assessed
      • Distinguish among the five types of white blood cells and give the function(s) of each type.
      • Describe a blood platelet and explain its functions.
      • 14.3: Blood Plasma
      • Describe the functions of each of the major components of plasma.
      • 14.4: Hemostasis
      • Define hemostasis and explain the mechanisms that help to achieve it.
      • Review the major steps in coagulation.
      • Explain how to prevent coagulation.
    • Important Points in Chapter 14: Outcomes to be Assessed
      • 14.5: Blood Groups and Transfusions
      • Explain blood typing and how it is used to avoid adverse reactions following blood transfusions.
      • Describe how blood reactions may occur between fetal and maternal tissues.
    • Quiz 14 Complete Quiz 14 now! Read Chapter 15.